José Paruelo

José Paruelo
Universidad de Buenos Aires | UBA · Department of Quantitative Methods and Information Systems

PhD

About

313
Publications
320,101
Reads
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37,648
Citations
Citations since 2017
73 Research Items
14843 Citations
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201720182019202020212022202305001,0001,5002,0002,500
201720182019202020212022202305001,0001,5002,0002,500
Introduction
Skills and Expertise
Additional affiliations
April 2018 - present
March 2005 - present
University of the Republic
Position
  • Full Profesor
January 2003 - December 2012
Colorado State University

Publications

Publications (313)
Preprint
AimThe intensification of livestock systems generates structural and functional changes in native grassland, which alter their capacity to respond to disturbances. Our objective was to evaluate the resilience to an extraordinary consecutive droughts event, across an intensification gradient of pastoral systems. Our prediction is that sites with mor...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Este documento sintetiza los avances realizados a la fecha por los tres subgrupos: biodiversidad, aire, suelo y agua, integrada por las instituciones mencionadas, donde a partir de la definición de un marco conceptual y abordaje metodológico acordados, se identificaron indicadores para medir, ya sea de forma directa como indirecta, los impactos amb...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract. The Río de la Plata Grasslands (RPG) are one of the largest areas of open ecosystems (grasslands, shrublands and savannas) in the world. Historically, these systems have experienced, and continue to experience, an enormous loss of natural habitats. Moreover, their importance has been largely invisible in comparison to forested systems. Th...
Preprint
Carbon net emission is a critical aspect of the environmental footprint in agricultural systems. 16 However, the alternatives to describe soil organic carbon (SOC) changes associated with different 17 agricultural management practices/land uses are limited. Here we provide an overview of carbon (C) 18 stocks of non-forested areas of Uruguay to esti...
Article
Full-text available
Grasslands of southern South America are being replaced by annual crops and forest plantations. The environmental and social consequences of this expansion generate the need for its regulation. If a conservation policy were established, it would be critical to define which areas would have priority for conservation. Multi-criteria analysis techniqu...
Article
Full-text available
Sustainable intensification (SI) has become a central issue in both academic and political-institutional debates. Questions mostly center on the term’s conceptual scope. In this article, we outline an operational definition of SI based on (1) a more explicit characterization of the intensification process that describes the intensity/magnitude of t...
Article
We analyzed the variation of plant composition, forage production, and livestock diet across a broad stocking rate gradient on Eastern Hills rangelands of Uruguay. Our approach encompassed five ranches subjected to mixed sheep-cattle grazing and combined field surveys, microhistological fecal analysis, and remote sensing techniques. We hypothesized...
Article
Full-text available
The spatial mapping of social-ecological system (SES) archetypes constitutes a fundamental tool to operationalize the SES concept in empirical research. Approaches to detect, map, and characterize SES archetypes have evolved over the last decade towards more integrative and comparable perspectives guided by SES conceptual frameworks and reference l...
Article
Monitoring rangeland above‐ground net primary production (ANPP) requires information on the variation of radiation use efficiency (RUE). We studied the spatial and temporal variations of RUE of the herbaceous layer (RUEH) in woodlands and shrublands and its association with grazing regime, environmental, and vegetation variables. We worked in the A...
Article
Dry forests are among the most threatened ecosystems globally, due to agricultural expansion driven by the increasing demand for food, fibers, and energy in developed and emerging countries. Among these, the forests of the South American Gran Chaco are one of the global deforestation hotspots. The Argentine Dry Chaco has been the focus of several s...
Preprint
Full-text available
The Río de la Plata Grasslands (RPG) are one of the largest areas of open ecosystems (grasslands, shrublands and savannas) in the world. Historically these systems have experienced, and continue to experience, an enormous loss of natural habitats. Moreover, their importance has been largely invisible in comparison to forested systems. The remaining...
Article
Land use changes are occurring with unprecedented magnitude and intensity, imposing global impacts on ecosystem services (ES) and biodiversity. While the impacts of land use changes are increasingly recognized, understanding how landscape connectivity is related to ecosystem functioning is lacking. In the Argentinian Dry Chaco, deforestation increa...
Article
Full-text available
The evaluation of technological production in agricultural sciences presents specific challenges. Unlike scientific publications, for which there are standardized evaluation criteria, technological developments require a more multidimensional and situated approach. This article analyzes a technology certification scheme developed by the National In...
Article
Full-text available
Regional characterization of the structure and productivity of the vegetation of the Puna using MODIS images: The Puna is a semi-arid region located over 3300 m.a.s.l. in the northwestern portion of Argentina. Previous regional studies in Puna focused on the description of the floristic heterogeneity of relatively small portions of the territory....
Article
The temporal trend of aboveground net primary production (ANPP) is frequently used to estimate the human effect on ecosystems. In water‐limited ecosystems, like most grazing areas in the world, human effects act upon ANPP in combination with environmental variations. Our main objective was to quantify long‐term (1981‐2012) changes of ANPP and discr...
Article
Full-text available
To feed the rising population whilst also preserving ecosystem functions, creative solutions are needed for the ecological intensification of natural grassland-based livestock systems. In Uruguay, natural grasslands are the main nutritional resource for livestock production. In these ecosystems, cattle and sheep graze together all the year round, a...
Article
Full-text available
Deforestation control is one of the major challenges worldwide. The aim of this study was to analyse deforestation under the Forest Law in the Argentine Dry Chaco ecoregion a decade after its enactment and to assess compliance with forest protection standards in this region. For this purpose, we overlapped the provincial land zoning maps with an an...
Preprint
Agricultural expansion is altering the provision of ecosystem services and seriously affecting the well-being of the indigenous communities still living in forests. In this paper, we evaluate the impact of forest loss and degradation on the indigenous forest dependent communities of Eastern Salta, Argentina, between 2001 and 2015. First, we identif...
Article
Full-text available
Selective grazing by domestic livestock is a major control of plant community structure and dynamics in drylands. However, grazing impact predictions supporting management decisions are frequently based on average biomass consumption, neglecting selectivity. We evaluated the relative importance of grazing pressure, total and each species density, a...
Article
Extensive livestock production is one of the activities that, without requiring habitat conversion, contributes to grassland conservation and human well-being. In Uruguay, approximately 60% of the land is covered by natural temperate grasslands, which are entirely devoted to extensive livestock production, mainly cattle and sheep. In this study we...
Article
Full-text available
South America is experiencing profound land use and land cover changes. Their consequences on the Ecosystem Services (ES) supply and human well-being need to be diagnosed and monitored in order to support informed decisions both in management and territorial planning. The ES concept provides a key framework to evaluate human impacts on nature. The...
Article
In the last decades, dry Chaco forests experienced both intensive deforestation and land use changes. The in-tensification of deforestation at the national level led to the enactment of the National Forest Law (N°26.331) in 2007. However, after its implementation, deforestation continued at high rates in explicitly protected areas (Categories I and...
Article
Full-text available
Los bosques nativos tienen una gran relevancia económica, ecológica y social para el país. El proyecto REDD+ en Uruguay contribuye a la búsqueda de oportunidades para mejorar la gestión de los bosques nativos y su integración con actividades productivas.
Article
The relationships among social capital (SC) and collective actions (CA) for nature conservation and management were analyzed across five case studies characterised by specific land-use dynamics in the South American continent. Data on SC and CA were obtained through a semi-structured questionnaire to groups of selected social actors. Multivariate s...
Article
Full-text available
Sustainability science recognizes the importance of the integrated assessment of the ecological and social systems in land-use planning. However, most studies so far have been conceptual rather than empirical. We developed a framework to characterize the social-ecological systems heterogeneity according to its functioning through the identification...
Article
Full-text available
La productividad primaria neta (PPN) se define como la tasa a la cual se acumula biomasa por unidad de área y de tiempo, y se la considera una variable integradora del funcionamiento de los ecosistemas. El desmonte y los cambios en el uso del suelo que afectan gran parte de la región del Chaco Semiárido pueden impactar sobre las ganancias totales d...
Preprint
Full-text available
Productivity of the Science and Technology (S&T) sector of Latin American countries would require more public and private investment to increase. Despite significant progress in the first 15 years of this century, South American investment in Science as percentage of GDP has been 10-fold lower than that of Europe. Though the need to increase S&T in...
Article
Full-text available
Here, we evaluate the ecosystem functioning and the ecosystems services supply of different vegetation types (grasslands, shrublands and woodlands) under contrasting management regimes by comparing a protected area with the surrounding landscape, which has been subjected to human disturbance in the Eastern Hills of Uruguay. We propose, based on fun...
Article
Full-text available
Latin America in general and the Rio de la Plata Grasslands (RPG) in particular, are one of the regions in the world with the highest rates of change in land use/land cover (LULC) in recent times. Despite the magnitude of this change process, LULC descriptions in the RPG are far from being complete, even more those that evaluate LULC change through...
Book
Full-text available
Este libro resume, integra y sintetiza resultados de investigaciones acerca de cómo la idea de Servicios Ecosistémicos (SE) puede contribuir en procesos de Ordenamiento Territorial Rural (OTR). El foco geográfico está puesto en áreas de Latinoamérica en donde los paisajes están experimentando fabulosas transformaciones. A lo largo de los distintos...
Chapter
Temperate subhumid grasslands extend in the eastern part of South America. This region represents one of the most diverse, largest and less transformed grassland areas in the world. The grasslands occupy the vast and continuous plains of central-eastern Argentina, Uruguay and southern Brazil that surround the Río de la Plata estuary. For this reaso...
Article
The soil is a fundamental component of the C cycle. Land use changes can alter the soil organic carbon (SOC) content, a key determinant of several regulation ecosystem services. Here, we analyzed the effects of land cover (e.g. from forest to cropland) and land use (i.e. management practices) change on SOC in the semi-arid Chaco of Argentina, a glo...
Chapter
Soil moisture, and hence precipitation, exerts a dominant control on net primary productivity (NPP; the rate of carbon accumulation by autotrophs) in semiarid to subhumid ecosystems, such as grasslands and shrublands. At the global scale, mean annual precipitation has been shown to account for >50% of the variance in aboveground net primary product...
Book
Full-text available
Este libro resume, integra y sintetiza resultados de investigaciones acer�ca de cómo la idea de servicios ecosistémicos (se) puede contribuir en procesos de ordenamiento territorial rural (otr). El foco geográfico está puesto en áreas de Latinoamérica donde los paisajes están experimen�tando fabulosas transformaciones. A lo largo de los distinto...
Article
We report State-and-Transition Models for Uruguayan grasslands built upon a methodological approach that objectively defined states/phases associated, a priori, to rangeland management. Such approach was based on randomly sampled areas corresponding to mapped grassland communities. Each sampled area matched a MODIS pixel. Vegetation structural indi...
Article
1.Livestock grazing has degraded many arid and semi‐arid rangelands around the world, and the drier climate predicted by climate change scenarios may amplify these effects and even lead to catastrophic vegetation shifts. 2. We assess the long‐term effects (1900‐2100) of grazing and rainfall on various aspects of vegetation structure including the g...
Article
Full-text available
El pastoreo es una perturbación importante en los ecosistemas de pastizales, ya que altera su estructura y su funcionamiento. Las micorrizas arbusculares son interacciones cosmopolitas de estos ecosistemas, y se destacan por su incidencia elevada en las gramíneas. Las micorrizas muestran respuestas diversas y contradictorias al pastoreo (ser benefi...
Article
Afforestation has been widely encouraged with different goals, including as a strategy to tackle global warming. However, the side-effects of this land-use transformation have been in many cases underestimated. Particularly, the hydrological impacts may become relevant in (semi-)arid regions where water is a key element. In this work, we evaluated...
Article
Full-text available
Los componentes del pastoreo afectan de forma diferencial las micorrizas en Paspalum dilatatum Poir. RESUMEN. El pastoreo es una perturbación importante en los ecosistemas de pastizales, ya que altera su estructura y su funcionamiento. Las micorrizas arbusculares son interacciones cosmopolitas de estos ecosistemas, y se destacan por su incidencia...
Chapter
Full-text available
La productividad primaria neta aérea (PPNA), o la tasa de crecimiento de la vegetación, es un atributo clave de los ecosistemas. Representa la energía disponible para los niveles tróficos superiores y determina la producción de forraje, un servicio ecosistémico clave para la ganadería de base pastoril. La PPNA es muy variable en el espacio y en el...
Book
Full-text available
Este libro ofrece a la comunidad académica, a los técnicos y a los productores una compilación de los resultados de investigaciones sobre los pastizales uruguayos realizados en el marco de un proyecto financiado por el Fondo de Promoción de Tecnología Agropecuaria («CARACTERIZACIÓN DE ESTADOS DEL CAMPO NATURAL EN SISTEMAS GANADEROS DE URUGUAY: DEFI...
Chapter
Full-text available
En este capítulo se presenta una caracterización de la heterogeneidad de la vegetación derivada del manejo ganadero para la construcción de Modelos de Estados y Transiciones en cada una de las comunidades de pastizal de Uruguay. Se partió de un mapa de usos y coberturas del suelo para todo el país, que discrimina comunidades de pastizales naturales...
Presentation
Full-text available
Conocer la biomasa y la productividad primaria neta de la fracción vegetal subterránea (BS y PPNS respectivamente) es fundamental para comprender el ingreso, distribución vertical y almacenamiento de carbono en ecosistemas terrestres. El objetivo de este trabajo fue compilar datos publicados de BS y PPNS en las diferentes regiones de los pastizales...
Article
Full-text available
In a complex environmental, productive and socioeconomic scenario, on November 28th, 2007, the National Act N°26.331 of “Minimum Standards for the Environmental Protection of Native Forests” (known as the “Forest Law”) was sanctioned in Argentina with the purpose of protecting native forests at the national scale. In this article, we aim to critica...
Article
Full-text available
En un complejo escenario ambiental, productivo y socioeconómico, el 28 de noviembre de 2007 fue sancionada en Argentina la Ley Nacional Nº 26.331 de “Presupuestos Mínimos de Protección Ambiental de los Bosques Nativos" (conocida como "Ley de bosques") con el propósito de proteger los bosques nativos a escala nacional. En este artículo nos proponemo...
Article
Latin America, and particularly, the Rio de la Plata Grasslands (RPG), are one of the regions with the highest rates of land use change worldwide. These changes drastically alter ecosystems energy flows, affecting biodiversity, atmospheric composition, and the ecosystem capacity to provide services. In this work we evaluated the impact of these cha...
Article
The area devoted to Silvopastoral systems is increasing worldwide due to its complementary production of beef and wood. Understanding the competition between trees and grasses is critical to identify potential trade-offs in plant production. This article had three objectives: (1) to estimate the seasonal variation of gatton panic (Megathyrsus maxim...
Article
Land use zoning has been proposed as an instrument to steer sustainable land use and reduce deforestation. Its effectiveness is a growing concern among researchers and decision makers. Nowadays, the dry forests of the Argentine Chaco are a global hotspot of deforestation, where a zoning policy has been established through the enactment of a Nationa...
Article
Full-text available
La implementación del modelo productivo pampeano en la región chaqueña genera perdida de hábitats, disminución de la conectividad de los parches remanentes y pérdida de biodiversidad. Una posibilidad es trabajar con sistemas de intensidad productiva intermedia en combinación con la protección de fragmentos de bosque.
Article
New integrated perspectives are increasingly needed to bridge the gap between biophysical and ecosystem services' based assessments of desertification. For a vast area of the dry Chaco region we sought to: (1) assess the spatial extent of four syndromes of vegetation change, associated with human or climatic drivers and (2) estimate and compare the...
Article
Full-text available
The perception that the strategies carried out by governments for biodiversity conservation and ecosystem services provision are ineffective or insuficient, led to diverse new alternatives based on economic instruments driven by both private actors (fundamentally NGO’s) and governments. Some of these instruments seek to internalize a positive exter...
Book
Full-text available
Se sintetiza a modo de memorias del IV Foro sobre Servicios Ecosistémicos relaiazado por el Grupo Interinstitucional de Trabajo sobre Servicios Ecosistemicos, coordinado por el IICA. Se presentan y discuten los avances en el conocimiento e investigación sobre Servicios ecosistémicos.
Article
Full-text available
Global environmental change is characterized by changing climate, atmospheric composition and land use. Its impact on ecosystem structure and functioning has been detected throughout the world. While every ecosystem is vulnerable to climate change, the degree of the impact and the magnitude of the ecosystem response are likely to vary. Protected ar...
Article
Full-text available
The subtropical dry forests are experiencing rapid clearing in the southamerican Great Chaco region, mainly for soybean production in Argentina. This is causing biodiversity loss and soil salinization. This forests are unique for the floristic richness and the dense forest cover in a region characterized by semiarid climatic conditions. The authors...
Article
Full-text available
Grazing not only modifies the structure and functioning of grasslands, it also changes micro-environmental conditions that alter the availability of resources. The aim of this study was to analyze the response of grasses with different photosynthetic pathways (C3/C4), growth forms (prostrate/erect), and grazing responses (increaser/decreaser) to de...
Article
Full-text available
Once you visit the extraordinary and unique ecosystems of Latin America, you would like to learn more about them. We learned a lot from our guides and lecturers during the IAVS excursions and plenary presentations and we are very grateful for this shared knowledge and experience. For many of us, these recent trips were the first time we visited the...
Article
Full-text available
Effect of grazing on below-ground net primary productivity of a temperate grassland.Grazing directly affects above-ground fraction of vegetation and indirectly the below-ground part. There is a poor knowledge of the effect of grazing on below-ground net primary productivity (BNPP) in grasslands. Our aim was to quantify the effect of grazing on BNPP...