José-María Bermúdez de Castro

José-María Bermúdez de Castro
Centro de Investigación sobre la Evolución Humana | CENIEH · Paleobiology of Hominins

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270
Publications
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11,151
Citations
Citations since 2017
123 Research Items
5750 Citations
201720182019202020212022202302004006008001,000
201720182019202020212022202302004006008001,000
201720182019202020212022202302004006008001,000
201720182019202020212022202302004006008001,000

Publications

Publications (270)
Article
Both morphometric and proteomic studies have revealed the close relationship of Homo antecessor with Neanderthals and H. sapiens. Considering this relationship, we aim to characterize the Early Pleistocene Atapuerca‐Gran Dolina (TD6) maxillary premolars to test if their pattern of enamel thickness is shared with Neanderthals or H. sapiens. We emplo...
Article
To present a new dental specimen that will provide additional evidence for a better understanding of early European Upper Pleistocene hominin morphological variability. We described the morphology of this human right lower third molar at both the outer enamel surface and the enamel–dentine junction by means of micro‐computed tomography. In order to...
Article
Full-text available
The early Middle Pleistocene human material from Boxgrove (West Sussex, UK) consists of a partial left tibia and two lower incisors from a separate adult individual. These remains derive from deposits assigned to the MIS 13 interglacial at about 480 ka and have been referred to as Homo cf. heidelbergensis. The much larger skeletal sample from the S...
Article
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Gran Dolina is a cavity infilled by at least 25 m of Pleistocene sediments divided into 12 lithostratigraphic units and 19 sedimentary facies. These sedimentary facies have been divided into allochthonous facies, defined as sediment inputs from the outside, and autochthonous facies, defined as sediments generated within the karst; but this division...
Article
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The frontal sinuses are cavities inside the frontal bone located at the junction between the face and the cranial vault and close to the brain. Despite a long history of study, understanding of their origin and variation through evolution is limited. This work compares most hominin species’ holotypes and other key individuals with extant hominids....
Article
To assess the phenotypic affinities of the Sima de los Huesos (SH) mandibular incisors dental tissue proportions, and radicular dimensions, relative to Neandertals, recent modern humans (RMH), and a large comparative sample of Pleistocene hominins. Two dimensional (2D) and three dimensional (3D) data were extracted from SH (n = 22) incisors, and co...
Article
It is often assumed that both our species and the last common ancestor (LCA) of Neanderthals and modern humans originated in Africa, with all Eurasian Pleistocene populations expected to ultimately come from Africa. This paper aims to review the Middle Pleistocene fossil record of Africa and Southwest Asia to reinforce the need to at least consider...
Article
The Galería de las Estatuas is a Mousterian site located within the Cueva Mayor-Cueva del Silo karstic system at the Sierra de Atapuerca (Burgos, Spain). This site is characterised by an important Upper Pleistocene stratigraphic sequence in which a large number of lithic artefacts exhibiting clear Mousterian affinities and a rich assemblage of faun...
Article
The Cueva del Silo is part of the lower karst level of the Cueva Mayor-Cueva del Silo karst system (Sierra de Atapuerca, Burgos, Spain), whose evolution has preserved an impressive archeo-paleoanthropological sequence since the Early Pleistocene. Cueva del Silo is remarkable for the presence of fluvial deposits that record the entry of the Arlanzón...
Article
The fossil hominin individual from Gongwangling of Lantian, Central China, represents one of the earliest members attributed to Homo erectus in East Asia. Recent paleomagnetic analyses have yielded an age of 1.63 Ma for the Gongwangling hominin. The fossils from this site are critical to characterize the morphological features of early hominins in...
Article
Background: The molar (M) size sequence in the genus Homo is decreasing and the general pattern in Homo sapiens is M1 > M2 > M3. Aim: To gain a better understanding of the reduction patterns of molar components (cusps), we aim to assess the area of the protoconid, the phylogenetically oldest cusp of the lower molars. Subject and methods: We me...
Article
Pleistocene fluvial incision acceleration resulting in narrow and deeply entrenched valleys has been widely described and is generally attributed to uplift rate increase or greater climatic severity. In this paper, the long-term downcutting pattern of the Upper Ebro River and driving mechanisms are assessed, and we reconstruct the valley incision r...
Article
We present the results of a combined Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) and Luminescence dating study for the lowermost stratigraphic unit (TD1) of the palaeoanthropological site of Atapuerca Gran Dolina, Spain. Ten samples collected through the Main Section were dated using either the Multiple Centre (MC) ESR approach or the single-grain thermally tran...
Article
Full-text available
The Sima del Elefante site is located within the Sierra de Atapuerca karst system (Burgos, northern Spain), and forms part of a series of important Early, Middle and Late Pleistocene archaeological complexes that have been dated previously with luminescence techniques (Gran Dolina, Galería Complex, Sima de los Huesos, Galería de las Estatuas). This...
Article
Full-text available
The isotopic composition of hydrogen in authigenic minerals is a useful tool to reconstruct past paleo-environments. Clay minerals are an important component of authigenic minerals in soils and sediments but they usually occur with other compounds that must be eliminated before the analysis, such as organic matter and carbonates. Thus, various "pre...
Article
Full-text available
Tres son los principales debates en los estudios de evolución humana en Europa: primer poblamiento de nuestro continente, patrón evolutivo durante el Pleistoceno medio, origen del Hombre moderno y su relación con los neandertales. Hasta la fecha, no existe consenso en admitir la presencia humana en Europa antes del episodio isotópico 13, pero el re...
Article
The Bayesian statistical approach considers teeth as forming a developmental module, as opposed to a tooth‐by‐tooth analysis. This approach has been employed to analyze Upper Pleistocene hominins, including Neandertals and some anatomically modern humans, but never earlier populations. Here, we show its application on five hominins from the TD6.2 l...
Article
The Middle Pleistocene site of the Sima de los Huesos (Sierra de Atapuerca, northern Spain) has yielded a considerable number of human fossils during the period 1984-2020. Among them, up to 253 maxillary teeth have been recovered. In this article, we present the description of the eight dental classes of the maxilla following the Arizona State Univ...
Article
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Marom and Rak claim, on the basis of a few mandibular features, that the Nesher Ramla (NR) Homo is a Neanderthal. Their comments lack substance and contribute little to the debate surrounding the evolution of Middle Pleistocene Homo. Limitations and preconceptions in their study prevented them from achieving resolution beyond a dichotomous interpre...
Article
The Chinese Middle Pleistocene fossils from Hexian, Xichuan, Yiyuan, and Zhoukoudian have been generally classified as Homo erectus s.s. These hominins share some primitive features with other Homo specimens, but they also display unique cranial and dental traits. Thus, the Chinese Middle Pleistocene hominins share with other European and Asian hom...
Article
The Middle Pleistocene site of the Sima de los Huesos (Sierra de Atapuerca, northern Spain) has yielded a considerable number of human fossils during the period 1984–2020. Among them, up to 314 mandibular teeth have been identified. In this second paper dedicated to the dentition we present the description of the eight dental classes of the mandibl...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: The aim of this report is to present the large deciduous tooth collection of identified children that is housed at the National Research Center on Human Evolution (CENIEH) in Burgos, Spain. Methods: Yearly, members of the Dental Anthropology Group of the CENIEH are in charge of collecting the teeth and registering all the relevant in...
Article
In this paper, we critically review the current paradigm, which places the origin of Homo sapiens in Africa as the result of the evolution of a Middle Pleistocene species. In the African fossil record of this period, it is not possible to find a transition from fossils not included in H. sapiens to those that are clearly related to our species and...
Article
Full-text available
The Inhibitory Cascade Model was proposed by Kavanagh and colleagues (Nature, 449, 427–433 [2007]) after their experimental studies on the dental development of murine rodent species. These authors described an activator–inhibitor mechanism that has been employed to predict evolutionary size patterns of mammalian teeth, including hominins. In the p...
Article
Middle Pleistocene Homo in the Levant Our understanding of the origin, distribution, and evolution of early humans and their close relatives has been greatly refined by recent new information. Adding to this trend, Hershkovitz et al. have uncovered evidence of a previously unknown archaic Homo population, the “Nesher Ramla Homo ” (see the Perspecti...
Article
Full-text available
The origin and evolution of hominin mortuary practices are topics of intense interest and debate1–3. Human burials dated to the Middle Stone Age (MSA) are exceedingly rare in Africa and unknown in East Africa1–6. Here we describe the partial skeleton of a roughly 2.5- to 3.0-year-old child dating to 78.3 ± 4.1 thousand years ago, which was recovere...
Article
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The study of audition in fossil hominins is of great interest given its relationship with intraspecific vocal communication. While the auditory capacities have been studied in early hominins and in the Middle Pleistocene Sima de los Huesos hominins, less is known about the hearing abilities of the Neanderthals. Here, we provide a detailed approach...
Article
The value of dirty DNA Environmental DNA can identify the presence of species, even from the distant past. Surveying three cave sites in western Europe and southern Siberia, Vernot et al. identified nuclear DNA and confirmed that it is from the close relatives of anatomically modern humans—Neanderthal and Denisovan individuals. A phylogenetic analy...
Article
In Prehistory, Paleolithic stone toolkits are allotted to distinct cultural phases, explained through a periodization that has been adopted as a strategic reference by specialists in lithic studies, based on: 1) the categorization of morpho-types observed in the assemblages; 2) the dominant manufacture technologies and 3) temporal categorizations b...
Article
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One of the main concerns of paleoanthropologists is to make a correct interpretation of the variability observed in the fossil record. However, the current knowledge about sexual dimorphism in the human lineage comes mainly from the study of modern human, Neanderthal and pre-Neanderthal populations, whereas information available about the intrapopu...
Article
The rarity and poor preservation of hominin fossils from the East Asian Early Pleistocene hamper our understanding of their taxonomy and possible phylogenetic relationship with other members of the genus Homo. In the 1970s, four isolated hominin teeth were recovered from the Meipu site, southern China, which biostratigraphic analysis placed in the...
Article
After 34 years of research and findings in the Middle Pleistocene site of the Sima de los Huesos (SH) of the Sierra de Atapuerca (Burgos, Spain), we present an update of the estimation of the number of individuals (ENI) identified in the SH hominin assemblage. The last ENI, published in 2004, was 28. Although the number of specimens recovered has a...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The study of scapular morphology has had an important impact on the study of human evolution from both functional and phylogenetic perspectives [1]. Moreover, it is critical to understand scapular ontogeny (growth and development), since evolution occurs via genetically conserved developmental variations. This issue has been well-documented in the...
Article
Full-text available
An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.
Article
The Atapuerca localities present evidence of a long series of hominin occupations from the Early Pleistocene onward and are a key site for understanding the continuity and discontinuity of Western European technological and settlement dynamics. The TD10 unit from Gran Dolina is located in the upper part of the sequence and divided into four lithost...
Article
Here, we present a metric and morphological study of the molar remains from the Montmaurin-La Niche mandible by means of microcomputed tomography. According to the last analysis, based on the combination of geomorphological and paleontological data, the level bearing this human mandible probably corresponds to the marine isotope stages (MIS) 7. The...
Article
The advantages of active massive data capture devices such as LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) in the creation of high-resolution topographic models have been well known for years. They have been widely applied to the documentation of cultural heritage since the beginning of the 21st century. As LiDAR devices, terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) sy...
Article
The Middle Pleistocene Sima de los Huesos (SH) site has yielded more than 7.500 human fossil remains belonging to a minimum of 29 individuals. Most of these individuals preserve either the complete mandibular molar series or at least the first (M1) and second (M2) molars. The inhibitory cascade mathematical model was proposed by Kavanagh et al. (Na...
Article
Full-text available
Dental enamel thickness, topography, growth and development vary among hominins. In Homo, the thickness of dental enamel in most Pleistocene hominins display variations from thick to hyper-thick, while Neanderthals exhibit proportionally thinner enamel. The origin of the thin trait remains unclear. In this context, the Middle Pleistocene human dent...
Article
We used ground-penetrating radar (GPR) to identify a variety of karstic features in the archaeo-paleontological sites of the Sierra the Atapuerca (Burgos, Spain). The aim of this study was to discover the structure of the caves exposed in the 19th century by a railroad trench, specifically their bottom part, which remains covered under the railroad...
Article
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The phylogenetic relationships between hominins of the Early Pleistocene epoch in Eurasia, such as Homo antecessor, and hominins that appear later in the fossil record during the Middle Pleistocene epoch, such as Homo sapiens, are highly debated1,2,3,4,5. For the oldest remains, the molecular study of these relationships is hindered by the degradat...
Article
Full-text available
Characterizing dental development in fossil hominins is important for distinguishing between them and for establishing where and when the slow overall growth and development of modern humans appeared. Dental development of australopiths and early Homo was faster than modern humans. The Atapuerca fossils (Spain) fill a barely known gap in human evol...
Article
This paper proposes a demographic history of China in the last glacial cycle. This history is complex because China lies in both the Palearctic and Oriental biographic realms, and experienced several immigration events before H. sapiens. Immigration by our species into the Oriental Realm of south China from southeast Asia probably began as early as...
Article
Objectives: Here we describe the case of an ectopic maxillary third molar (M3 ), preventing the eruption of the M2 , in the individual H3 of the hominin hypodigm of level TD6.2 of the Early Pleistocene site of Gran Dolina (Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain). Materials and methods: The fossil remains from the TD6.2 level of the Gran Dolina site (about 1...
Article
Full-text available
Here we present the descriptive and comparative study of two immature scapulae recovered from the TD6.2 level of the Gran Dolina cave site (Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain) and assigned to Homo antecessor. This is the first time that data on the morphology and dimensions of the scapulae of a European late Early Pleistocene hominin population are provide...
Poster
Full-text available
Sexual dimorphism, as an important part of the total variation seen in populations, plays a key role in taxonomic debates. In this context, Sima de los Huesos (SH) hominins, from Sierra de Atapuerca in Spain, offer an exceptional opportunity to investigate within-population variability. For this reason, these fossil remains have been used in previo...
Article
Full-text available
In 1945, the activity of the quarries settled near the village of Montmaurin, 75km southwest from Toulouse in France, led to the discovery of several caves filled by archeological deposits. After the visit done by H. Begouën and the Abbey H. Breuil, L. Méroc did excavations from 1946 to 1961 mainly in the Coupe-Gorge cavity which has yielded a lot...
Article
In 1972 and 1983, four hominin teeth were recovered from Yanhui Cave, Tongzi, southern China and assigned to later Homo erectus or archaic Homo sapiens. The teeth can be dated to approximately 172,000-240,000 years before present. Here, in addition to the standard morphological comparisons, we reevaluate the morphology of the hominin teeth using ge...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Recent studies reveal high degrees of morphological diversity in Late Pleistocene humans from East Asia. This variability was interpreted as complex demographic patterns with several migrations and possible survival of archaic groups. However, lack of well-described, reliably classified and accurately dated sites has seriously limited unde...
Article
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Several human dental traits typical of modern humans appear to be associated with the prolonged period of development that is a key human attribute. Understanding when, and in which early hominins, these dental traits first appeared is thus of strong interest. Using x-ray multiresolution synchrotron phase-contrast microtomography, we quantify denta...
Article
Enamel and dentin patterns have awakened a considerable interest in phylogenetic studies. However, almost nothing is known about the dental tissue proportions of European Pleistocene hominins, apart from Neanderthal populations. This study aims to assess the three-dimensional dental tissue proportions of permanent canines belonging to the extensive...
Article
Full-text available
The penecontemporaneous Middle Pleistocene sites of Fontana Ranuccio (Latium) and Visogliano (Friuli-Venezia Giulia), set c. 450 km apart in central and northeastern Italy, respectively, have yielded some among the oldest human fossil remains testifying to a peopling phase of the Italian Peninsula broadly during the glacial MIS 12, a stage associat...
Article
Full-text available
Tooth crown tissue proportions and enamel thickness distribution are considered reliable characters for inferring taxonomic identity, phylogenetic relationships, dietary and behavioural adaptations in fossil and extant hominids. While most Pleistocene hominins display variations from thick to hyper-thick enamel, Neanderthals exhibit relatively thin...
Data
Methods for reconstructing the worn dentine horn apices of the LRM1 FR1R specimen from Fontana Ranuccio. The first method followed a 2-3D geometric approach (FR1R geom-rec) based on the sections intersecting the centre of the dentine horns followed by interpolation (A). The 3D rendering of the reconstructed EDJ surface of FR1R geom-rec is compared...
Data
3D enamel thickness values measured in the TD6 maxillary and mandibular molars and those of the extinct and extant specimens/populations. Upper molars: H. antecessor from Gran Dolina (original data). HER: H. erectus (Sangiran_M1, Zanolli [54]). NEA: Neanderthals (Olejniczak et al.[8]; Bayle et al. [55]. MH: modern humans (Olejniczak et al. [8]). Lo...
Data
Reconstruction of the worn molar cap. Reconstruction of TD6 worn molar cap by superimposition of an unworn molar cap. (TIF)
Data
2D values measured in the TD6 maxillary and mandibular molars and those of the extinct and extant specimens/populations. Upper molars: H. antecessor from Gran Dolina (original data). HER: H. erectus (Sangiran_M1, Zanolli [54]; China_M2, Smith et al. [10]; Xing et al. [49]). EMPH: European Middle Pleistocene Homo (Steinheim_M1, Smith et al. [10]). N...
Data
3D lateral enamel thickness values measured in the TD6 maxillary and mandibular molars and those of the extinct and extant specimens/populations. Upper molars: H. antecessor from Gran Dolina (original data). NAH: North African Homo (Tighenif_M2&M3, Zanolli and Mazurier [11]). EMPH: European Middle Pleistocene Homo (Visogliano6_M1 & Visogliano3_M2,...
Article
Objectives Dental tissue proportions of human permanent canines is one of only a few sexually dimorphic features that is present in childhood and maintained in adults, offering the opportunity for this to be used in sex determination. This study assesses dental tissue volumes and surface areas of maxillary permanent canines in a sample of known sex...
Poster
Full-text available
Dental traits are considered to be highly heritable, selectively neutral and evolutionary conservative, representing a useful tool in taxonomic and phylogenetic studies (1). Dental tissue proportions, in general, and the enamel thickness, in particular, have been of considerable interest over the past century. Despite all research work carried out...
Poster
Full-text available
Calculating crown formation times and enamel extension rates require the presence of unworn teeth. Unfortunately, most of the dental remains from archaeological sites are worn, so a reconstruction of the missing part is necessary. Here, we present a new application on fossil teeth of a recent methodology used to reconstruct minimally worn teeth bas...
Article
Full-text available
The present study reports the results of the first direct Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) dating study of Homo antecessor, the oldest known hominin species identified in Western Europe. The analysis of a tooth (ATD6-92) from TD6 unit of Atapuerca Gran Dolina (Spain) following a “semi non-destructive” procedure provides a final age estimate ranging fr...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In 1945, the activity of the quarries settled near the village of Montmaurin, 75km south-west from Toulouse in France, led to the discovery of several caves filled by archeological deposits. After the visit done by H. Begouën and the Abbey H. Breuil, L. Méroc started excavations from 1946 to 1961 mainly in the Coupe-Gorge cavity which has yielded a...