Jose Maria Gonzalez Rave

Jose Maria Gonzalez Rave
University of Castilla-La Mancha · Department of Sports Sciences. Faculty of Sport Sciences in Toledo

Doctor of Philosophy
Full Professor at the UCLM

About

186
Publications
126,823
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Introduction
Jose Maria Gonzalez Rave PhD currently works at the University of Castilla la Mancha (Faculty of Sport Sciences) in Toledo. He holds a position as Full Professor . Jose Maria does research in Methodology of Sports Training, Periodization and topics relating to Sport Sciences.
Additional affiliations
September 2001 - April 2020
University of Castilla-La Mancha
Position
  • Professor (Full)
Description
  • Sports Training Lab. Director. Head of Research Group "Sports Performance"
January 2001 - May 2016
University of Castilla-La Mancha
Position
  • Professor (Full)

Publications

Publications (186)
Article
Scientific knowledge of the training of elite athletic sprinters is limited, and much of their training relies on the intuition and expertise of experienced coaches. Therefore, the objective of this study is to provide an overview of the training practices employed by elite Spanish sprint coaches. A descriptive analysis was conducted using customis...
Article
Full-text available
Background Ethylene and vinyl acetate (EVA) and polyether block amide (PEBA) are recently the most widely used materials for advanced footwear technology (AFT) that has been shown to improve running economy (RE). This study investigated the effects of these midsole materials on RE and biomechanics, in both fresh and worn state (after 450 km). Meth...
Article
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ABSTRACT: Speed climbing will be a new discipline in Paris 2024. The physical requirements of speed climbing are different from the other climbing modalities due to the short event time requiring higher level of strength and power. These parameters have been measured through the Force-Velocity (F-V) profile in different climbing disciplines. Howeve...
Article
A regular endurance training program may elicit different adaptations compared to an isolated training method. In this study, we analyzed the effects of 8 weeks of a regular endurance training program on running economy (RE), particularly neuromuscular and biomechanical parameters, in runners of different athletic abilities. Twenty-four male runner...
Article
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Introduction: This study aimed to determine if adjusting the loads via velocity-based training (VBT) in each session is more efficient in monitoring the relative intensity than programming loads assessing 1RM pre-training. Methods: To achieve this, six national level sprinters were randomly divided into two groups, i.e., adjusting loads (AL, n = 3)...
Article
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Introduction/purpose: Previous results about longitudinal bending stiffness (LBS) and running economy (RE) show high variability. This study aimed to assess the effects of shoes with increased LBS on RE and performance in trained and national runners. Methods: Twenty-eight male runners were divided into two groups according to their 10-km perfor...
Poster
Full-text available
Speed climbing will be a new discipline in Paris 2024. The physical requirements of speed climbing are different from the other climbing modalities due to the short event time requiring higher level of strength and power. These parameters have been measured through the Force-Velocity (F-V) profile in different climbing disciplines. However, there a...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of the study was to describe the relationship between success in junior categories and success in the senior category, in sprint events. An observational and longitudinal analysis was carried out using the rankings of the Royal Spanish Athletics Federation database. We analysed 547 sprinters (238 women and 309 men) from their U14 to their s...
Article
Swimming performance achieved in 50-m, 100-m and 200-m events in each swimming stroke can have an influence on the final performance in individual medley (IM) events. We attempted to quantify the relative contributions of performance in individual stroke events to top-10 world ranked IM competition performance. We examined competition results of to...
Article
Full-text available
This study aimed to determine the importance of the different relay legs and sport disciplines in the overall result of the triathlon Mixed-Team-Relay (MTR) events. The study analysed the results of 80 Mixed-Team-Relay triathlon teams ( n =320 professional triathletes) corresponding to the top ten finishers at the World Championships in Hamburg fro...
Poster
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INTRODUCTION Endurance running performance is influenced by factors related to muscle recruitment and force production (1). Fatigue will result in kinematic compensations due to impaired muscle contractility and reduced leg stiffness (2). Understanding the acute mechanical alterations produced by neuromuscular fatigue is of primary interest to indi...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: There is a growing interest in the scientific community about the progression and congruity in the performance of talented participants who complete representing different nations in the most important international events. The prediction of incoming performances is nowadays in demand with the objective of returning in talent investme...
Article
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Background Interval training (IT) is influenced by several variables and its design. However, there is no consensus about the acute effects of this type of training on running kinematics and gait patterns due to the variety of session designs. Research question The aim of this systematic review was to determine the acute effects of IT on gait patt...
Article
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Advanced footwear technology (AFT) changed footwear design concepts by using a curved carbon fibre plate in combination with new, more compliant and resilient foams. The aim of this study was (1) to examine the individual effects of AFT on the evolution of the main road events and (2) to reassess the impact of AFT on the world's top-100 performance...
Article
Full-text available
Critical speed represents the highest exercise intensity at which the oxidative phosphorylation is sufficient to satisfy the energy demand. Since the release of the advanced footwear technology in May 2017, every road record from the 5-km event to the marathon has been broken. The question arises whether this type of footwear improves critical spee...
Article
Full-text available
Evaluating force–velocity characteristics on dry-land is of the utmost importance in swimming, because higher levels of these bio-motor abilities positively affect in-water performance. However, the wide range of possible technical specializations presents an opportunity for a more categorized approach that has yet to be seized. Therefore, the aim...
Article
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The objective was to quantify parallel changes in performance and physiological measures in relation to periodization of sequential altitude training over a season in elite swimmers. The altitude training of four female and two male international swimmers in selected seasons was examined using a collective case study approach. All swimmers were a m...
Article
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We analyzed the effects of the Nike ZoomX Vaporfly (VPF) on long-interval training performance, kinematic parameters, running power and fatigue compared to a traditional running shoe. Twelve well-trained men (mean ± SD: 32.91 ± 7.50 years; 69.29 ± 7.55 kg and 172.73 ± 5.97 cm) performed two long-interval training sessions (5 × 1000 m with 90s recov...
Article
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Unlabelled: A well-planned periodized approach endeavors to allow road cyclists to achieve peak performance when their most important competitions are held. Purpose: To identify the main characteristics of periodization models and physiological parameters of trained road cyclists as described by discernable training intensity distribution (TID),...
Article
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Background Reverse periodization is commonly touted as a salient planning strategy to improve sport performance in athletes, but benefits have not been clearly described. Objectives We sought to identify the main characteristics of reverse periodization, and the influence of training volume and periodization models on enhancing physiological measu...
Article
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The aim of this study was to analyze the acute effects of high vs low-intensity cycling efforts, combined with plyometrics, on vertical jump performance. Twenty-four physically active men (mean ± SD: 23 ± 2 years, 72.1 ± 10.1 kg, 1.73 ± 0.07 m) were randomly divided into two groups: experimental group (EXP, n = 16) and control group (CON, n = 8). E...
Article
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The present study aims to determine the utility of integrating balance model (W´BAL-INT) in designing interval training programs as assessed by improvements in power output, critical power (CP), and W prime (W´) defined as the finite work capacity above CP. Fourteen male cyclists (age = 42 ± 7 yr, body mass = 69.6 ± 6.5 kg, height = 175 ± 5 cm, CP...
Poster
Full-text available
Intro: In 2017, the "#Breaking2" project (an event aimed to run the first marathon under 2 h) introduced a new advanced shoe technology, the Nike ZoomX Vaporfly Elite (VPF). This type of footwear changed the footwear design conception by using a curved carbon-fibre plate inserted into a very light midsole composed of a novel compliant and resilient...
Article
Full-text available
Background Trained breath-hold divers have shown physiological adaptations that might improve athletes’ aerobic and anaerobic performance. Objective This study aimed to systematically review the scientific literature and perform a meta-analysis to assess the effects of voluntary apnoea training on markers of anaerobic and aerobic performance, such...
Poster
Full-text available
INTRODUCTION The ability to exert muscle power is critical for successful results in sports [1]. Exercises (e.g., sprint or heavy load exercises) performed in the warm-up have shown improvements in the subsequent performance [2]. The phenomenon of acute performance enhancement is called post-activation potentiation (PAP) and it increases acutely mu...
Article
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TO THE EDITOR: We appreciate the physiologically informed discussion presented in the Viewpoint by Podlogar et al. (1). However, it is well known that the determinants of endurance performance are the maximal oxygen uptake (V_ o2max), exercise economy (RE), and lactate threshold (LT) (2). The inclusion of the critical power/speed as proposed by the...
Preprint
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to assess the effect of recovery period during long interval training (IT) on mechanical, physiological, perceptive, and neuromuscular parameters. Six men and six women trained runners (23.82 ± 7.83years; 56.27 ± 8.95kg; 167.55 ± 9.77cm) performed three treadmill interval sessions (4x4min) at 1% incline with 1min, 2min or...
Preprint
Full-text available
Swimming performance achieved in 50-m, 100-m and 200-m events in each swimming stroke could have an influence in the final performance in individual medley events. We sought to quantify the relative contributions of performance in individual stroke events to top-10 world ranked IM competition performance. We examined competition results of top-10 w...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: This review aimed to determine (1) performance and training characteristics such as training intensity distribution (TID), volume, periodization, and methods in highly trained/elite distance runners and (2) differences in training volume and TID between event distances in highly trained/elite distance runners. Methods: A systematic revi...
Article
BACKGROUND: The determination of critical power (CP) during training is a useful tool monitoring performance progression and to demarcate training intensity zones. The aims of this study were: 1) to compare CP with varied effort short, medium and long intervals (SML-INT) with a field CP test; 2) to assess if SML-INT is an effective way to improve C...
Article
Full-text available
Swimmers take great advantage by reducing the drag forces either in passive or active conditions. The purpose of this work is to determine the frontal area of swimmers by means of an automated vision system. The proposed algorithm is automated and also allows to determine lateral pose of the swimmer for training purposes. In this way, a step toward...
Article
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We examined the degree to which 200-m and 400-m Individual Medley (IM) performance was related to sprint-, middle- and long-distance events before a swimmer reached a Top-20 world ranking. A retrospective longitudinal modelling study was conducted. Data on Top-20 swimmers between 2010 and 2018 were obtained from publicly available websites. A gener...
Article
BACKGROUND: The determination of the 1-repetition maximum (1RM) is one of the most frequently performed evaluations to assess maximal dynamic strength in athletes. Several formulas have been proposed to estimate the 1RM. The objective of this study was to compare 1RM measurement with a 1RM estimate obtained from the Brzycki formula to estimate 1RM...
Article
Full-text available
We have read with great interest the manuscript recently published in your journal on the technological unfairness of the use of Nike Vaporfly and Alphafly running footwear models [1]. In the section "Do the Nike Vaporfly/Alphafly Shoes Provide an Unfair Advantage?", the author claimed that the performance progression in long-distance, such as the...
Article
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The aim of this study was to determine the influence of running wide on bends regarding intermediate changes of position, dispersion of athletes, and speed relative to season best (SB) between medalists and non-medalists in men's and women's 800 m championship finals. Extra distance covered on bends was measured using official videos. The total dis...
Book
Full-text available
Euswim is an academic and research network whose aim is to develop and spread knowledge about swimming science. Whether you are a student, researcher, or professor, our platform (www.euswim.eu) offers the opportunity to exchange, interact and participate with us through our First annual conference. The book provides an overview of the European Conf...
Article
Full-text available
The aims of the current study were to compare the pacing patterns of all-time 800 m, 1500 m and mile running world records (WRs) and to determine whether differences exist between sexes, and if 800 m and 1500 m WRs were broken during championship or meet races. Overall and lap times for men and women's 800 m, 1500 m, and mile WRs from World Athleti...
Article
Full-text available
We present a case study of the periodized training by a world-class 400-m Individual Medley (IM) swimmer (4th in 2019 World Championships) in the season leading to a bronze medal in the 2018 European Championship. The complexity of this IM preparation was based on the experiences, observations and innovations of an Olympic swimming coach. Over 52 w...
Article
Full-text available
The NIKE Vaporfly shoe was introduced in May 2017 as part of the original #Breaking2 Project (an event aimed to run the first marathon under 2 h). This new advanced shoe technology (NAST) changed the footwear design conception. The aim of this study was (i) to analyse the effect of NAST in men’s marathon performance, (ii) to analyse whether the cha...
Poster
Full-text available
Introduction: Reverse linear periodization is characterised by high-intensity and low-volume training predominates during the preparatory period, before increasing the volume and maintaining the intensity slightly as the season progresses, as opposed to traditional periodisation which is characterised by low-intensity and high-volume training in th...
Article
Full-text available
The aims of the present research were to estimate the age of peak performance (APP) and to examine the role of previous experience at the world-level open water race performances. Finishing positions and age of swimmers (639 females and 738 males) in the 10-km events of World Championship (WCH) and Olympic Games (OG) from 2000 to 2019 were obtained...
Presentation
Concurrent training (CT) consists of resistance training (RT) and endurance training (ET) in a unique session. The training content done first affects performance in the second content and likely the chronic adaptation to CT could be different. The countermovement squat jump (CMJ) height loss is used for monitoring the levels of fatigue during a tr...
Poster
Background: Critical speed (CS) represents the highest exercise intensity at which the oxidative phosphorylation is sufficient to satisfy the energy demand. Since the release of the Nike Vaporfly (VPF) shoes in May 2017, every road record from the 5k event to the marathon have been broken. The question arises whether this type of footwear improves...
Article
Full-text available
Swimming coaches have prescribed dry-land training programs over the years to improve the overall swimming performance (starts, clean swimming, turns and finish). The main aim of the present systematic review was to examine the effects of dry-land strength and conditioning programs on swimming turns. Four online databases were scrutinised, data wer...
Article
Full-text available
This study aimed to address the effects of increased longitudinal bending stiffness (LBS) on running economy (RE) and running biomechanics. A systematic search on four electronic databases (Pubmed, WOS, Medline and Scopus) was conducted on 26 May 2021. Twelve studies met the inclusion criteria and were included. Standardised mean difference with 95...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of the present research was to examine the stroking rate (SR) values of successful and non-successful swimmers in the 10 km and 25 km races of the FINA 2019 World Swimming Championships. Data from 175 participants (95 men and 80 female) were classified according to their finishing positions. There were no meaningful differences in the overa...
Article
Full-text available
We appreciate the continued interest by Drs. Garcia-Tabar and Gorostiaga [1] in the distinction between Critical Power and maximal lactate steady state (MLSS), in part, as they relate to the maximal metabolic steady-state (MMSS) [2, 3]. Their letter [1] reinforces many points of agreement and, for the sake of brevity, those will not be reiterated h...
Article
The underwater phase is perhaps the most important phase of the swimming start. To improve performance during the underwater phase, it is necessary to improve our understanding of the key variables affecting this phase. The main aim of this study was to identify key kinematic variables that are associated with the performance of an underwater glide...
Article
Full-text available
Knowledge in the scientific domain of individual medley (IM) swimming training over a competitive season is limited. The purpose of this study was to propose a detailed coaching framework incorporating the key elements of a periodized training regimen for a 400 m IM swimmer. This framework was based on the available coaching and scientific literatu...
Article
Periodization can be defined as a logical sequential, phasic method of manipulating fitness and recovery phases to increase the potential for achieving specific performance goals while minimizing the potential for nonfunctional overreaching, overtraining, and injury. Periodization deals with the micromanagement of timelines and fitness phases and i...
Article
A well-planned periodized approach allows swimmers to achieve peak performance at the major national and international competitions. Purpose: To identify the main characteristics of endurance training for highly trained swimmers described by the training intensity distribution (TID), volume, and periodization models. Methods: The electronic databas...
Article
The present study focused on propulsive forces applied during tethered swimming. The main aims were to identify asymmetries between dominant and non-dominant arms, quantify the effect of breathing on force application and, explore any association between each variable and swimming performance. Fifteen regional level swimmers completed a maximal fro...
Article
A breakpoint in a portable near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) derived deoxygenated haemoglobin (deoxy[Hb]) signal during an incremental VO2max running test has been associated with the second ventilatory threshold (VT2) in healthy participants. Thus, the aim was to examine the association between this breakpoint (NIRS) and VT2 in well-trained runner...
Article
Full-text available
The primary goal of the present research was to determine the order of swimmers on a mixed relay team that would ensure the best performance in the Fédération Internationale de Natation (FINA) World Championships held in Kazan (Russia, 2015), Budapest (Hungary, 2017), and Gwangju (South Korea, 2019). The data were obtained from database websites fo...
Article
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Abstract: The present study examines the association between the success at junior and senior level for British swimmers in World Championships (WCs). It also explores the relationships between swimming performance and the swimmers’ gender, swim stroke, distance, status (finalist, semifinalist and heats) and swimming category. Data were collected f...
Article
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The propulsive forces and instantaneous power that are generated by a swimmer have a great influence on the swimming performance. This works presents a new device, called SwimOne, for measuring propulsive force and estimating the instantaneous power of the swimmer. In addition, the detailed prototype is able to exert a customizable opposition force...
Article
Full-text available
Swimming training programs may help to limit declines in cardiovascular conditioning, muscle strength, mobility and social functioning in individuals with Down’s Syndrome (DS): (1) Background: This study aims to analyze the effects of a periodized swimming training program on swimming speed, lower body force and power and body composition in a grou...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: To analyze the influence of different swimming intensities on the subsequent cycling and running sectors and overall sprint triathlon performance. Methods: Seven sub23 and senior triathletes (height 1.74 ± 0.04 m, weight 70.82 ± 6.76 kg, age 23.42 ± 3.25 years, VO2 max 63.54 ± 5.23 ml • kg-1 • min-1) participated in this study. They carr...
Article
This research aims to provide a better understanding of the swimming push-off specificity comparing force production and electromyographic (EMG) activity on squat-jumps (SJ) and countermovement-jumps (CMJ) performed underwater (similar to swimming turns push-off) and dryland conditions on two different level of expertise participants (swimmers and...
Article
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We thank Keir et al. [1] for their interest in our paper (Galán-Rioja et al. [2]) and their recognition of the importance and relevance of the concepts addressed. Whilst each of their main comments and concerns (underlined below) were addressed directly in that work or in the papers cited therein for that explicit purpose, we are pleased to reitera...
Poster
Full-text available
Since 2008 Beijing Olympic Games, open water races represent a discipline of the Olympic program, specifically the 10Km events. Open water are tactical events, where race decisions of swimmers based on surrounding counterparts, external race conditions, the participants experience, and the own fatigue levels have a great impact on results. Indeed,...
Article
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Background Critical power (CP) has been redefined as the new ‘gold standard’ that represents the boundary between the heavy- and severe-exercise intensity domains and hence the maximal metabolic steady state (MMSS). However, several other “thresholds”, for instance, the maximal lactate steady state [MLSS], ventilatory thresholds [VT1, VT2] and resp...
Article
Full-text available
PurposeThe aim of this study was to assess the effects of adding shoe mass on running economy (RE), gait characteristics, neuromuscular variables and performance in a group of trained runners.Methods Eleven trained runners (6 men and 5 women) completed four evaluation sessions separated by at least 7 days. The first session consisted of a maximal i...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to analyze and compare the effects of various muscle strength sessions performed during 10 weeks physical conditioning programs and 4 weeks of detraining on the physical conditioning, body composition and hematology of elderly women. 48 women were randomly distributed in four groups: a physical conditioning group (PCG;...
Article
The aim of this study was to determine the influence of body weight or lean body mass-based load on Wingate Anaerobic Test performance in male and female endurance trained individuals. Thirty-one participants (22 male cyclists and triathletes and 9 female triathletes) completed two randomized Wingate Anaerobic Test (body weight and lean body mass l...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this analysis was to quantify the probability of achieving a top-3 finishing position during 800-m races at a global championship, based on dispersion of the runners during the first and second laps and the difference in split times between laps. Overall race times, intermediate and finishing positions and 400 m split times were obta...
Article
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Background Oxygen cost of running is largely influenced by endurance training strategies, including interval and continuous training. However, which training method better reduces the oxygen cost remains unknown. Objective This study aimed to systematically review the scientific literature and performs a meta-analysis to address the effects of dif...