José Yravedra

José Yravedra
Complutense University of Madrid | UCM · Department of Prehistory

Profesor

About

354
Publications
93,670
Reads
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5,561
Citations
Citations since 2016
152 Research Items
4253 Citations
20162017201820192020202120220200400600800
20162017201820192020202120220200400600800
20162017201820192020202120220200400600800
20162017201820192020202120220200400600800
Additional affiliations
February 2010 - present
Complutense University of Madrid
Position
  • Professor (Full)
Education
September 1994 - September 1999
Complutense University of Madrid
Field of study
  • Prehistory, Paleolithic, Zooarchaeology, Taphonomy, Evolution of Human behavior

Publications

Publications (354)
Article
Full-text available
The study of bone surface modifications (BSM) is crucial in understanding site formation processes and the identification of the causal agent behind bone assemblages in the fossil record. In that line, many efforts have been made to generate referential models based on feeding experiments and human butchery simulations that can then be used to inte...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
El continuo avance de la tecnología ha permitido alcanzar nuevos conocimientos científicos, impensables años atrás. Este acontecimiento se puede trasladar al ámbito de la tafonomía, en la aplicación de nuevas técnicas tafonómicas. Concretamente, el estudio de marcas de dientes se ha visto gratamente favorecido, al implementar la utilización de mode...
Article
Full-text available
The Vettones were one of the most important Celtic peoples of the Late Iron Age in Western Iberia (between the Duero and Tagus Rivers). It is a period recognised from the spread of the cremation ritual in the cemeteries, the development of iron metallurgy, and the emergence of large fortified settlements—the characteristic oppida —that would finall...
Article
Determining the cause and nature of the postmortem processes that living organisms experience is one of the main common issues faced by forensic experts, zooarchaeologists, palaeontologists, and other specialists. Carnivores are among the most destructive agents that can interact with a corpse, since their feeding behaviour can lead to very extensi...
Article
Full-text available
Little is known about the subsistence practices of the first European settlers, mainly due to the shortage of archaeological sites in Europe older than a million years. This article contributes to the knowledge of the subsistence of the first Europeans with new zooarchaeology and taphonomic data from the Palaeolithic site of Barranco León (Orce, Gr...
Article
Palaeolithic representations can be approached from different perspectives. Studying the creative processes, we can glimpse the decisions that the Palaeolithic artists made and the actions they carried out to materialize an idea. Additionally, the combined study of both graphic and functional actions performed on an object provides a comprehensive...
Article
Full-text available
Taphonomic studies explain the processes of formation and accumulation of bone assemblages, with special emphasis on anthropic activity. During the last decades, the number of these studies has increased notably in the sites of the north of the Iberian Peninsula. It is known that Upper Paleolithic hunter-gatherer groups had a prominent role in bone...
Chapter
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Los Azules Cave is located in Contranquil, municipality of Cangas de Onís (Asturias). It is placed in the southern slope of the Llueves Mount. It was discovered in 1971, and excavated by Juan A. Fernández Tresguerres between 1973 and 1992. It is one of the most important archaeological cave sites in Cantabrian Region. Furthermore, Los Azules is the...
Article
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The Early Pleistocene (2.58-0.78 Ma) was a period of major evolutionary changes in the hominin lineage. The progressive consolidation of bipedal locomotion, alongside increases in cranial capacity and behavioural flexibility, allowed early Homo to exploit an increasing diversity of resources and environmental settings within the changing landscapes...
Chapter
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The discovery of lithic and faunal remains in a small karstic rock shelter located in the outskirts of Segovia city in April 2012 marked the beginning of archaeological investigations that have revealed the presence of various karstic sites in the Eresma River valley. The chronology of these sites places the presence of Neanderthals in this area of...
Article
In the present study, we report brown hyena tooth marks on australopiths from Sterkfontein's Plio-Pleistocene-age Member 4 (South Africa). Classic taphonomic analyses and the implementation of new techniques, including Geometric Morphometrics and Machine Learning, are combined to identify the modifying agent and provide the first direct evidence of...
Article
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Over the last few decades, several types of evidence such as presence of hominin remains, lithic assemblages, and bones with anthropogenic surface modifications have demonstrated that early human communities inhabited the European subcontinent prior to the Jaramillo Subchron (1.07–0.98 Ma). While most studies have focused primarily on early Europea...
Article
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The domestication of wolves is a topic of great interest. To date, the most accepted hypotheses associate this phenomenon to the end of the Upper Palaeolithic, while many propose an earlier date closer towards the Aurignacian. The latter proposal hinges on extensive research using palaeontological, morphometric, biomolecular-isotopic, genetic data...
Poster
Full-text available
The valleys of the Manzanares and Jarama rivers preserve one of the largest concentrations of Pleistocene sites in Europe, and feature plenty of discoveries of lithic industry and faunal remains that have taken place since 1862. The sites Oxígeno and Santa Elena are located in what is known as the Complex Terrace of Butarque (CTB) downstream from M...
Article
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The Guadix-Baza Basin (GBB) in Andalucía, Spain, comprises palaeontological and archaeological sites dating from the Early Pliocene to the Middle Pleistocene, including some of the earliest sites with evidence for the presence of early humans (Homo sp.) in Europe. Thus, the history of climate and environments in this basin contributes significantly...
Article
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Recent studies using geometric morphometrics for taphonomy have yielded interesting results, opening new horizons of research in both archaeological and paleontological sites. Here we present the analysis of tooth pits left by male and female individuals of two different carnivore species (Panthera tigris and Panthera pardus) in order to see if sex...
Article
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Human populations have been known to develop complex relationships with large carnivore species throughout time, with evidence of both competition and collaboration to obtain resources throughout the Pleistocene. From this perspective, many archaeological and palaeontological sites present evidence of carnivore modifications to bone. In response to...
Article
Archaeological sites often contain accumulations of remains derived from different independent events produced by different agents. Thus, in Palaeolithic sites, it is normal to find alternating occupations between humans and carnivores. The faunal assemblages at these sites usually include hundreds or thousands of bone fragments, which are very dif...
Article
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As the south-westernmost region of Europe, the Iberian Peninsula stands as a key area for understanding the process of modern human dispersal into Eurasia. However, the precise timing, ecological setting and cultural context of this process remains controversial concerning its spatiotemporal distribution within the different regions of the peninsul...
Article
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Venta Micena is an area containing several palaeontological sites marking the beginning of the Calabrian stage (Early Pleistocene). The richness of the fossil accumulation including species of Asian, African and European origin, makes Venta Micena a key site for the the palaeoecological and palaeoenvironmental study of southern Europe during the Ea...
Article
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Barranco León (Orce, Andalusia, Spain) provides the oldest case of knapping and percussive activities on an ancient raw material reservoir deposit. This site has already proven to be one of the oldest and most significant Oldowan open-air sites in Europe (1.4 Ma), with an exceptionally rich flint and limestone lithic assemblage, in association with...
Article
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Competition for resources is a key question in the study of our early human evolution. From the first hominin groups, carnivores have played a fundamental role in the ecosystem. From this perspective, understanding the trophic pressure between hominins and carnivores can provide valuable insights into the context in which humans survived, interacte...
Article
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This research focuses on the study of the ruins of a large building known as “El Torreón” (the Tower), belonging to the Ulaca oppidum (Solosancho, Province of Ávila, Spain). Different remote sensing and geophysical approaches have been used to fulfil this objective, providing a better understanding of the building’s functionality in this town, whic...
Article
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El Esquilleu cave has one of the most complete Middle Paleolithic stratigraphies of northern Iberia with a complete chronological framework almost continuous from the beginning of MIS3. The complete analysis of the materials including the last section of the sequence corresponding to the last chronological interval of the occupation in the region s...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
During the last twenty years, researches that address raw material characterisation based on a solid geoarchaeological study have been widening the understanding of Upper Palaeolithic societies in the Cantabrian Region. Nevertheless, there is an almost complete lack of information of these kinds of investigation in the western part of this area mot...
Article
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The archaeological site of La Magdalena, located in Alcalá de Henares (Madrid), has a large necropolis area related to different chronological phases. This study was based on the bone remains found in three Roman tombs that date back to the second and third century AD and a votive offering. The three tombs were located in different places far from...
Article
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The central Meseta is a high plateau located in the heart of the Iberian Peninsula. Abundant evidence of Lower and Middle Palaeolithic occupations of the region contrasts with scarce evidence of a human presence during the early Upper Palaeolithic. On this basis, it has been suggested that climatic downturns triggered the temporary abandonment, or...
Article
The Olduvai Gorge is considered one of the most relevant archaeological complexes with regards to the study of our human evolution. This is especially evident when studying the emergence of hunting practices over the past 1.7 Ma. Butchery activities have been documented throughout Bed II, including the exploitation of megafauna in a larger number o...
Article
Carnivore feeding behaviour is a valuable line of research of increasing value in taphonomic analyses. An interesting component of these studies lies in the differentiation of carnivore activity based on tooth marks left on bone. Among the methodological approaches available, a major protagonist in recent years has been the incorporation of hybrid...
Article
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Modern day investigation in fields of archaeology and palaeontology can be greatly charac-terised by an exponential growth of integrated new technologies, nevertheless, while these advances are of great significance to multiple lines of research, their evaluation and update over time is equally as important. Here we present an application of inter...
Article
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En este trabajo se resumen los estudios llevados a cabo en los distintos yacimientos arqueopa-leontológicos de Orce durante las últimas décadas, haciendo especial hincapié en los resultados obtenidos a raíz de las últimas campañas de excavación (2017-2020), enmarcadas en el Proyecto General de Investigación «Primeras ocupaciones humanas y contexto...
Chapter
Full-text available
Nuevas tecnologías aplicadas a la tafonomía: aportaciones desde las nUnevas técnicas de reconstrucción tridimensional de alteraciones óseas New TechNologies applied To TaphoNomy: coNTribuTioNs of New TechNiques iN Three-dimeNsioNal recoNsTrucTioN of boNe alTeraTioNs Since the publication of M. Pérez Ripoll's book titled Los Mamíferos del Yacimi...
Article
Among the innumerable remains that appear in the archaeological sites, the fauna fossil remains are of the most numerous. Different specialities study these fossil remains of fauna from different perspectives. Among them, the quantification of the remains is some of the most important information, since they allow us to estimate what species there...
Article
Sedimentary abrasion and postdepositional damage to fossil remains are of great interest if considering the possible distortion they could produce in the archaeological and paleontological record. Since their discovery, natural agents such as trampling phenomena have been a topic of great taphonomic interest. Nevertheless, the majority of investiga...
Article
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Featured Application: Cut mark identification and analysis is a fundamental component for archaeological investigation. Cut mark analysis, however, has been the root of great debates, with some authors claiming to have the oldest cut marks in or outside of Africa. If these marks were to truly be anthropic in nature, then the repercussions of these...
Article
Small sized felids, such as wild and domestic cats, are one of the most common predators in the nature and in sites occupied by humans in archaeological and historical contexts. Wildcats have ingestion/ digestion traits highly destructive for their prey, i.e.: teeth to chew causing extreme breakage, and digestion along the entire digestive tract wi...
Article
Full-text available
Historically wolves and humans have had a conflictive relationship which has driven the wolf to extinction in some areas across Northern America and Europe. The last decades have seen a rise of multiple government programs to protect wolf populations. Nevertheless, these programs have been controversial in rural areas, product of the predation of l...
Article
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The analysis of bone breakage has always been underrepresented in taphonomic studies. Analysts, thus, lose the opportunity to resolve an important part of the equifinality related to activities that hominins and different types of carnivores may produce. Recent studies have shown that the use of powerful machine learning (ML) algorithms allow the a...
Article
To understand the identity of the early Acheulean, it is necessary to discriminate between the variables that influenced the selection of technological strategies. Functionality of the archaeological sites is crucial in assessing the manufacturing strategies of lithic tools. To achieve this goal, analysis of the post-depositional processes must be...
Poster
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Sterkfontein (Cradle of Humankind, South Africa), one of the richest Australopithecus-bearing sites in the world, has a long tradition of archaeological research spanning more than eight decades. In 1976 Alan Hughes discovered the StW 53 hominin skull in the south western area of the surface-exposed fossiliferous deposits comprised of Members 4 and...
Article
Full-text available
Taphonomic studies, along with modern analogs arisen from experimentation, have been developed to discern the agents responsible for bone accumulations. A special focus has been given to carnivores, which may produce bone accumulations or interact with hominins by ravaging bones from archaeological sites. Although a great effort has been made to st...
Article
The Lower Pleistocene site of Bell's Korongo (BK) in Olduvai Gorge (Tanzania) has been a key site for the study of the origin of human behaviour. The lower archaeological levels of BK are characterized by anthropogenic activity related to the exploitation of megafauna (elephant, hippopotamus, Sivatherium) and smaller game (zebra, wildebeest and ant...
Article
Excavations at Bell Korongo (BK) have yielded important evidence to infer different behaviours of early hominins in several archaeological levels since 1935. The present study shows the results for a newly geological and archaeological of BK (Level U3.1). This paper describes the geology of this newly discovered level, along with a taphonomical ana...
Article
Archaeology is developing considerably through the incorporation and application of several methodologies and techniques from science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) disciplines. These technologies have significantly improved our ability to document, preserve, study and present highly precise and accurate digital models of whole sit...
Article
Coímbre cave (Peñamellera Alta, Asturias) is an Upper Palaeolithic site in Northern Spain, spanning an occupation sequence from the Gravettian to the Magdalenian periods. The upper layers -layer I and II-, corresponding to the Upper Magdalenian, register the highest intensity of human activity. In this paper, we analyse raw material functionality a...
Article
Recent techniques applied to taphonomy have made advances in our understanding of bone surface modifications. For many years, differences in bone density according to element and variations in animal size have been considered conditioning factors for many taphonomic processes. While several studies highlight how animal size and density affect fract...
Article
In this paper we analyse the taphonomic signatures of captive jaguars (Panthera onca) in order to explore the potential of experimental frameworks to distinguish between different felid agents in carnivore-altered palaeontological and archaeological bone assemblages. Many papers have considered carnivore ecology and the bone altering behaviour of d...
Article
Developments in methodological approaches to high-resolution morphometrical study of cut-mark morphology further our understanding of butchering activities. Identification of micro-morphological variability between different taphonomical alterations on ancient bone allows detection and comparison of bone-surface modifications and associated taphono...
Article
Olduvai Gorge (Tanzania) is one of the key areas for the study of human origins, given the sheer abundance of archaeological and paleontological sites discovered. Several of these archaeological sites have yielded numerous hominin fossils and traces of their activities, thus offering invaluable insights into the nature and origins of human behavior...
Article
Leopards have been the focus of taphonomic research due to their capacity to create bone accumulations, prey on some hominin groups or potentially provide scavenging opportunities to early hominins. Some of the variables explored to characterise felids as taphonomic agents have presented problems of equifinality, such as the frequency of tooth mark...
Article
Full-text available
Livestock farming was one of the major economic activities during the early Middle Ages. The exploitation of livestock resources became very important since the Visigothic period (C. 415–711 AD), although our knowledge is still considerably limited for the central regions of Iberia. Some historiographical works about stockbreeding during the Middle...
Article
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The occupation of the Iberian Peninsula during the Upper Palaeolithic is mainly known from archaeological sites located in the Cantabrian and Mediterranean regions. Numerous sites have been excavated in these two regions when few sites are found in the interior of the peninsula. Several authors explain this scarcity of sites, in the inner region du...
Article
Since the 1980s an intense scientific debate has revolved around the hunting capacities of early hominin populations and the behavioral patterns of carnivores sharing the same ecosystem, and thus competing for the same resources. This debate, commonly known as the hunter-scavenger debate, fostered the emergence of a new research line into the Bone...
Article
Full-text available
The arrival of new methodological approaches to study microscopic qualities in cut mark morphology has been a major improvement in our understanding of butchering activities. Micro-morphological differences can be detected in multiple different taphonomic alterations on bone cortical surfaces that can later be used to compare different trace mark t...