Jose Iriarte-Diaz

Jose Iriarte-Diaz
University of the South | Sewanee · Department of Biology

Ph.D.

About

68
Publications
21,229
Reads
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1,649
Citations
Additional affiliations
August 2019 - present
University of the South
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)
January 2014 - August 2019
University of Illinois at Chicago
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)
August 2008 - December 2013
University of Chicago
Position
  • PostDoc Position
Education
August 2002 - July 2008
Brown University
Field of study
  • Ecology and Evolutionary Biology
March 1999 - December 2002
University of Chile
Field of study
  • Biology

Publications

Publications (68)
Article
Full-text available
Birds still share many traits with their dinosaur ancestors, making them the best living group to reconstruct certain aspects of non-avian theropod biology. Bipedal, digitigrade locomotion and parasagittal hindlimb movement are some of those inherited traits. Living birds, however, maintain an unusually crouched hindlimb posture and locomotion powe...
Article
Full-text available
The evolution of the middle ear from the cynodont craniomandibular bones is one of the key mammalian innovations, and the mechanics underlying this anatomical transformation represents an intriguing paradox. Because the jaw joint of nonmammalian cynodonts was functionally coupled to the inner ear, auditory performance would favor low joint reaction...
Article
The location of the axis of rotation (AoR) of the mandible was quantified using the helical axis (HA) in eight individuals from three species of non-human primates: Papio anubis, Cebus apella, and Macaca mulatta. These data were used to test three hypotheses regarding the functional significance of anteroposterior condylar translation - an AoR loca...
Chapter
Evolutionary biomechanical studies of primate feeding systems have benefited from deployment of techniques for measurement of food material properties, digital collections of morphological and experimental data, comparative analyses of the effects of phylogeny, size, and shape, and computational modeling of bone function.
Article
Mandible morphology has yet to yield definitive information on primate diet, probably because of poor understanding of mandibular loading and strain regimes, and overreliance on simple beam models of mandibular mechanics.We used a finite element model of a macaque mandible to test hypotheses about mandibular loading and strain regimes and relate va...
Article
Full-text available
Lower jaw (mandible) fractures significantly impact patient health and wellbeing due to pain and difficulty eating, but the best technique for repairing the most common subtype—angle fractures—and rehabilitating mastication is unknown. Our study is the first to use realistic in silico simulation of chewing to quantify the effects of Champy and bipl...
Article
A new lithostrotian sauropod, Arackar licanantay gen. et sp. nov. is described based on a partial skeleton from the Upper Cretaceous (CampanianeMaastrichtian) beds of the Hornitos Formation, Atacama Region, northern Chile. The holotype consists of axial (cervical and dorsal vertebrae) and appendicular (humerus, femur and ischium) elements of a sub-...
Article
Lineage specific differentiation of host mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is a necessary step for bone repair/regeneration. Clinically, growth factors such as bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) are used to enhance/hasten this process to heal critical sized defects. However, the clinical application of such growth factors is fraught with dosage challe...
Article
Full-text available
Mechanical overloading of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) promotes both the initiation and progression of TMJ osteoarthritis (OA). New preclinical animal models are needed for the evaluation of the molecular basis of cellular load transmission. This would allow a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms of TMJ-OA pain and disability, and...
Article
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The primary anatomical function of the periodontal ligament (PDL) is to attach teeth to their sockets. However, theoretical and constitutive mechanical models have proposed that during mastication the PDL redistributes local occlusal loads and reduces the jaw's resistance to torsional deformations. These hypotheses imply that accurately modeling th...
Article
Tetrapod musculoskeletal diversity is usually studied separately in feeding and locomotor systems. However, comparisons between these systems promise important insight into how natural selection deploys the same basic musculoskeletal toolkit-connective tissues, bones, nerves and skeletal muscle-to meet the differing performance criteria of feeding...
Article
Objective: The orofacial primary motor cortex (MIo) plays a critical role in controlling tongue and jaw movements during oral motor functions, such as chewing, swallowing and speech. However, the neural mechanisms of MIo during naturalistic feeding are still poorly understood. There is a strong need for a systematic study of motor cortical dynamic...
Research
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Article
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Studies of mechanisms of feeding behavior are important in a society where aging- and disease-related feeding disorders are increasingly prevalent. It is important to evaluate the clinical relevance of animal models of the disease and the control. Our present study quantifies macaque hyolingual and jaw kinematics around swallowing cycles to determi...
Article
Finite element analysis (FEA) is a commonly used tool in musculoskeletal biomechanics and vertebrate paleontology. The accuracy and precision of finite element models (FEMs) are reliant on accurate data on bone geometry, muscle forces, boundary conditions and tissue material properties. Simplified modeling assumptions, due to lack of in vivo experi...
Article
The relative importance of pendulum mechanics and muscle mechanics in chewing dynamics has implications for understanding the optimality criteria driving the evolution of primate feeding systems. The Spring Model (Ross et al., 2009b), which modeled the primate chewing system as a forced mass-spring system, predicted that chew cycle time would incre...
Article
Full-text available
Animals respond to changes in power requirements during locomotion by modulating the intensity of recruitment of their propulsive musculature, but many questions concerning how muscle recruitment varies with speed across modes of locomotion remain unanswered. We measured average muscle recruitment intensity (aEMG) for pectoralis major and biceps br...
Article
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Hypotheses suggest that structural integrity of vertebrate bones is maintained by controlling bone strain magnitude via adaptive modelling in response to mechanical stimuli. Increased tissue-level strain magnitude and rate have both been identified as potent stimuli leading to increased bone formation. Mechanotransduction models hypothesize that os...
Article
Feeding is the set of behaviors whereby organisms acquire and process the energy required for survival and reproduction. Thus, feeding system morphology is presumably subject to selection to maintain or improve feeding performance. Relationships among feeding system morphology, feeding behavior, and diet not only explain the morphological diversity...
Article
Full-text available
In vivo bone strain data are the most direct evidence of deformation and strain regimes in the vertebrate cranium during feeding and can provide important insights into skull morphology. Strain data have been collected during feeding across a wide range of mammals; in contrast, in vivo cranial bone strain data have been collected from few sauropsid...
Article
Forces experienced during feeding are thought to strongly influence the morphology of the vertebrate mandible; in vivo strain data are the most direct evidence for deformation of the mandible induced by these loading regimes. Although many studies have documented bone strains in the mammalian mandible, no information is available on strain magnitud...
Article
Full-text available
Differences in rhythmicity (relative variance in cycle period) among mammal, fish, and lizard feeding systems have been hypothesized to be associated with differences in their sensorimotor control systems. We tested this hypothesis by examining whether the locomotion of tachymetabolic tetrapods (birds and mammals) is more rhythmic than that of brad...
Conference Paper
Primate feeding behavior is characterized by a series of jaw movement cycles of different types making it ideal for investigating the role of motor cortex in controlling transitions between different kinematic states. We recorded spiking activity in populations of neurons in the orofacial portion of primary motor cortex (MIo) of a macaque monkey an...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Primate feeding behavior is characterized by a series of jaw movement cycles of different types making it ideal for investigating the role of motor cortex in controlling transitions between different kinematic states. We recorded spiking activity in populations of neurons in the orofacial portion of primary motor cortex (MIo) of a macaque monkey an...
Article
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Attempts to establish relationships between mandibular morphology and either traditional dietary categories or geometric and material properties of primate diets have not been particularly successful. Using our conceptual framework of the feeding factors impacting mandibular morphology, we argue that this is because dietary categories and food geom...
Article
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All bats experience daily and seasonal fluctuation in body mass. An increase in mass requires changes in flight kinematics to produce the extra lift necessary to compensate for increased weight. How bats modify their kinematics to increase lift, however, is not well understood. In this study, we investigated the effect of a 20% increase in mass on...
Data
Full-text available
Summary of ANCOVA analyses of kinematic variables in response to loading and speed. (PDF)
Chapter
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Bats are unique among mammals for their ability to fly. A substantial body of research has focused on understanding how they do so, and in 1990, Norberg's landmark volume provided an up-to-date understanding of diverse aspects of bat flight (Norberg, 1990). Building on work accomplished before 1990, our understanding of bat flight has changed signi...
Article
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Chewing kinematics reflects interactions between centrally generated motor signals and peripheral sensory feedback from the constantly changing oral environment. Chewing is a strongly modulated behavior that responds to differences in material properties among different type of foods and to changes in the external physical properties of the food as...
Article
Full-text available
Kinematic analyses of mandibular movement in humans demonstrate that the mandibular instantaneous center of rotation (ICoR) is commonly located near the level of the occlusal plane and varies in its position during a chewing sequence. Few data are available regarding the location of the ICoR in nonhuman primates and it remains unclear how the posit...
Article
Full-text available
The center of mass (COM) of a flying animal accelerates through space because of aerodynamic and gravitational forces. For vertebrates, changes in the position of a landmark on the body have been widely used to estimate net aerodynamic forces. The flapping of relatively massive wings, however, might induce inertial forces that cause markers on the...
Article
The functional effects of bone and suture stiffness were considered here using finite element models representing three different theoretical phenotypes of an Alligator mississippiensis mandible. The models were loaded using force estimates derived from muscle architecture in dissected specimens, constrained at the 18th and 19th teeth in the upper...
Article
Full-text available
Hypotheses regarding patterns of stress, strain and deformation in the craniofacial skeleton are central to adaptive explanations for the evolution of primate craniofacial form. The complexity of craniofacial skeletal morphology makes it difficult to evaluate these hypotheses with in vivo bone strain data. In this paper, new in vivo bone strain dat...
Article
Full-text available
In this study we compared the wing kinematics of 27 bats representing six pteropodid species ranging more than 40 times in body mass (M(b)=0.0278-1.152 kg), to determine whether wing posture and overall wing kinematics scaled as predicted according to theory. The smallest species flew in a wind tunnel and the other five species in a flight corridor...
Article
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We estimated the heart and lung size of several species of small bats (Tadarida brasiliensis, Mormopterus kalinowski, Myotis chiloensis, Histiotus macrotus, H. montanus, Lasiurus borealis and L. cinereus) and compared these values to those of bats of larger size and other mammals. Our results confirmed that bats have the largest relative heart and...
Article
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Maneuvering abilities have long been considered key factors that influence habitat selection and foraging strategies in bats. To date, however, very little experimental work has been carried out to understand the mechanisms that bats use to perform maneuvers. In the present study, we examined the kinematics of slow-speed turning flight in the lesse...
Article
Body motions (kinematics) of animals can be dimensionally complex, especially when flexible parts of the body interact with a surrounding fluid. In these systems, tracking motion completely can be difficult, and result in a large number of correlated measurements, with unclear contributions of each parameter to performance. Workers typically get ar...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Powered, flapping flight has evolved at least four times in the Animal Kingdom: in insects, birds, pterosaurs, and bats. Although some aspects of flight mechanics are probably common to all of these lineages, each of the four represents a unique solution to the challenges of maneuverable flapping flight at animal length scales. Flight is less well...
Article
Full-text available
Experimental measurements and analysis of the flight of bats are presented, including kinematic analysis of high-speed stereo videography of straight and turning flight, and measurements of the wake velocity field behind the bat. The kinematic data reveal that, at relatively slow flight speeds, wing motion is quite complex, including a sharp retrac...
Article
Full-text available
The transition from trot to gallop in quadruped mammals has been widely hypothesized to be a strategy to minimize the energetic costs of running. This view, however, has been challenged by some experimental evidence suggesting instead that this transition might be triggered by mechanical cues, and would occur when musculoskeletal stresses reach a c...
Article
Full-text available
In this study we compared the wing morphology of eight species of bats inhabiting Chile, including two previous studied species. We correlated the results with ecological information. Aspect ratio, wing span, wing area, wing loading and the second moment of area of humerus midshaft were estimated for the molossid Mormopterus kalinowskii, the phyllo...
Article
Full-text available
In this study we compared the wing morphology of eight species of bats inhabiting Chile, including two previous studied species. We correlated the results with ecological information. Aspect ratio, wing span, wing area, wing loading and the second moment of area of humerus midshaft were estimated for the molossid Mormopterus kalinowskii, the phyllo...
Article
We describe archaeozoological and extant small mammals from Isla Mocha, an island located in south-central Chile. Species composition was compared among past and present assemblages. Also composition, as well as individual and population parameters were compared among island habitats. Specimens from archaeological sites included Oligoryzomys longic...
Article
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It has been observed that the relationship between locomotor performance and body mass in terrestrial mammals does not follow a single linear trend when the entire range of body mass is considered. Large taxa tend to show different scaling exponents compared to those of small taxa, suggesting that there would be a differential scaling between small...
Article
Full-text available
The wing morphology of bats is very diverse, and may correlate with energetic, behavioural, and ecological demands. If these demands conflict, wing shape may reflect compromise solutions. In this study, we compared the wing morphology of two bats, Tadarida brasiliensis (Geoffroy, 1824) and Myotis chiloensis (Waterhouse, 1828), that differ in body s...
Article
Full-text available
We studied morphological and functional variations in jaws of coastal and mountain pop- ulations of subterranean Spalacopus cyanus inhabiting soils with contrasting hardness. We found almost no morphological differentiation between populations in the variables we measured. However, there were clear differences in incisor resistance between them. Ap...
Article
Full-text available
Wing morphology is related by one hand to biomechanical properties and energetics of flying, and on the other hand to ecological and behavioral aspects of flying, such as flight pattern, foraging behavior, habitat selection and size of prey. In this work we compare the wing morphology of Tadarida brasiliensis (Molossidae) and Myotis chiloensis (Ves...