José L. Peñalvo

José L. Peñalvo
Institute of Tropical Medicine | ITM · Department of Public Health

PhD

About

169
Publications
26,445
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5,134
Citations
Additional affiliations
October 2021 - present
University of Antwerp
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
Description
  • Epidemiology of Chronic NCDs
November 2018 - present
Institute of Tropical Medicine
Position
  • Professor (Full)
August 2014 - February 2017
Tufts University
Position
  • Professor

Publications

Publications (169)
Article
Full-text available
Objectives Quantifying the combined impact of morbidity and mortality is a key enabler to assessing the impact of COVID-19 across countries and within countries relative to other diseases, regions, or demographics. Differences in methods, data sources, and definitions of mortality due to COVID-19 may hamper comparisons. We describe efforts to suppo...
Preprint
Importance While much of the attention on the COVID-19 pandemic was directed at the daily counts of cases and those with serious disease overwhelming health services, increasingly, reports have appeared of people who experience debilitating symptoms after the initial infection. This is popularly known as long COVID. Objective To estimate by countr...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose The purpose of this study is to describe ultra-processed food and drinks (UPFDs) consumption, and associations with intake of total sugar and dietary fibre, and high BMI in adults across Europe. Methods Using food consumption data collected by food records or 24-h dietary recalls available from the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) Com...
Article
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To investigate the main motives driving dietary intake changes potentially introduced by preventive measures to address the pandemic, an online survey, using a 36-item Food Choice Questionnaire applied for the period before (the year 2019) and during (2020–2021) the pandemic, was distributed between July and October 2021 among adult residents from...
Article
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Background Disability and mortality burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) have risen worldwide; however, the NCD burden among adolescents remains poorly described in the EU. Methods Estimates were retrieved from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2019. Causes of NCDs were analysed at three different levels o...
Article
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Implementing a health promotion program for children is a complex endeavor. In this review, we outline the key lessons learned over 10 years of experience in implementing the SI! Program (Salud Integral–Comprehensive Health) for cardiovascular health promotion in preschool settings in 3 countries: Colombia (Bogotá), Spain (Madrid), and the United S...
Article
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Early warning tools are crucial for the timely application of intervention strategies and the mitigation of the adverse health, social and economic effects associated with outbreaks of epidemic potential such as COVID-19. This paper introduces, the Epidemic Volatility Index (EVI), a new, conceptually simple, early warning tool for oncoming epidemic...
Article
Background & aims The specific association of olive oil consumption with coronary heart disease (CHD) or stroke has not been totally established. Objective: to examine whether olive oil consumption is associated with subclinical atherosclerosis, the risk of total cardiovascular disease (CVD), CHD, and stroke. Methods Three cohorts were included: A...
Article
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Introduction unCoVer—Unravelling data for rapid evidence-based response to COVID-19—is a Horizon 2020-funded network of 29 partners from 18 countries capable of collecting and using real-world data (RWD) derived from the response and provision of care to patients with COVID-19 by health systems across Europe and elsewhere. unCoVer aims to exploit t...
Article
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Objectives Comprehensively measure the trends in health disparities by sociodemographic strata in terms of exposure to lifestyle and metabolic risks, and prevalence and mortality of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) during the last 20 years in Belgium. Design Cross-sectional analysis of periodic national-representative health interview surveys and...
Article
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Food policies for the prevention and management of diet-related non-communicable diseases (NCDs) have been increasingly relying on microsimulation models (MSMs) to assess effectiveness. Given the increased uptake of MSMs, this review aims to provide an overview of the characteristics of MSMs that link diets with NCDs. A comprehensive review was con...
Article
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The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic brought changes to almost every segment of our lives, including dietary habits. We present one among several studies, and the first on the Croatian population, aiming at investigating changes of food choice motives before and during the pandemic. The study was performed in June 2021 as an online-based survey, u...
Article
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Background The workplace offers a unique opportunity for effective health promotion. We aimed to comprehensively study the effectiveness of multicomponent worksite wellness programmes for improving diet and cardiometabolic risk factors. Methods We did a systematic literature review and meta-analysis, following PRISMA guidelines. We searched PubMed...
Article
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Objectives The widespread use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) by patients with chronic conditions raised early concerns on the potential exacerbation of COVID-19 severity and fatality. Previous studies addressing this question have used standard methods that may lead to biased estimates w...
Article
Fundamento las complicaciones durante el embarazo, parto y puerperio constituyen las principales causas de muertes de mujeres en edad fértil. El estudio de la carga de mortalidad derivada de estas complicaciones es útil para cuantificar el impacto de muertes prematuras sobre la esperanza de vida de la población. Objetivo describir el comportamient...
Preprint
Background . This paper presents, for the first time, the Epidemic Volatility Index (EVI), a conceptually simple, early warning tool for emerging epidemic waves. Methods . EVI is based on the volatility of the newly reported cases per unit of time, ideally per day, and issues an early warning when the rate of the volatility change exceeds a thresho...
Article
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(1) Background: Working night shifts has been associated with altered circadian rhythms, lifestyle habits, and cardiometabolic risks. No information on the potential association of working shift and the presence of atherosclerosis is available. The aim of this study was to quantify the association between different work shifts and the presence of s...
Article
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Foundation: Maternal mortality in the world is unacceptably high. Complications in pregnancy, childbirth and the puerperium are the leading cause of death in women of childbearing age. In recent years the number of maternal deaths in Cuba, is one of the lowest in Latin America, but it is still far from the results of more developed countries. The m...
Article
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Background: Although reasonable to assume, it is not yet clear whether malnourished countries are at higher risk for severe or fatal coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This study aims to identify the countries where prevalent malnutrition may be a driving factor for fatal disease after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)...
Article
Fundamento: La mortalidad materna en el mundo es inaceptablemente alta. Las complicaciones en el embarazo, parto y puerperio constituyen la primera causa de muerte de mujeres en edad fértil. La cifra de decesos maternos en Cuba, en los últimos años, es de las más bajas de América Latina, pero aún está lejos de los resultados de países más desarroll...
Article
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Health systems worldwide struggle to manage the growing burden of type 2 diabetes and hypertension. Many patients receive suboptimal care, especially those most vulnerable. An evidence-based Integrated Care Package (ICP) with primary care-based diagnosis, treatment, education and self-management support and collaboration, leads to better health out...
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Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder leading to the most common form of dementia in elderly people. Modifiable dietary and lifestyle factors could either accelerate or ameliorate the aging process and the risk of developing AD and other age-related morbidities. Emerging evidence also reports a potential link between...
Article
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An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.
Article
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Background: Evidence has emerged showing that elderly people and those with pre-existing chronic health conditions may be at higher risk of developing severe health consequences from COVID-19. In Europe, this is of particular relevance with ageing populations living with non-communicable diseases, multi-morbidity and frailty. Published estimates o...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Evidence has emerged showing that elderly people and those with pre-existing chronic health conditions may be at higher risk of developing severe health consequences from COVID-19. In Europe, this is of particular relevance with ageing populations living with non-communicable diseases, multi-morbidity and frailty. Published estimates of...
Article
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Background: In many developing countries, nutritional and epidemiological transitions are contributing to continuous undernutrition and escalating overnutrition, resulting in coexisting forms of malnutrition often referred as the "double burden of malnutrition" (DBM). This complex phenomenon constitutes an unprecedented challenge to global public...
Article
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Background: Metabolic syndrome (MetS), the clustering of metabolic risk factors, is associated with cardiovascular disease risk. We sought to determine if dysregulation of the lipidome may contribute to metabolic risk factors. Methods: We measured 154 circulating lipid species in 658 participants from the Framingham Heart Study (FHS) using liqui...
Article
Background: Kuwaiti adults have experienced a rapid increase in cardiovascular disease (CVD) and its risk factors. Dietary patterns in the Kuwaiti diet associated with the increasingly higher CVD burden have not been adequately evaluated. Objective: The objective of this study was to identify the major dietary patterns in Kuwaiti adults and exam...
Article
Background: Although healthcare databases are a valuable source for real-world oncology data, cancer stage is often lacking. We developed predictive models using claims data to identify metastatic/advanced-stage patients with ovarian cancer, urothelial carcinoma, gastric adenocarcinoma, Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), and non-small cell lung cancer (...
Article
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Unhealthy habits in children are increasing at an alarming rate. The school provides a promising setting for effective preventive strategies to improve children's lifestyle behaviors. The SI! Program is a multilevel multicomponent school-based educational intervention aimed at all stages of compulsory education in Spain. Here, we present the design...
Article
Traditional Mediterranean diet is known for its health benefits in prevention of cardio-metabolic diseases and risk factors associated with it. The role of red meat in Mediterranean diet is to some extent overlooked with the main focus on foods of plant origin. The majority of existing guidelines encourage general population to limit intakes of red...
Article
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Breakfast is considered to be one of the most important meals of the day. Its omission has been reported to be associated with increased disease risk, such as obesity, diabetes, and coronary heart disease, as well as unhealthy lifestyle and lower dietary quality. Using data from the National Adult Nutrition Survey (NANS)—a food consumption survey c...
Article
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Background: Promising school policies to improve children's diets include providing fresh fruits and vegetables (F&V) and competitive food restrictions on sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), yet the impact of national implementation of these policies in US schools on cardiometabolic disease (CMD) risk factors and outcomes is not known. Our objective...
Data
Sources used to estimate the relationship between SSB intake and BMI in children. (DOCX)
Data
Model components, sources, and notes for analysis of impact of F&V provision and SSB restriction on child diet and BMI and future CMD outcomes. (DOCX)
Data
Select model inputs and estimated changes in child diet and child BMI associated with F&V provision and SSB restriction in US schools by child race/ethnicity. (DOCX)
Data
Methods for estimating the relationship between SSB intake and BMI in children. (DOCX)
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Select model inputs and estimated changes in child diet and child BMI associated with F&V provision and SSB restriction in US schools by child gender. (DOCX)
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Sensitivity analysis on change in BMI associated with F&V provision by child age. (DOCX)
Data
Comparative risk assessment modeling approach. (DOCX)
Article
Background Suboptimal diets are a major contributor to cardiometabolic disease (CMD) mortality, and substantial disparities exist for both dietary quality and mortality risk across income groups in the USA. Research is needed to quantify how food pricing policies to subsidise healthy foods and tax unhealthy foods could affect the US CMD mortality,...
Article
Full-text available
Background: School food environment policies may be a critical tool to promote healthy diets in children, yet their effectiveness remains unclear. Objective: To systematically review and quantify the impact of school food environment policies on dietary habits, adiposity, and metabolic risk in children. Methods: We systematically searched onli...
Data
Supplementary material. Appendix A. PRISMA Checklist. Appendix B. Study protocol. Appendix C. Search query for PubMed/ Medline. Appendix D. Statistical Analysis. Table A. Quality Assessment Criteria. Table B. Meta-analyses of randomized and quasi-experimental interventions evaluating school food environment policies and dietary habits or adiposity...
Article
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Nutritional data reduction methods are widely applied in nutrition epidemiology in order to classify individuals into meaningful groups with similar dietary patterns. To date, none of the existing studies have applied latent class analysis to examine dietary patterns which include meal types consumed throughout a day. We investigated main meal patt...
Article
Background: Public health strategies targeting multiple healthy behaviors, rather than individual factors, have been proposed as more efficient strategies to promote cardiovascular health. However, the additive effect of multiple targets on primary prevention has not been fully characterized. Objective: To examine how adherence to multiple healt...
Article
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Background Fiscal interventions are promising strategies to improve diets, reduce cardiovascular disease and diabetes (cardiometabolic diseases; CMD), and address health disparities. The aim of this study is to estimate the impact of specific dietary taxes and subsidies on CMD deaths and disparities in the US. Methods Using nationally representati...
Article
Background and aims High protein (HP) diets have shown benefits in cardiometabolic markers such as insulin or triglycerides but the responsible mechanisms are not known. We aimed to assess the effect of three energy-restricted diets with different protein content (20, 27 and 35%; ∼80% coming from animal source) on plasma adipokine concentration and...
Article
Background: Daily habits, including the number and quality of eating occasions, are potential targets for primary prevention strategies with large health impacts. Skipping breakfast is considered a frequent and unhealthy habit associated with an increased cardiovascular (CV) risk. Objectives: The study sought to explore the association between d...
Article
Background: The Mediterranean diet (MeDi) is known to prevent cardiovascular events but the mechanisms mediating this association are not fully understood. Objective: The objective of the study was to examine the association between MeDi adherence and the presence and extent of atherosclerotic plaques in carotid, femoral, and aorta territories a...
Article
Background Detection of subclinical atherosclerosis improves risk prediction beyond cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) and risk scores, but quantification of plaque burden may improve it further. Novel 3-dimensional vascular ultrasound (3DVUS) provides accurate volumetric quantification of plaque burden. Objectives The authors evaluated associati...
Article
Full-text available
Background Large socio-economic disparities exist in US dietary habits and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. While economic incentives have demonstrated success in improving dietary choices, the quantitative impact of different dietary policies on CVD disparities is not well established. We aimed to quantify and compare the potential effects...
Data
Probabilistic sensitivity analysis in the US IMPACT Food Policy Model parameters. (DOC)
Data
US IMPACT Food Policy Model—modelling health outcomes. (DOC)
Data
Expected deaths (baseline deaths) and cumulative deaths prevented or postponed and cardiovascular disease mortality reduction from 2015 to 2030 achieved through all policies modelled. (DOC)
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Tornado plot showing the contribution of different model parameters to overall uncertainty. (TIFF)
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Coverage estimates of the mass media campaign stratified by age and sex. (DOC)
Data
Key assumptions for the US IMPACT Food Policy Model. (DOC)
Data
Schematic outlining the US IMPACT Food Policy Model. (TIFF)
Article
Full-text available
Background: A low intake of fruits and vegetables (F&Vs) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the United States. Both mass media campaigns (MMCs) and economic incentives may increase F&V consumption. Few data exist on their comparative effectiveness. Objective: We estimated CVD mortality reductions potentially achievable by pr...