José Gutiérrez-Maldonado

José Gutiérrez-Maldonado
University of Barcelona | UB · Clinical Psychology and Psychobiology

PhD

About

205
Publications
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Introduction

Publications

Publications (205)
Article
Full-text available
Jaron Lanier proposed the name “Virtual Reality” to refer to interactive simulations produced through the use of computer technology, although the idea was formulated in the sixties by a pioneer of computer graphics, Ivan Sutherland [...]
Article
Full-text available
Objective Combining 3rd-wave-therapies with Cognitive-Behavioural-Therapy (CBT) has increased in recent years. Usually these therapies require longer sessions which therefore increases the psychotherapy drop-out rate for cancer patients for multiple medical reasons. This inspired intervention of a shorter 20 min-long mindfulness-therapy (MBST) to b...
Chapter
According to recent research, eating disorder (ED) patients tend to check unattractive body parts. However, few studies have studied this attentional bias (AB) phenomenon combining virtual reality (VR) with eye-tracking (ET). This study aims to examine whether anorexia nervosa (AN) patients have a longer fixation time and a greater fixations number...
Chapter
Eating disorders and obesity have many characteristics in common. In both, weight-related problems play a central role. There is growing interest in identifying their common risk factors, and research shows that unhealthy weight-control behaviors are common antecedents to both obesity and eating disorders. There are currently interventions availabl...
Preprint
The primary aim of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of a self-help virtual therapeutic experience (COVID Feel Good) for reducing the psychological burden experienced during the COVID-19 lockdown across different countries. For this purpose, we focused on participants recruited from June 2020 to May 2021 in the context of a European...
Chapter
A growing body of research has tried to modify automatic cognitive mechanisms, for instance body-related attentional bias (AB), in eating disorders (EDs). This study provides preliminary findings of an innovative body-related AB modification task using virtual reality (VR) and eye-tracking technologies. It aims to provide further information about...
Poster
The 3rd-wave-therapies and combining with Cognitive-Behavioural-Therapy (CBT) has increased in the recent years. These therapies require longer-sessions. Therefore, this inspired intervention of a shorter 15mins-long mindfulness-therapy (MBST) is developed for cancer-patients. This Randomised-Control-Trial study conducted to assess the short-term/i...
Article
Full-text available
The present study is part of a larger multi-site clinical trial aiming to test the efficacy of Virtual Reality-Cue Exposure Therapy (VR-CET) in patients diagnosed with alcohol use disorder (AUD) considered resistant to treatment as usual (TAU). In this study, we focused on exploring alcohol craving, anxiety, and attentional bias as indicators of th...
Article
Full-text available
The identification of variables that can modulate the efficacy of cue exposure using virtual reality (VR) is crucial. This study aimed to explore determinant variables of cue-elicited alcohol craving and perceived realism (PR) of environments and alcoholic beverages during a VR cue-exposure session among alcohol use disorder (AUD) outpatients. A pr...
Article
Full-text available
Aims : Attentional bias (AB), alcohol craving, and anxiety have important implications in the development and maintenance of alcohol use disorder (AUD). The current study aims to test the effectiveness of a Virtual Reality Cue-Exposure Therapy (VR-CET) to reduce levels of alcohol craving and anxiety and prompt changes in AB toward alcohol content....
Chapter
Background: This study is part of a larger project aiming to develop a virtual reality (VR) software to be implemented as a clinical tool for patients diagnosed with alcohol use disorder (AUD). The study is based on previous research in which we identified factors that elicit craving for alcohol in a sample of AUD patients, and which led to the dev...
Article
Full-text available
In vivo body exposure therapy is considered an effective and suitable intervention to help patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) reduce their body image disturbances (BIDs). However, these interventions have notable limitations and cannot effectively reproduce certain fears usually found in AN, such as the fear of gaining weight (FGW). The latest dev...
Article
Full-text available
Fear of gaining weight (FGW), body image disturbances, associated anxiety and body-related attentional bias are the core symptoms of anorexia nervosa (AN) and play critical roles in its development and maintenance. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the usefulness of virtual reality-based body exposure software for the assessment of import...
Presentation
Definition 1. Factors Associated with Alcohol Cravings Among the factors associated with alcohol cravings are sociodemographic features, such as age, gender, education, socioeconomic status, and civil status, as well as individual factors emphasizing cognitive-affective-behavioral patterns, such as attentional bias, active smoking patterns, use of...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Living in the time of the COVID-19 means experiencing not only a global health emergency but also extreme psychological stress with potential emotional side effects such as sadness, grief, irritability, and mood swings. Crucially, lockdown and confinement measures isolate people who become the first and the only ones in charge of their...
Article
Full-text available
Background/objective: Determining the predictive variables associated with levels of alcohol craving can ease the identification of patients who can benefit from treatments. This study aimed to describe changes (improvement or no change/deterioration) in alcohol craving levels and explore the predictors of these changes from admission to discharge...
Chapter
Exposure-based interventions have been proposed as an appropriate method for the treatment of fear of gaining weight (FGW) and body image disturbance (BID) in the treatment of anorexia nervosa (AN). However, exposure-based therapies have notable limitations (e.g., negative initial reaction in patients or higher risk of dropout). The use of virtual...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Living in the time of the COVID-19 means experiencing not only a global health emergency but also extreme psychological stress with potential emotional side effects such as sadness, grief, irritability and mood swings. Crucially, lockdown and confinement measures isolate people who become the first and the only ones in charge of their o...
Article
Full-text available
Previous studies have found gender differences in body-related attentional bias (AB), with women showing AB towards weight-related body parts. However, few studies have assessed the relationship between body-related AB and muscularity dissatisfaction (MD) in men. This study aimed to assess the presence of muscle-related AB in men, using a combinati...
Article
Full-text available
Objective Exposure-based therapies such as mirror exposure may help to improve the results of classic cognitive behavioral therapy in anorexia nervosa (AN). Virtual reality (VR)-based procedures provide interesting novelties for targeting body-related concerns. This study aimed to provide preliminary evidence of the usefulness of a VR body exposure...
Article
Body image disturbance, consisting of an affective (body dissatisfaction) and perceptual (body distortion) component, is not only found in eating disorders, but is also present in healthy individuals, affecting their psychological well‐being and everyday life. A higher body mass index is associated with higher body dissatisfaction, whereas results...
Presentation
Attentional bias (AB) and alcohol craving are heavily involved in the development and maintenance of alcohol drinking patterns and may facilitate relapse even after many years of abstinence. To address the recent interest in novel technologies applied in the assessment and treatment of alcohol use disorder (AUD), the “ALCO-VR” project aims to devel...
Chapter
Virtual Reality is currently used in the assessment and treatment of eating disorders in two different ways. First, VR cue exposure to critical stimuli (e.g., food or human bodies) allows both a reduction in the level of anxiety elicited by them and disruption of the reconsolidation of negative memories. Second, VR is used to facilitate the update...
Article
Full-text available
Background: This study is part of a larger project aiming to develop a virtual reality (VR) software to be implemented as a clinical tool for patients diagnosed with alcohol use disorder (AUD). The study is based on previous research in which we identified factors that elicit craving for alcohol in a sample of AUD patients, and which led to the de...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose. Virtual reality (VR) technologies have been proposed as a new tool able to improve on in vivo exposure in patients with eating disorders. This study assessed the validity of a VR-based software for cue exposure therapy (CET) in people with bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED). Methods. 58 outpatients (33 BN and 25 BED) and...
Article
Objective: In the attentional bias (AB) phenomenon, eating disorder (ED) patients show a tendency to pay more attention to self-attributed unattractive body parts than to other body parts. However, little research has focused on gender differences in body-related attention, controlling for body dissatisfaction (BD). This study aimed to assess gend...
Article
Full-text available
Body image disturbances (BIDs) have been widely studied using virtual reality (VR) devices that induce a full body illusion (FBI) and allow manipulation of the individual’s perceptual and affective experiences of the body. This study aimed to assess whether the induction of the FBI over a virtual body would produce changes in body-related anxiety a...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Eating Disorder (ED) patients selectively attend to appearance cues in preference to other information, in a phenomenon known as Attentional Bias (AB). The latest VR Head Mounted Displays (HMD) offer the chance to include Eye-Tracking (ET) devices, and thus provide more objective measures of body-related attention. This study aims to...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Many studies have indicated that alcohol craving is a core mechanism in the acquisition, maintenance, and precipitation of relapse in alcohol use disorder (AUD). A common treatment approach in AUD is cue exposure therapy (CET). New technologies like virtual reality (VR) have the potential to enhance the effectiveness of CET by creating...
Article
This article reviews the 6-month followup data of a randomized, multicenter, parallel-group study conducted at five clinical sites in three European cities, which compared two second-level treatments for bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED): virtual reality-based cue exposure therapy (VR-CET) versus additional cognitive behavioral t...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Virtual Reality (VR) technology has shown promising results as an assessment and treatment instrument in substance use disorders, particularly in attempts to reduce craving. A common application of the VR technology in treatment is based on cue-exposure therapy (CET). Following from previous results, the present case series is part of...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Alcohol use disorder (AUD) represents a major general health concern with important consequences for individuals' psycho-social functioning. Many studies suggest that cognitive processes such as attentional bias (AB) are heavily involved in the phases of acquisition, maintenance and relapse precipitation in AUD. AB is described as an...
Article
Introduction Cue-induced craving is a major motivator of smoking behavior, and, more importantly, a predictor of relapse. Previous studies demonstrated that cue exposure treatment (CET) reduces both cue-induced craving and daily nicotine intake in smokers. However, the efficacy of CET for smoking cessation has rarely been tested in controlled trial...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Introduction: Body image disturbance is considered a pervasive issue among women and is a core feature of eating disorders. Previous research provides evidence of the ability of body ownership illusions in virtual reality to produce changes in one's own body representation, especially in body size estimation. However, less information is available...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Russian physiologists and psychologists posed the questions of the levels of psychic regulation of the temperament, character and personality (Anan'ev, 1980; Nebylitsin, 1966; Pavlov, 1951; Teplov, 1963). The aim of our study was to observe the differences due to both – cultural nature and individual changes in personality – relevant to...
Research
Background: Alcohol use and misuse have been intensively studied, due to their negative consequences in the general population. Evidence-based literature emphasizes that alcohol craving plays a crucial role in the development and maintenance of alcohol-drinking patterns. Many individuals develop Alcohol Use Disorders (AUD); significantly, after tr...
Chapter
Full-text available
In the last twenty years researchers have embraced virtual reality (VR) in order to integrate and extend the assessment tools and treatments currently in use for eating disorders (EDs). Specifically the VR protocols for EDs try to exploit clinically the sense of “presence,” that is, the feeling of “being there” inside the virtual environment. The s...
Chapter
Full-text available
Virtual Reality (VR) is an emerging simulative technology that provides the individual with the feeling of “being inside” a synthetic environment generated by computer graphics. The sense of presence and emotional engagement offered by VR can be a powerful tool for personal change because it provides a high level of personal efficacy and self-refle...
Chapter
Full-text available
Treatment guidelines recommend antidepressant medication for bulimictype eating disorders either as an alternative to or in combination with cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT). This study compared the efficacy of two second-line treatments of patients with bulimic-type eating disorders resistant to CBT: virtual realitybased cue-exposure therapy (V...
Article
The aim of this study was to explore the efficacy and acceptance of virtual reality-based software for pain reduction (VirtualPain) in a 53-year-old female with fibromyalgia (FM), a chronic pain syndrome. Treatment consisted of four 60-minute sessions. Each session involved 40 minutes of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and 20 minutes of exposure...
Article
Abstract Eating behavior style (emotional, restrictive, or external) has been proposed as an explanation for the differences in response to food-related cues between people who overeat and those who do not, and has been also considered a target for the treatment of eating disorders (EDs) characterized by lack of control over eating and weightrelate...
Article
Full-text available
A question that arises from the literature on therapy is whether second-level treatment is effective for patients with recurrent binge eating who fail first-level treatment. It has been shown that subjects who do not stop binge eating after an initial structured cognitive-behavioural treatment (CBT) programme benefit from additional CBT (A-CBT) ses...
Conference Paper
Virtual Reality (VR) technology is used in clinical psychology to integrate and enhance traditional assessment and therapeutic approaches for a variety of conditions. It is also increasingly used in the training of health professionals, as it provides authentic recreations of real-life settings, without exposing students to situations for which the...
Article
Full-text available
Drinking-related behavior in college students represents a public concern with consequences for health and academic performance. The aim of the present study was to determine which measures (behavioral and self-reported measures of craving and anxiety) differentiate best between light- and heavy-drinking college students when exposed to a virtual r...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract: This case study describes the use of a virtual reality-based cue-exposure therapy (VR-CET) for a patient diagnosed with bulimia nervosa (BN). After six VR-CE booster sessions, both anxiety and food craving dropped significantly. No binging and purging episodes were reported at the end of the treatment. Patient´s mood and confidence to cha...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Cue-exposure therapy (CET) has proven its efficacy in treating patients with bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder who are resistant to standard treatment. Furthermore, incorporating virtual reality (VR) technology is increasingly considered a valid exposure method that may help to increase the efficacy of standard treatments in a...
Article
Full-text available
Here, we provide a comprehensive listing of research done on eating disorders and obesity in virtual reality. MEDLINE was searched on July 10, 2015, for the keywords ‘‘virtual reality and eating disorders’’ and ‘‘virtual reality and obesity.’’ Results from that search are presented herein.
Article
Full-text available
This Special Issue presents and discusses a collection of authoritative studies suggesting that computer generated graphic environments—virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR)—can integrate and extend existing prevention, assessment, and treatment protocols for eating and weight disorders (EWDs). Recent studies, summarized in the review by...
Article
Enhancing the ability to perform differential diagnosis and psychopathological exploration is important for students who wish to work in the clinical field, as well as for professionals already working in this area. Virtual reality (VR) simulations can immerse students totally in educational experiences in a way that is not possible using other met...
Article
Fibromyalgia (FM) is a disorder characterized by chronic physical pain. The perception of this pain has psychological effects on mood, anxiety, and the degree of perceived control. In turn, these factors may increase the experience of pain. This study aims to develop a new virtual environment for the treatment of FM in order to enhance the therapeu...
Article
Full-text available
Although a number of cognitive deficits have been described in individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID), few studies have examined the use of computer-assisted cognitive training programmes in this group of people. This study sought to determine the cognitive mechanisms underlying 16 activities included in Armoni, a computerized cognitive tr...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract. The objective of this study was to assess the association between external eating style and food craving experienced during exposure to food cues in virtual reality (VR) environments in both clinical and non-clinical samples. According to the externality theory, people with external eating experience higher reactivity when exposed to food...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to establish whether virtual reality (VR) exposure to food cues is able to produce craving levels consistent with state-craving and trait-craving as assessed by the Spanish and Italian versions of the State and Trait Food Craving Questionnaires (FCQ-T/S). The results were compared in 40 patients with eating disorders (17 w...
Article
Full-text available
El objetivo de este trabajo fue revisar el uso de la realidad virtual (RV) como técnica de exposición para el tratamiento de los trastornos de la conducta alimentaria (TCA). Para ello se analizó la literatura existente con el fin de responder a dos cuestiones: primero, ¿existe evidencia sobre la capacidad de los entornos y estímulos virtuales para...
Article
Full-text available
Transdisciplinary efforts for further elucidating the etiology of eating and weight disorders and improving the effectiveness of the available evidence-based interventions are imperative at this time. Recent studies indicate that computer-generated graphic environments-virtual reality (VR)-can integrate and extend existing treatments for eating and...
Article
Virtual reality (VR) technology has been successfully used to study the influence of specific and contextual food-related cues on emotional, cognitive and behavioural responses in patients with eating disorders (ED) and healthy controls. Following this research line, the present study assesses the effect on reported food craving of the type of food...