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José M. Torres-Ruiz

José M. Torres-Ruiz
INRAE - Université Clermont Auvergne

PhD in Plant Physiology

About

107
Publications
50,475
Reads
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3,313
Citations
Additional affiliations
January 2018 - present
INRA-Université Blaise Pascal
Position
  • Researcher
March 2014 - December 2017
INRA - Universitè de Bordeaux
Position
  • PhD Student
April 2013 - February 2014
University of Bologna
Position
  • PostDoc Position
Education
July 2012
Universidad de Sevilla
Field of study
  • Biology
September 2006
Universidad de Sevilla
Field of study
  • Biology

Publications

Publications (107)
Article
Full-text available
Embolism resistance is a critically important trait for evaluating the ability of plants to survive and recover from drought periods and predicting future drought-induced forest decline ( Choat et al., 2012 ). However, recent publications have provided evidence that some measurement techniques used to evaluate the hydraulic function and vulnerabili...
Article
Full-text available
The hypothesis that aquaporins and carbonic anhydrase (CA) are involved in the regulation of stomatal (g s) and mesophyll (g m) conductance to CO2 was tested in a short-term water-stress and recovery experiment in 5-year-old olive plants (Olea europaea) growing outdoors. The evolution of leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, and plant water...
Article
Full-text available
Aims To evaluate the impact of the amount and distribution of soil water on xylem anatomy and xylem hydraulics on current-year shoots, plant water status and stomatal conductance of mature ‘Manzanilla’ olive trees. Methods Measurements of water potential, stomatal conductance, hydraulic conductivity, vulnerability to embolism, vessel diameter dist...
Article
Full-text available
Xylem hydraulic conductivity (K) is typically defined as K = F/(P/L), where F is the flow rate through a xylem segment associated with an applied pressure gradient (P/L) along the segment. This definition assumes a linear flow-pressure relationship with a flow intercept (F(0) ) of zero. While linearity is typically the case, there is often a non-ze...
Article
Full-text available
Grafting in viticulture has been essential since the advent of the phylloxera crisis at the end of the 19th century, but relatively little is known about the relevance of the quality of the connection at the grafting junction on the behaviour of grafted grapevines. An experimental procedure comparing omega grafted vines with complete alignment of t...
Article
Full-text available
Leaf water potential (ψ leaf), typically measured using the pressure chamber, is the most important metric of plant water status, providing high theoretical value and information content for multiple applications in quantifying critical physiological processes including drought responses. Pressure chamber measurements of ψ leaf (ψ leafPC) are most...
Article
Increasing temperature and drought can result in leaf dehydration and defoliation even in drought‐adapted tree species such as the Mediterranean evergreen Quercus ilex L. The stomatal regulation of leaf water potential plays a central role in avoiding this phenomenon and is constrained by a suite of leaf traits including hydraulic conductance and v...
Article
Full-text available
Drought-associated woody-plant mortality has been increasing in most regions with multi-decadal records and is projected to increase in the future, impacting terrestrial climate forcing, biodiversity and resource availability. The mechanisms underlying such mortality, however, are debated, owing to complex interactions between the drivers and the p...
Article
The unprecedented heatwave that hit the Pacific northwest of North America in late June-early July 2021 impacted ecosystems and communities, yet evidence and analysis of this impact are still missing. Here we bring a unique dataset quantifying the impact on conifer trees, which are keystone species of many northwest ecosystems. Moreover, we take ad...
Article
Drought-related tree mortality is a global phenomenon that currently affects a wide range of forests. Key functional variables on plant hydraulics, carbon economy, growth and allocation have been identified and play a role in tree drought responses. However, tree mortality thresholds based on such variables are difficult to identify, especially und...
Article
Full-text available
Xylem hydraulic safety and efficiency are key traits determining tree fitness in a warmer and drier world. While numerous plant hydraulic studies have focused on branches, our understanding of root hydraulic functioning remains limited, although roots control water uptake, influence stomatal regulation and have commonly been considered as the most...
Article
Xylem hydraulic failure has been recognized as a pervasive factor in the triggering of drought-induced tree mortality. However, foundational evidence of the mechanistic link connecting hydraulic failure with living cell damage and tree death has not been identified yet, compromising our ability to predict mortality events. Meristematic cells are in...
Article
The capacity of trees to tolerate and survive increasing drought conditions in situ will depend in part on their ability to acclimate (via phenotypic plasticity) key hydraulic and morphological traits that increase drought tolerance and delay the onset of drought-induced hydraulic failure. However, the effect of water deficit acclimation in key tra...
Article
Full-text available
• Key message The increase in climate variability is likely to generate an increased occurrence of both frost-induced and drought-induced damages on perennial plants. We examined how these stress factors can potentially interact and would subsequently affect the vulnerability to each other. Furthermore, we discussed how this vulnerability could be...
Article
Hydraulic failure has been extensively studied during drought-induced plant dieback, but its role in plant-pathogen interactions is under debate. During esca, a grapevine (Vitis vinifera) disease, symptomatic leaves are prone to irreversible hydraulic dysfunctions but little is known about the hydraulic integrity of perennial organs over the short-...
Article
Full-text available
Global climatic models predict an increment in the frequency and intensity of drought events, which have important consequences on forest dieback. However, the mechanisms leading to tree mortality under drought conditions and the physiological thresholds for recovery are not totally understood yet. This study aimed to identify what are the key phys...
Article
Full-text available
Most existing forests are subject to natural and human‐mediated selection pressures, which have increased due to climate change and the increasing needs of human societies for wood, fibre and fuel resources. It remains largely unknown how these pressures trigger evolutionary changes. We address this issue here for temperate European oaks (Quercus p...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Aims: Decreasing longevity of vineyards due to the increase in the infection of different grapevine trunk diseases is a growing concern, and could be related to the quality of grafting. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the use of xylem hydraulic conductivity measurements as a potential indicator for the quality of vascular connections in...
Article
Full-text available
Plants continue to lose water from their leaves even after complete stomatal closure. Although this minimum conductance (gleaf-res ) has substantial impacts on strategies of water use and conservation, little is known about the potential drivers underlying the variability of this trait across species. We thus untangled the relative contribution of...
Preprint
Full-text available
Hydraulic failure has been extensively studied during drought-induced plant dieback, but its role in plant-pathogen interactions is under debate. During esca, a grapevine ( Vitis vinifera ) disease, symptomatic leaves are prone to irreversible hydraulic dysfunctions but little is known about the hydraulic integrity of perennial organs over the shor...
Article
Full-text available
Dans cette revue, nous faisons le point sur les connaissances récentes acquises sur l’évolution des chênes blancs européens, depuis les origines et la diversification du genre Quercus jusqu’à leur évolution contemporaine, notamment en lien avec l’évolution du climat. Nous rappelons comment ces avancées ont été rendues possibles par l’amélioration d...
Preprint
Full-text available
Water content in living vegetation (or live fuel moisture content, LFMC), is increasingly recognized as a key factor linked to vegetation mortality and wildfire ignition and spread. Most often, empirical indices are used as surrogates for direct LFMC measurements. In this paper, we explore the functional and ecophysiological drivers of LFMC during...
Article
Full-text available
Context Hydraulic failure and disconnection of distal organs during protracted drought stress is thought to protect large branches or trunks by reducing water loss and restricting the spread of embolism. Hydraulic segmentation and preferential sacrifice of distal organs such as leaves can be driven by two mechanisms: more negative water potentials...
Article
Full-text available
Many halophytic physiological traits related to the tolerance of plants to salinity excess have been extensively studied, with a focus on biomass and/or gas exchange parameters. To gain a more complete understanding of whether salinity excess affects the physiological performance of halophytes, an experiment was performed using the halophyte Atripl...
Article
Full-text available
Lycophytes are the earliest diverging extant lineage of vascular plants, sister to all other vascular plants. Given that most species are adapted to ever-wet environments, it has been hypothesized that lycophytes, and by extension the common ancestor of all vascular plants, have few adaptations to drought. We investigated the responses to drought...
Article
Full-text available
Xylem hydraulic failure is a major driver of tree death during drought. However, to better understand mortality risk in trees, especially during hot‐drought events, more information is required on both rates of residual water‐loss from small branches (gres) after stomatal closure, as well as the phase transition temperature (Tp), beyond which gres...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Predicting the evolutionary potential of natural tree populations requires the estimation of heritability and genetic correlations among traits on which selection acts, as differences in evolutionary success between species may rely on differences for these genetic parameters. In situ estimates are expected to be more accurate than mea...
Article
Full-text available
Identifying the drivers of stomatal closure and leaf damage during stress in grasses is a critical prerequisite for understanding crop resilience. Here we investigated whether changes in stomatal conductance (gs) during dehydration were associated with changes in leaf hydraulic conductance (Kleaf), xylem cavitation, xylem collapse and leaf cell tur...
Article
Full-text available
Plant traits—the morphological, anatomical, physiological, biochemical and phenological characteristics of plants—determine how plants respond to environmental factors, affect other trophic levels, and influence ecosystem properties and their benefits and detriments to people. Plant trait data thus represent the basis for a vast area of research sp...
Article
In this study, we measured the feed value, the freeze tolerance, and the drought tolerance of leaves from 14 woody plant species occurring in Auvergne. Analyses of leaf composition and digestible organic matter in vitro showed that white mulberry (Morris alba) and black elder (Sambucus nigra) have a high potential nutritional value, equivalent to t...
Article
Full-text available
Climate change threatens food security, and plant science researchers have investigated methods of sustaining crop yield under drought. One approach has been to overproduce abscisic acid (ABA) to enhance water use efficiency. However, the concomitant effects of ABA overproduction on plant vascular system functioning are critical as it influences vu...
Article
Full-text available
Drought represents a major abiotic constraint to plant growth and survival. On one hand, plants keep stomata open for efficient carbon assimilation, while on the other hand, they close them to prevent permanent hydraulic impairment from xylem embolism. The order of occurrence of these two processes (stomatal closure and the onset of leaf embolism)...
Article
Full-text available
The fourth edition of the international xylem meeting was held for the first time outside France, where the three first editions were held. This represents an important step forward for the meeting and attests to the resolutely international dimension of this symposium. The conference was organized by the University of Padua in the green setting of...
Article
Full-text available
The vulnerability of forest species and tree populations to climate change is related to the exposure of the ecosystem to extreme climatic conditions and to the adaptive capacity of the population to cope with those conditions. Adaptive capacity is a relatively under-researched topic within the forest science community and there is an urgent need t...
Article
Full-text available
Vascular pathogens cause disease in a large spectrum of perennial plants, with leaf scorch being one of the most conspicuous symptoms. Esca in grapevine (Vitis vinifera) is a vascular disease with huge negative effects on grape yield and the wine industry. One prominent hypothesis suggests that vascular disease leaf scorch is caused by fungal patho...
Article
Full-text available
Background and aims: Hydraulic studies are currently biased towards conifers and dicotyledonous angiosperms; responses of arborescent monocots to increasing temperature and drought remain poorly known. This study aims to assess xylem resistance to drought-induced embolism in palms. Methods: We quantified embolism resistance via P50 (xylem pressu...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Predicting the evolutionary potential of natural tree populations requires the estimation of heritability and genetic correlations among traits on which selection acts, as differences in evolutionary success between species may rely on differences for these genetic parameters. In situ estimates are expected to be more accurate than meas...
Article
The genus Quercus comprises important species in forestry not only for their productive value but also for their ability to withstand drought. Hence an evaluation of inter- and intraspecific variation in drought tolerance is important for selecting the best adapted species and provenances for future afforestation. However, the presence of long vess...
Article
Full-text available
According to the hydraulic vulnerability segmentation hypothesis, leaves are more vulnerable to decline of hydraulic conductivity than branches, but whether stem xylem is more embolism resistant than leaves remains unclear.Drought-induced embolism resistance of leaf xylem was investigated based on X-ray computed tomography (microCT) for Betula pend...
Article
Full-text available
Key message Direct, non-invasive X-ray microtomography and optical technique observations applied in stems and leaves of intact seedlings revealed that laurel is highly resistant to drought-induced xylem embolism. Contrary to what has been brought forward, daily cycles of embolism formation and refilling are unlikely to occur in this species and to...
Article
Full-text available
Many studies have reported that hydraulic properties vary considerably between tree species, but little is known about their intraspecific variation and, therefore, their capacity to adapt to a warmer and drier climate. Here, we quantify phenotypic divergence and clinal variation for embolism resistance, hydraulic conductivity and branch growth, in...
Data
Species, studied populations and latitude and climate conditions per population. Coordinates are provided in decimal degrees. MAT: annual mean temperature (°C); MAP: annual sum of precipitation (mm); PET: annual sum of potential evapotranspiration (mm); AI: aridity index (calculated as MAP/PET); T_Sum: average temperature of June, July and August (...
Data
P50 (MPa) versus xylem-specific hydraulic conductivity (Ks, kg m-1 MPa-1 s-1) measured for each tree, for the two species for which P50/Ks correlations were statistically significant (Picea abies and Pinus sylvestris). (DOCX)
Data
Natural distribution areas of the studied species (dark grey) in Western Europe (www.euforgen.org). The triangles represent the populations and sites sampled for this study. CR: Czech Republic; PO: Portugal; NE: The Netherlands; FI-RU: Finland-Ruotsinkylä; FI-VA: Finland-Värriö; FI-HYY: Finland-Hyytiälä; IT: Italy; SW-LOE: Switzerland-Loetschental;...
Data
Vulnerability curves of each individual and species. Black dot are the raw measure of percentage of loss of conductivity (PLC in %) along the negative pressure gradient (in MPa). The red line connects the PLC fitted by the Pammenter model to the measured xylem pressure. All adjustments were statistically significant. (DOCX)
Article
Full-text available
Vulnerabilidad al embolismo: el reto de las plantas para transportar agua desde el suelo a las hojas.
Article
Full-text available
Methods to estimate xylem embolism resistance generally rely on hydraulic measurements, which can be far from straightforward. Recently, a pneumatic method based on air flow measurements of terminal branch ends was proposed to construct vulnerability curves by linking the amount of air extracted from a branch with the degree of embolism. We applied...
Article
Full-text available
Climate change is expected to increase the frequency and intensity of droughts and heatwaves in Europe, leading to effects on forest growth and major forest dieback events due to hydraulic failure caused by xylem embolism. Inter-specific variability in embolism resistance has been studied in detail, but little is known about intra-specific variabil...
Article
Full-text available
Xylem vulnerability to embolism represents an essential trait for the evaluation of the impact of hydraulics in plant function and ecology. The standard centrifuge technique is widely used for the construction of vulnerability curves, although its accuracy when applied to species with long vessels remains under debate. We developed a simple diagnos...
Article
Full-text available
A significant increase in drought events frequency is predicted for the next decades induced by climate change, potentially affecting plant species mortality rates and distributions worldwide. The main trigger of plant mortality is xylem hydraulic failure due to embolism and induced by the low pressures at which water is transported through xylem....
Article
Full-text available
Xylem embolism is one of the main processes involved in drought-related plant mortality. Although its consequences for plant physiology are already well described, embolism formation and spread are poorly evaluated and modelled, especially for tracheid-based species. The aim of this study was to assess the embolism formation and spread in Pinus syl...
Article
Tree mortality is a key factor influencing forest functions and dynamics, but our understanding of the mechanisms leading to mortality and the associated changes in tree growth rates are still limited. We compiled a new pan-continental tree-ring width database from sites where both dead and living trees were sampled (2,970 dead and 4,224 living tre...