# Jose Beltran JimenezUniversidad de Salamanca · Departamento de Fisica Fundamental

Jose Beltran Jimenez

Professor

## About

140

Publications

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Introduction

Additional affiliations

October 2012 - January 2015

## Publications

Publications (140)

Models with pure momentum exchange in the dark sector have been shown to provide a promising scenario to tackle the tension in the clustering inferred from high- and low-redshift probes. A distinctive feature of these models is that only the Euler equation for the dark matter component is modified and the correction is such that the net effect can...

In this note, we discuss the pathological nature of black holes in Einsteinian Cubic gravity and its extensions. We compute the equations for the odd perturbations and show how spherically symmetric solutions that asymptotically approach a maximally symmetric space (Minkowski, de Sitter or anti-de Sitter) are associated to having an asymptotically...

In this work we study different aspect of self-interacting 2-form fields with special emphasis in their cosmological applications. We provide the explicit construction of how massless 2-forms are compatible with the cosmological principle without resorting to the dual scalar field formulation. In terms of the 2-form, the residual Euclidean group is...

We undertake the construction of quadratic parity-violating terms involving the curvature in the four-dimensional metric-affine gravity. We demonstrate that there are only 12 linearly independent scalars, plus an additional one that can be removed by using the Pontryagin invariant. Several convenient bases for this sector are provided in both compo...

A bstract
We consider a family of non-linear theories of electromagnetism that interpolate between Born-Infeld at small distances and the recently introduced ModMax at large distances. These models are duality invariant and feature a K -mouflage screening in the Born-Infeld regime. We focus on computing the static perturbations around a point-like...

All energy is gravitational energy. That is the consequence of the equivalence principle, according to which gravity is the universal interaction. The physical charges of this interaction have remained undisclosed, but the advent of the geometrical trinity opened a new approach to this foundational problem. Here it is shown to provide a background-...

In this work we study different aspect of self-interacting 2-form fields with special emphasis in their cosmological applications. We provide the explicit construction of how massless 2-forms are compatible with the cosmological principle without resorting to the dual scalar field formulation. In terms of the 2-form, the residual Euclidean group is...

Models with pure momentum exchange in the dark sector have been shown to provide a promising scenario to tackle the tension in the clustering inferred from high- and low-redshift probes. A distinctive feature of these models is that only the Euler equation for the dark matter component is modified and the correction is such that the net effect can...

We consider a family of non-linear theories of electromagnetism that interpolate between Born-Infeld at small distances and ModMax at large distances. These models are duality invariant and feature a $K-$mouflage screening in the Born-Infeld regime. We focus on computing the static perturbations around a point-like screened charge in terms of two d...

We undertake the construction of quadratic parity-violating terms involving the curvature in the four-dimensional metric-affine gravity. We demonstrate that there are only 12 linearly independent scalars, plus an additional one that can be removed by using the Pontryagin invariant. Several convenient bases for this sector are provided in both compo...

In this essay, we immerse into the framework of normed division algebras as a suitable arena to accommodate the standard model of elementary particles, and we explore some applications to cosmology. Remarkably, they permit interesting non-trivial realisations of the cosmological principle with an interplay between the symmetry groups of the quatern...

In this essay, we immerse into the framework of normed division algebras as a suitable arena to accommodate the standard model of elementary particles, and we explore some applications to cosmology. Remarkably, they permit interesting non-trivial realisations of the cosmological principle with an interplay between the symmetry groups of the quatern...

All energy is gravitational energy. That is the consequence of the equivalence principle, according to which gravity is the universal interaction. The physical charges of this interaction have remained undisclosed, but the Adventof the Geometrical Trinity opened a new approach to this foundational problem. Here it is shown to provide a background-i...

The simplest, i.e. the Abelian, i.e. the commutative, i.e. the integrable, i.e. the flat and torsion-free, i.e. the symmetric teleparallel affine connection has been considered in many recent works in the literature. Such an affine connection is characterized by the property that it can be vanished by a general coordinate transformation, by fixing...

The simplest i.e. the Abelian i.e. the commutative i.e. the integrable i.e. the flat and torsion-free i.e. the symmetric teleparallel affine connection has been considered in many recent works in the literature. Such an affine connection is characterised by the property that it can be vanished by a general coordinate transformation, by fixing the s...

The Noether currents are derived in a generic metric-affine theory of gravity, and the holographic nature of the gravitational entropy and energy-momentum is clarified. The main result is the verification of the canonical resolution to the energy-momentum problem in the Noether formalism.

General Relativity has not ceased its outstanding performance to explain gravitational phenomena with exquisite accuracy in an ever increasing range of scales. Modifying General Relativity is an arduous task, not only for its aforementioned exquisite performance to explain observations, but because its internal structure is tightly constrained by c...

We place observational constraints on two models within a class of scenarios featuring an elastic interaction between dark energy and dark matter that only produces momentum exchange up to first order in cosmological perturbations. The first one corresponds to a perfect-fluid model of the dark components with an explicit interacting Lagrangian, whe...

The Noether currents are derived in a generic metric-affine theory of gravity, and the holographic nature of the gravitational entropy and energy-momentum is clarified. The main result is the verification of the canonical resolution to the energy-momentum problem in the Noether formalism.

In this letter we construct the Hubble diagram for a universe where dark matter is universally charged under a dark non-linear electromagnetic force which features a screening mechanism of the K-mouflage type for repulsive forces. By resorting to the Newtonian approximation, we explicitly show that the cosmological evolution generates an inhomogene...

We consider a cosmological model where dark matter and dark energy feature a coupling that only affects their momentum transfer in the corresponding Euler equations. We perform a fit to cosmological observables and confirm previous findings within these scenarios that favour the presence of a coupling at more than 3σ. This improvement is mainly dri...

By using a novel technique that establishes a correspondence between general relativity and metric-affine theories based on the Ricci tensor, we are able to set stringent constraints on the free parameter of Born-Infeld gravity from the ones recently obtained for Born-Infeld electrodynamics by using light-by-light scattering data from ATLAS. We als...

We place observational constraints on two models within a class of scenarios featuring an elastic interaction between dark energy and dark matter that only produces momentum exchange up to first order in cosmological perturbations. The first one corresponds to a perfect-fluid model of the dark components with an explicit interacting Lagrangian, whe...

General Relativity and the $\Lambda$CDM framework are currently the standard lore and constitute the concordance paradigm. Nevertheless, long-standing open theoretical issues, as well as possible new observational ones arising from the explosive development of cosmology the last two decades, offer the motivation and lead a large amount of research...

General Relativity and the ΛCDM framework are currently the standard lore and constitute the concordance paradigm. Nevertheless, long-standing open theoretical issues, as well as possible new observational ones arising from the explosive development of cosmology the last two decades, offer the motivation and lead a large amount of research to be de...

In this paper, we provide a general framework for the construction of the Einstein frame within non-linear extensions of the teleparallel equivalents of General Relativity. These include the metric teleparallel and the symmetric teleparallel, but also the general teleparallel theories. We write the actions in a form where we separate the Einstein–H...

We consider cosmological models where dark matter is universally charged under a dark Abelian gauge field. This new interaction is repulsive and competes with gravity on large scales and in the dynamics of galaxies and clusters. We focus on nonlinear models of dark electrodynamics where the effects of the new force are screened within a K-mouflage...

In this note we provide a general framework for the construction of the Einstein frame within non-linear extensions of the teleparallel equivalents of General Relativity. These include the metric teleparallel and the symmetric teleparallel but also the general teleparallel theories. We write the actions in a form where we separate the Einstein-Hilb...

We consider the inspiral of black holes carrying U(1) charge that is not electromagnetic, but corresponds to some dark sector. In the weak-field, low-velocity regime, the components follow Keplerian orbits. We investigate how the orbital parameters evolve for dipole-dominated emission and find that the orbit quickly circularises, though not as effi...

By using a novel technique that establishes a correspondence between general relativity and metric-affine theories based on the Ricci tensor, we are able to set stringent constraints on the free parameter of Born-Infeld gravity from the ones recently obtained for Born-Infeld electrodynamics by using light-by-light scattering data from ATLAS. We als...

We consider a cosmological scenario where the dark sector is described by two perfect fluids that interact through a velocity-dependent coupling. This coupling gives rise to an interaction in the dark sector driven by the relative velocity of the components, thus making the background evolution oblivious to the interaction and only the perturbed Eu...

In this Letter we construct the Hubble diagram for a Universe where dark matter is universally charged under a dark non-linear electromagnetic force which features a screening mechanism of the K-mouflage type for repulsive forces. By resorting to the Newtonian approximation, we explicitly show that the cosmological evolution generates an inhomogene...

We consider a cosmological model where dark matter and dark energy feature a coupling that only affects their momentum transfer in the corresponding Euler equations. We perform a fit to cosmological observables and confirm previous findings within these scenarios that favour the presence of a coupling at more than $3\sigma$. This improvement is dri...

In this note we discuss the strong coupling issues inherent to the defining requirement for the so-called Einsteinian Cubic Gravity and its quasi-topological generalisations.

The full set of solutions of f(T) gravity with the Minkowski metric is considered in this note. At the fourth order in perturbations around the trivial tetrad solution, a new mode is found explicitly. Its presence signals a strong coupling problem that transcends the Minkowski background and also suggests the ill-defined nature of cosmological solu...

With a focus on modified gravity this book presents a review of the recent developments in the fields of gravity and cosmology, presenting the state of the art, high-lighting the open problems, and outlining the directions of future research.
General Relativity and the ΛCDM framework are currently the standard lore and constitute the concordance pa...

We consider a cosmological scenario where the dark sector is described by two perfect fluids that interact through a velocity-dependent coupling. This coupling gives rise to an interaction in the dark sector driven by the relative velocity of the components, thus making the background evolution oblivious to the interaction and only the perturbed Eu...

Among the general class of metric-affine theories of gravity, there is a special class conformed by those endowed with a projective symmetry. Perhaps the simplest manner to realise this symmetry is by constructing the action in terms of the symmetric part of the Ricci tensor. In these theories, the connection can be solved algebraically in terms of...

The geometrical formulation of gravity is not unique and can be set up in a variety of spacetimes. Even though the gravitational sector enjoys this freedom of different geometrical interpretations, consistent matter couplings have to be assured for a steady foundation of gravity. In generalised geometries, further ambiguities arise in the matter co...

In this note we discuss the strong coupling issues inherent to the defining requirement for the so-called Einsteinian Cubic Gravity and its quasi-topological generalisations.

We consider a scenario where dark energy and baryons are dynamically coupled without any energy transfer. In this scenario, the background cosmology is unaffected and, at the perturbations level, the coupling only appears through the corresponding Euler equations of dark energy and baryons. We then explore some phenomenological consequences of this...

This Essay explores consequences of a dark nonlinear electromagnetic sector in a universe with a net dark charge for matter. The cosmological dynamics can be described by a Lemaître model and can be understood, thanks to a screening mechanism driven by the electromagnetic nonlinearities that suppress the dark force on small scales. Only at low reds...

This Essay explores consequences of a dark non-linear electromagnetic sector in a Universe with a net dark charge for matter. The cosmological dynamics can be described by a Lema\^itre model and understood thanks to a screening mechanism driven by the electromagnetic non-linearities that suppress the dark force on small scales. Only at low redshift...

Poincaré gauge theories provide an approach to gravity based on the gauging of the Poincaré group, whose homogeneous part generates curvature while the translational sector gives rise to torsion. In this note we revisit the stability of the widely studied quadratic theories within this framework. We analyse the presence of ghosts without fixing any...

Among the general class of metric-affine theories of gravity, there is a special class conformed by those endowed with a projective symmetry. Perhaps the simplest manner to realise this symmetry is by constructing the action in terms of the symmetric part of the Ricci tensor. In these theories, the connection can be solved algebraically in terms of...

We discuss the presence of ghostly instabilities for metric-affine theories constructed with higher order curvature terms. We mainly focus on theories containing only the Ricci tensor and show the crucial role played by the projective symmetry. The pathological modes arise from the absence of a pure kinetic term for the projective mode and the non-...

The universal character of the gravitational interaction provided by the equivalence principle motivates a geometrical description of gravity. The standard formulation of general relativity à la Einstein attributes gravity to the spacetime curvature, to which we have grown accustomed. However, this perception has masked the fact that two alternativ...

We consider a scenario where dark energy and baryons are dynamically coupled without any energy transfer. In this scenario, the background cosmology is unaffected and, at the perturbations level, the coupling only appears through the corresponding Euler equations of dark energy and baryons. We then explore some phenomenological consequences of this...

We consider cosmological models where dark matter is charged under a dark Abelian gauge field. This new interaction is repulsive and competes with gravity on large scales and in the dynamics of galaxies and clusters. We focus on non-linear models of dark electrodynamics where the effects of the new force are screened within a K-mouflage radius that...

We discuss the presence of ghostly instabilities for metric-affine theories constructed with higher order curvature terms. We mainly focus on theories containing only the Ricci tensor and show the crucial role played by the projective symmetry. The pathological modes arise from the absence of a pure kinetic term for the projective mode and the non-...

Gravitational wave (GW) oscillations occur whenever there are additional tensor modes interacting with the perturbations of the metric coupled to matter. These extra modes can arise from new spin-2 fields (as in e.g. bigravity theories) or from non-trivial realizations of the cosmological principle induced by background vector fields with internal...

The geometrical formulation of gravity is not unique and can be set up in a variety of spacetimes. Even though the gravitational sector enjoys this freedom of different geometrical interpretations, consistent matter couplings have to be assured for a steady foundation of gravity. In generalised geometries, further ambiguities arise in the matter co...

In this Letter we consider a general quadratic parity-preserving theory for a general flat connection. Imposing a local symmetry under the general linear group singles out the general teleparallel equivalent of General Relativity carrying both torsion and non-metricity. We provide a detailed discussion on the teleparallel equivalents of General Rel...

We consider the inspiral of black holes carrying U(1) charge that is not electromagnetic, but corresponds to some dark sector. In the weak-field, low-velocity regime, the components follow Keplerian orbits. We investigate how the orbital parameters evolve for dipole-dominated emission and find that the orbit quickly circularises, though not as effi...

We reconsider the construction of general derivative self-interactions for a massive Proca field. The constructed Lagrangian is such that the vector field propagates at most three degrees of freedom, thus avoiding the ghostly nature of a fourth polarisation. The construction makes use of the well-known condition for constrained systems of having a...

We revisit the field content and consistency of the New General Relativity family of theories. These theories are constructed in a geometrical framework with a flat and metric-compatible connection, so the affine structure is entirely determined by the torsion. The action is given by a local and parity-preserving quadratic form of the torsion with...

Gravitational wave (GW) oscillations occur whenever there are additional tensor modes interacting with the perturbations of the metric coupled to matter. These extra modes can arise from new spin-2 fields (as in e.g. bigravity theories) or from non-trivial realisations of the cosmological principle induced by background vector fields with internal...

Poincar\'e gauge theories provide an approach to gravity based on the gauging of the Poincar\'e group, whose homogeneous part generates curvature while the translational sector gives rise to torsion. In this note we revisit the stability of the widely studied quadratic theories within this framework. We analyse the presence of ghosts without fixing...

In this Letter we consider a general quadratic parity-preserving theory for a general flat connection. Imposing a local symmetry under the general linear group singles out the general teleparallel equivalent of General Relativity carrying both torsion and non-metricity. We provide a detailed discussion on the teleparallel equivalents of General Rel...

In the recently introduced gauge theory of translations, dubbed Coincident General Relativity (CGR), gravity is described with neither torsion nor curvature in the spacetime affine geometry. The action of the theory enjoys an enhanced symmetry and avoids the second derivatives that appear in the conventional Einstein–Hilbert action. While it implie...

We disprove the widespread belief that higher order curvature theories of gravity in the metric-affine formalism are generally ghost-free. This is clarified by considering a sub-class of theories constructed only with the Ricci tensor and showing that the non-projectively invariant sector propagates ghost-like degrees of freedom. We also explain ho...

We revisit the field content and consistency of the New General Relativity family of theories. These theories are constructed in a geometrical framework with a flat and metric-compatible connection, so the affine structure is entirely determined by the torsion. The action is given by a local and parity-preserving quadratic form of the torsion with...

The geometrical nature of gravity emerges from the universality dictated by the equivalence principle. In the usual formulation of General Relativity, the geometrisation of the gravitational interaction is performed in terms of the spacetime curvature, which is now the standard interpretation of gravity. However, this is not the only possibility. I...

The universal character of the gravitational interaction provided by the equivalence principle motivates a geometrical description of gravity. The standard formulation of General Relativity \`a la Einstein attributes gravity to the spacetime curvature, to which we have grown accustomed. However, this perception has masked the fact that two alternat...

We reconsider the construction of general derivative self-interactions for a massive Proca field. The constructed Lagrangian is such that the vector field propagates at most three degrees of freedom, thus avoiding the ghostly nature of a fourth polarisation. The construction makes use of the well-known condition for constrained systems of having a...

The most up to date femto- and micro-lensing constraints indicate that primordial black holes of ∼ 10⁻¹⁶ M⊙ and ∼ 10⁻¹² M⊙, respectively, may constitute a large fraction of the dark matter. We describe analytically and numerically the dynamics by which inflationary fluctuations featuring a time-varying propagation speed or an effective Planck mass...

We consider a cosmological model with an interaction between dark matter and dark energy which leaves the background cosmology unaffected and only affects the evolution of the perturbations. This is achieved by introducing a coupling given in terms of the relative velocities of dark matter and dark energy. This interaction has the distinctive featu...

In the recently introduced gauge theory of translations, dubbed Coincident General Relativity, gravity is described with neither torsion nor curvature in the spacetime affine geometry. The action of the theory enjoys an enhanced symmetry and avoids the second derivatives that appear in the conventional Einstein-Hilbert action. While it implies the...

The geometrical nature of gravity emerges from the universality dictated by the equivalence principle. In the usual formulation of General Relativity, the geometrisation of the gravitational interaction is performed in terms of the spacetime curvature, which is now the standard interpretation of gravity. However, this is not the only possibility. I...

We consider a cosmological model with an interaction between dark matter and dark energy which leaves the background cosmology unaffected and only affects the evolution of the perturbations. This is achieved by introducing a coupling given in terms of the relative velocities of dark matter and dark energy. This interaction has the distinctive featu...

We disprove the widespread belief that higher order curvature theories of gravity in the metric-affine formalism are generally ghost-free. This is clarified by considering a sub-class of theories constructed only with the Ricci tensor and showing that the non-projectively invariant sector propagates ghost-like degrees of freedom. We also explain ho...

We disprove the widespread belief that higher order curvature theories of gravity in the metric-affine formalism are generally ghost-free. This is clarified by considering a sub-class of theories constructed only with the Ricci tensor and showing that the non-projectively invariant sector propagates ghost-like degrees of freedom. We also explain ho...

The most up to date femto- and micro-lensing constraints indicate that primordial black holes of $\sim 10^{-16} M_\odot$ and $\sim 10^{-12} M_\odot$, respectively, may constitute a large fraction of the dark matter. We describe analytically and numerically the dynamics by which inflationary fluctuations featuring a time-varying propagation speed or...

The detection of the GW170817/GRB170817A event improved the constraints on the propagation speed of gravitational waves, thus placing possible variations caused by dark energy under restraint. For models based on scalar fields belonging to the family of Horndeski Lagrangians, non-minimal derivative couplings are now severely constrained, entailing...

The Palatini formalism is developed for gravitational theories in flat geometries. We focus on two particularly interesting scenarios. First, we fix the connection to be metric compatible, but we follow a completely covariant approach by imposing the constraints with suitable Lagrange multipliers. For a general quadratic theory we show how torsion...

In this erratum we correct a mistake in the published version of this paper that changes the conclusions on the elementary symmetric polynomials, although the main conclusions remain unaltered. We also point out some typos that should be fixed, with no further consequences.

The detection of the GW170817/GRB170817A event improved the constraints on the propagation speed of gravitational waves, thus placing possible variations caused by dark energy under restraint. For models based on scalar fields belonging to the family of Horndeski Lagrangians, non-minimal derivative couplings are now severely constrained, entailing...

A bstract
We consider theories for scalar and vector fields coupled to the energy-momentum tensor. Since these fields also carry a non-trivial energy-momentum tensor, the coupling prescription generates self-interactions. In analogy with gravity theories, we build the action by means of an iterative process that leads to an infinite series, which c...

We study a large family of metric-affine theories with a projective symmetry, including non-minimally coupled matter fields which respect this invariance. The symmetry is straightforwardly realised by imposing that the connection only enters through the symmetric part of the Ricci tensor, even in the matter sector. We leave the connection completel...

General Relativity has shown an outstanding observational success in the scales where it has been directly tested. However, modifications have been intensively explored in the regimes where it seems either incomplete or signals its own limit of validity. In particular, the breakdown of unitarity near the Planck scale strongly suggests that General...

We study the evolution of gravitational waves for non-singular cosmological solutions within the framework of Born-Infeld inspired gravity theories, with special emphasis on the Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld theory. We review the existence of two types of non-singular cosmologies, namely bouncing and asymptotically Minkowski solutions, from a pers...

The Palatini's device is applied to generate teleparallel and symmetric teleparallel theories of gravity. From the latter is discovered an exceptional class which is consistent with a vanishing affine connection. Based on this remarkable property, this Letter proposes a simpler geometrical formulation of General Relativity that is oblivious to the...

We briefly review the basics of Weyl geometry and its natural extension by a general linear”distortion” of the metric connection by a vector field. A special class of the connections has torsion but retains the Weyl's semi-metricity condition. We present ghost-free gravitational theories in this geometrical setup and highlight their possible cosmol...

A large class of modified theories of gravity used as models for dark energy predict a propagation speed for gravitational waves which can differ from the speed of light. This difference of propagations speeds for photons and gravitons has an impact in the emission of gravitational waves by binary systems. Thus, we revisit the usual quadrupolar emi...

A non-abelian $SU(2)$ gauge field with a non-minimal Horndeski coupling to gravity gives rise to a de Sitter solution followed by a graceful exit to a radiation-dominated epoch. In this Horndeski Yang-Mills (HYM) theory we derive the second-order action for tensor perturbations on the homogeneous and isotropic quasi de Sitter background. We find th...

The existence of interactions between dark matter and dark energy has been widely studied, since they can fit well the observational data and may provide new physics through such an interaction. In this work, we analyze these models and investigate their potential relation with future cosmological singularities. We find that every future singularit...

In this work we consider a family of cosmological models featuring future singularities. This type of cosmological evolution is typical of dark energy models with an equation of state violating some of the standard energy conditions (e.g. the null energy condition). Such kind of behavior, widely studied in the literature, may arise in cosmologies w...

The existence of interactions among dark matter and dark energy have been widely studied in the literature, since such models fit well the observational data and may provide new physics through such an interaction. Here we analyze this kind of models, and investigate the possible occurrence of future cosmological singularities in such a framework....

In this work we consider a family of cosmological models featuring future singularities. This type of cosmological evolution is typical of dark energy models with an equation of state violating some of the standard energy conditions (e.g. the null energy condition). Such a kind of behavior, widely studied in the literature, may arise in cosmologies...

We extend previous results on healthy derivative self-interactions for a Proca field to the case of a set of massive vector fields. We obtain non-gauge invariant derivative self-interactions for the vector fields that maintain the appropriate number of propagating degrees of freedom. In view of the potential cosmological applications, we restrict t...

We consider an extension of Weyl geometry with the most general connection linearly determined by a vector field. We discuss some of the geometrical properties within this framework and then we construct gravitational theories leading to an interesting class of vector-tensor theories with cosmological applications.

A class of vector-tensor theories arises naturally in the framework of quadratic gravity in spacetimes with linear vector distortion. Requiring the absence of ghosts for the vector field imposes an interesting condition on the allowed connections with vector distortion: the resulting one-parameter family of connections generalises the usual Weyl ge...

DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.93.089901

In this work we revisit the construction of theories for a massive vector field with derivative self-interactions such that only the 3 desired polarizations corresponding to a Proca field propagate. We start from the decoupling limit by constructing healthy interactions containing second derivatives of the Stueckelberg field with itself and also wi...

By using observations of the Hulse-Taylor pulsar, we constrain the gravitational wave (GW) speed to the level of 10−2. We apply this result to scalar-tensor theories that generalize Galileon 4 and 5 models, which display anomalous propagation speed and coupling to matter for GWs. We argue that this effect survives conventional screening due to the...

Despite its continued observational successes, there is a persistent (and
growing) interest in extending cosmology beyond the standard model,
$\Lambda$CDM. This is motivated by a range of apparently serious theoretical
issues, involving such questions as the cosmological constant problem, the
particle nature of dark matter, the validity of general...