# Jose A. FontUniversity of Valencia | UV · Astronomy and Astrophysics

Jose A. Font

PhD

## About

239

Publications

124,821

Reads

**How we measure 'reads'**

A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more

26,585

Citations

Citations since 2017

Introduction

Additional affiliations

September 2018 - present

January 2003 - August 2018

September 1999 - September 2001

## Publications

Publications (239)

Magnetars are strongly magnetized, isolated neutron stars1–3 with magnetic fields up to around 10¹⁵ gauss, luminosities of approximately 10³¹–10³⁶ ergs per second and rotation periods of about 0.3–12.0 s. Very energetic giant flares from galactic magnetars (peak luminosities of 10⁴⁴–10⁴⁷ ergs per second, lasting approximately 0.1 s) have been detec...

We performed optical spectroscopy of the candidates inside the gravitational wave errorboxes (S190408an, S190425z, S190426c, S190510g, S190728q, S190814bv). The spectral classification of 34 transients observed with the 10.4m Gran Telescopio de Canarias prior to 1 Sep 2019 is presented. We ruled out the association of these candidates with gravitat...

Gravitationally bound structures composed by fermions and scalar particles known as fermion-boson stars are regular and static configurations obtained by solving the coupled Einstein-Klein-Gordon-Euler (EKGE) system. In this work, we discuss one possible scenario through which these fermion-boson stars may form by solving numerically the EKGE syste...

Spinning bosonic stars (SBSs) can form from the gravitational collapse of a dilute cloud of scalar/Proca particles with non-zero angular momentum. In a recent work we found that the scalar stars are transient due to a non-axisymmetric instability which triggers the loss of angular momentum. We further study the dynamical formation of SBSs using 3-d...

We show how gravitational-wave observations of binary black hole (BBH) mergers can constrain the physical characteristics of a scalar field cloud parameterized by mass $\tilde{\mu}$ and strength $\phi_0$ that may surround them. We numerically study the inspiraling equal-mass, non-spinning BBH systems dressed in such clouds, focusing especially on t...

Advanced LIGO-Virgo reported a short gravitational-wave signal (GW190521) interpreted as a quasi-circular merger of black holes, one populating the pair-instability supernova gap, forming a remnant black hole of $M_f\sim 142 M_\odot$ at a luminosity distance of $d_L \sim 5.3$ Gpc. With barely visible pre-merger emission, however, GW190521 merits fu...

We report a degeneracy between the gravitational-wave signals from quasi-circular precessing black-hole mergers and those from extremely eccentric mergers, namely head-on collisions. Performing model selection on numerically simulated signals of head-on collisions using models for quasi-circular binaries we find that, for signal-to-noise ratios con...

If ultralight bosonic fields exist in Nature as dark matter, superradiance spins down rotating black holes (BHs), dynamically endowing them with equilibrium bosonic clouds, here dubbed synchronised gravitational atoms (SGAs). The self-gravity of these same fields, on the other hand, can lump them into (scalar or vector) horizonless solitons known a...

Data streams of gravitational-wave detectors are polluted by transient noise features, or “glitches,” of instrumental and environmental origin. In this work we investigate the use of total variation methods and learned dictionaries to mitigate the effect of those transients in the data. We focus on a specific type of transient, “blip" glitches, as...

Gravitationally bound structures composed by fermions and scalar particles known as fermion-boson stars are regular and static configurations obtained by solving the coupled Einstein-Klein-Gordon-Euler (EKGE) system. In this work, we discuss one possible scenario through which thesefermion-boson stars may form by solving numerically the EKGE system...

This work establishes a relation between chiral anomalies in curved spacetimes and the radiative content of the gravitational field. In particular, we show that a flux of circularly polarized gravitational waves triggers the spontaneous creation of photons with net circular polarization from the quantum vacuum. Using waveform catalogs, we identify...

We analyze the properties of the gravitational wave signal emitted after the merger of a binary neutron star system when the remnant survives for more than a 80 ms (and up to 140 ms). We employ four different piecewise polytropic equations of state supplemented by an ideal fluid thermal component. We find that the postmerger phase can be subdivided...

We build equilibrium solutions of magnetized thick discs around a highly spinning Kerr black hole and evolve these initial data up to a final time of about 100 orbital periods. The numerical simulations reported in this paper solve the general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic equations using the bhac code and are performed in axisymmetry. Our study...

Data streams of gravitational-wave detectors are polluted by transient noise features, or "glitches", of instrumental and environmental origin. In this work, we investigate the use of total-variation methods and learned dictionaries to mitigate the effect of those transients in the data. We focus on a specific type of transient, "blip" glitches, as...

This work establishes a relation between chiral anomalies in curved spacetimes and the radiative content of the gravitational field. In particular, we show that a flux of circularly polarized gravitational waves triggers the spontaneous creation of photons with net circular polarization from the quantum vacuum. Using waveform catalogues we identify...

We build equilibrium solutions of magnetised thick discs around a highly spinning Kerr black hole and evolve these initial data up to a final time of about 100 orbital periods. The numerical simulations reported in this paper solve the general relativistic magnetohydrodynamics equations using the BHAC code and are performed in axisymmetry. Our stud...

We perform numerical evolutions of the fully nonlinear Einstein (complex, massive) Klein-Gordon and Einstein (complex) Proca systems, to assess the formation and stability of spinning bosonic stars. In the scalar (vector) case these are known as boson (Proca) stars. Firstly, we consider the formation scenario. Starting with constraint-obeying initi...

We analyze the properties of the gravitational wave signal emitted after the merger of a binary neutron star system when the remnant survives for more than a 80 ms (and up to 140ms). We employ four different piecewise polytropic equations of state supplemented by an ideal fluid thermal component. We find that the post-merger phase can be subdivided...

State-of-the-art numerical simulations of core-collapse supernovae reveal that the main source of gravitational waves is the excitation of protoneutron star modes during postbounce evolution. In this work we derive universal relations that relate the frequencies of the most common oscillation modes observed, i.e., g modes, p modes, and the f mode,...

We perform numerical evolutions of the fully non-linear Einstein-(complex, massive)Klein-Gordon and Einstein-(complex)Proca systems, to assess the formation and stability of spinning bosonic stars. In the scalar/vector case these are known as boson/Proca stars. Firstly, we consider the formation scenario. Starting with constraint-obeying initial da...

We investigate stationary, self-gravitating, magnetized disks (or tori) around black holes. The models are obtained by numerically solving the coupled system of the Einstein equations and the equations of ideal general-relativistic magnetohydrodynamics. The mathematical formulation and numerical aspects of our approach are similar to those reported...

The thermodynamical properties of the equation of state (EoS) of high-density matter (above nuclear saturation density) and the possible existence of exotic states such as phase transitions from nuclear/hadronic matter into quark-gluon plasma, or the appearance of hyperons, may critically influence the stability and dynamics of compact relativistic...

We investigate stationary, self-gravitating, magnetised disks (or tori) around black holes. The models are obtained by numerically solving the coupled system of the Einstein equations and the equations of ideal general-relativistic magnetohydrodynamics. The mathematical formulation and numerical aspects of our approach are similar to those reported...

State-of-the-art numerical simulations of core-collapse supernovae reveal that the main source of gravitational waves is the excitation of proto-neutron star modes during post-bounce evolution. In this work we derive universal relations that relate the frequencies of the most common oscillation modes observed, i.e. g-modes, p-modes and the f-mode,...

We show that in the post-merger phase of binary neutron star (BNS) merger are present conveccve instabiliies that excite inerral mode oscillaaons. These oscillaaons emit grav-itaaonal waves in the frequency band where ground-based detectors are within reach of planned third-generaaon detectors and could be used also as sensiive probes of the rota-a...

We present a new method for the classification of transient noise signals (or glitches) in advanced gravitational-wave interferometers. The method uses learned dictionaries (a supervised machine learning algorithm) for signal denoising, and untrained dictionaries for the final sparse reconstruction and classification. We use a data set of 3000 simu...

Testing the true nature of black holes—the no-hair hypothesis—will become increasingly more precise in the next few years as new observational data is collected in both the gravitational-wave channel and the electromagnetic channel. In this paper we consider numerically generated spacetimes of Kerr black holes with synchronized scalar hair and buil...

Improvements in ground-based advanced gravitational wave (GW) detectors may soon allow us to observe the GW signal of a nearby core-collapse supernova. For most progenitors, likely with slowly rotating cores, the dominant GW emission mechanisms are the post-bounce oscillations of the proto-neutron star (PNS) before the explosion. We present a new p...

Proca stars, aka vector boson stars, are self-gravitating Bose-Einstein condensates obtained as numerical stationary solutions of the Einstein-(complex)-Proca system. These solitonic objects can achieve a compactness comparable to that of black holes, thus yielding an example of a black hole mimicker, which, moreover, can be both stable and form dy...

We present TEOBResumS, a new effective-one-body (EOB) waveform model for nonprecessing (spin-aligned) and tidally interacting compact binaries. Spin-orbit and spin-spin effects are blended together by making use of the concept of centrifugal EOB radius. The point-mass sector through merger and ringdown is informed by numerical relativity (NR) simul...

Testing the true nature of black holes - the no-hair hypothesis - will become increasingly more precise in the next few years as new observational data is collected in both the gravitational wave channel and the electromagnetic channel. In this paper we consider numerically generated spacetimes of Kerr black holes with synchronised scalar hair and...

We present a new method for the classification of transient noise signals (or glitches) in advanced gravitational-wave interferometers. The method uses learned dictionaries (a supervised machine learning algorithm) for signal denoising, and untrained dictionaries for the final sparse reconstruction and classification. We use a data set of 3000 simu...

We assess total-variation methods to denoise gravitational-wave signals in real noise conditions by injecting numerical-relativity waveforms from core-collapse supernovae and binary black hole mergers in data from the first observing run of Advanced LIGO. This work is an extension of our previous investigation in which only Gaussian noise was used....

Extended scalar-tensor Gauss-Bonnet (ESTGB) gravity has been recently argued to exhibit spontaneous scalarization of vacuum black holes (BHs). A similar phenomenon can be expected in a larger class of models, which includes, e.g., Einstein-Maxwell scalar (EMS) models, where spontaneous scalarization of electrovacuum BHs should occur. EMS models hav...

Improvements in ground-based, advanced gravitational wave (GW) detectors may allow in the near future to observe the GW signal of a nearby core-collapse supernova. For the most common type of progenitors, likely with slowly rotating cores, the dominant GW emission mechanisms are the post-bounce oscillations of the proto-neutron star (PNS) before th...

Proca stars, $\textit{aka}$ vector boson stars, are self-gravitating Bose-Einstein condensates obtained as numerical stationary solutions of the Einstein-(complex)-Proca system. These solitonic objects can achieve a compactness comparable to that of black holes, thus yielding an example of a black hole mimicker, which, moreover, can be both stable...

We assess total-variation methods to denoise gravitational-wave signals in real noise conditions, by injecting numerical-relativity waveforms from core-collapse supernovae and binary black hole mergers in data from the first observing run of Advanced LIGO. This work is an extension of our previous investigation where only Gaussian noise was used. S...

The grand challenges of contemporary fundamental physics---dark matter, dark energy, vacuum energy, inflation and early universe cosmology, singularities and the hierarchy problem---all involve gravity as a key component. And of all gravitational phenomena, black holes stand out in their elegant simplicity, while harbouring some of the most remarka...

Extended scalar-tensor-Gauss-Bonnet (eSTGB) gravity has been recently argued to exhibit spontaneous scalarisation of vacuum black holes (BHs). A similar phenomenon can be expected in a larger class of models, which includes e.g. Einstein-Maxwell-scalar (EMS) models, where spontaneous scalarisation of electrovacuum BHs should occur. EMS models have...

The thermodynamical properties of the equation of state (EoS) of high-density matter (above nuclear saturation density) and the possible existence of exotic states such as phase transitions from nuclear/hadronic matter into quark-gluon plasma, may critically influence the stability and dynamics of compact relativistic stars. From a theoretical poin...

We present TEOBResumS, a new effective-one-body (EOB) waveform model for nonprecessing (spin-aligned) and tidally interacting compact binaries.Spin-orbit and spin-spin effects are blended together by making use of the concept of centrifugal EOB radius. The point-mass sector through merger and ringdown is informed by numerical relativity (NR) simula...

On August 17, 2017, the LIGO and Virgo observatories made the first direct detection of gravitational waves from the coalescence of a neutron star binary system. The detection of this gravitational wave signal, GW170817, offers a novel opportunity to directly probe the properties of matter at the extreme conditions found in the interior of these st...

On August 17, 2017, the Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo gravitational-wave detectors observed a low-mass compact binary inspiral. The initial sky localization of the source of the gravitational-wave signal, GW170817, allowed electromagnetic observatories to identify NGC 4993 as the host galaxy. In this work we improve initial estimates of the bina...

The detection of gravitational waves with Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo has enabled novel tests of general relativity, including direct study of the polarization of gravitational waves. While general relativity allows for only two tensor gravitational-wave polarizations, general metric theories can additionally predict two vector and two scalar...

We report on a new all-sky search for periodic gravitational waves in the frequency band 475–2000 Hz and with a frequency time derivative in the range of [−1.0,+0.1]×10−8 Hz/s. Potential signals could be produced by a nearby spinning and slightly nonaxisymmetric isolated neutron star in our Galaxy. This search uses the data from Advanced LIGO’s fir...

We perform fully non-linear numerical simulations within the spherically symmetric Einstein-(complex)Proca system. Starting with Proca field distributions that obey the Hamiltonian, momentum and Gaussian constraints, we show that the self-gravity of the system induces the formation of compact objects, which, for appropriate initial conditions, asym...

We investigate relativistic low angular momentum accretion of inviscid perfect fluid onto a Schwarzschild black hole. The simulations are performed with a general-relativistic, high-resolution (second-order), shock-capturing, hydrodynamical numerical code. We use horizon-penetrating Eddington-Finkelstein coordinates to remove inaccuracies in region...

The LIGO Scientific and Virgo Collaborations have announced the event GW170817, the first detection of gravitational waves from the coalescence of two neutron stars. The merger rate of binary neutron stars estimated from this event suggests that distant, unresolvable binary neutron stars create a significant astrophysical stochastic gravitational-w...

The detection of gravitational waves with Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo has enabled novel tests of general relativity, including direct study of the polarization of gravitational waves. While general relativity allows for only two tensor gravitational-wave polarizations, general metric theories can additionally predict two vector and two scalar...

We report on a new all-sky search for periodic gravitational waves in the frequency band 475-2000 Hz and with a frequency time derivative in the range of [-1.0e-8, +1e-9] Hz/s. Potential signals could be produced by a nearby spinning and slightly non-axisymmetric isolated neutron star in our galaxy. This search uses the data from Advanced LIGO's fi...

We present the first very long-term simulations of binary neutron star mergers with piecewise polytropic equations of state and in full general relativity. Our simulations reveal that at a time of 30-50 ms after merger, parts of the star become convectively unstable, which triggers the excitation of inertial modes. The excited inertial modes are su...

Spinning neutron stars asymmetric with respect to their rotation axis are potential sources of continuous gravitational waves for ground-based interferometric detectors. In the case of known pulsars a fully coherent search, based on matched filtering, which uses the position and rotational parameters obtained from electromagnetic observations, can...

The first observation of a binary neutron star (NS) coalescence by the Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo gravitational-wave (GW) detectors offers an unprecedented opportunity to study matter under the most extreme conditions. After such a merger, a compact remnant is left over whose nature depends primarily on the masses of the inspiraling objects a...

On 2017 August 17 the merger of two compact objects with masses consistent with two neutron stars was discovered through gravitational-wave (GW170817), gamma-ray (GRB 170817A), and optical (SSS17a/AT 2017gfo) observations. The optical source was associated with the early-type galaxy NGC 4993 at a distance of just ~40 Mpc, consistent with the gravit...

The Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo observatories recently discovered gravitational waves from a binary neutron star inspiral. A short gamma-ray burst (GRB) that followed the merger of this binary was also recorded by the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (Fermi-GBM), and the Anti-Coincidence Shield for the Spectrometer for the International Gamma-Ray...

Magneto-elastic oscillations of neutron stars are believed to explain the observed quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) in the decaying tail of the giant flares of highly magnetized neutron stars (magnetars). Strong efforts by theoretical modeling from different groups have increased our understanding of this phenomenon significantly. Here we discuss...

On June 8, 2017 at 02:01:16.49 UTC, a gravitational-wave signal from the merger of two stellar-mass black holes was observed by the two Advanced LIGO detectors with a network signal-to-noise ratio of 13. This system is the lightest black hole binary so far observed, with component masses $12^{+7}_{-2}\,M_\odot$ and $7^{+2}_{-2}\,M_\odot$ (90% credi...

On 17 August 2017, the Advanced LIGO1 and Virgo2 detectors observed the gravitational-wave event GW170817—a strong signal from the merger of a binary neutron-star system3. Less than two seconds after the merger, a γ-ray burst (GRB 170817A) was detected within a region of the sky consistent with the LIGO–Virgo-derived location of the gravitational-w...

The first observation of a binary neutron star coalescence by the Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo gravitational-wave detectors offers an unprecedented opportunity to study matter under the most extreme conditions. After such a merger, a compact remnant is left over whose nature depends primarily on the masses of the inspiralling objects and on the...

On 2017 August 17, the gravitational-wave event GW170817 was observed by the Advanced LIGO and Virgo detectors, and the gamma-ray burst (GRB) GRB 170817A was observed independently by the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor, and the Anti-Coincidence Shield for the Spectrometer for the International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory. The probability of th...

The detection of GW170817 (ref. 1) heralds the age of gravitational-wave multi-messenger astronomy, with the observations of gravitational-wave and electromagnetic emission from the same transient source. On 17 August 2017 the network of Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) and Virgo detectors observed GW170817, a str...

The source of the gravitational-wave signal GW170817, very likely a binary neutron star merger, was also observed electromagnetically, providing the first multi-messenger observations of this type. The two week long electromagnetic counterpart had a signature indicative of an r-process-induced optical transient known as a kilonova. This Letter exam...

On 2017 August 17 a binary neutron star coalescence candidate (later designated GW170817) with merger time 12:41:04 UTC was observed through gravitational waves by the Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo detectors. The Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor independently detected a gamma-ray burst (GRB 170817A) with a time delay of with respect to the merger t...

On 2017 August 17, the gravitational-wave event GW170817 was observed by the Advanced LIGO and Virgo detectors, and the gamma-ray burst (GRB) GRB 170817A was observed independently by the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor, and the Anti-Coincidence Shield for the Spectrometer for the International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory. The probability of th...

On August 17, 2017 at 12∶41:04 UTC the Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo gravitational-wave detectors made their first observation of a binary neutron star inspiral. The signal, GW170817, was detected with a combined signal-to-noise ratio of 32.4 and a false-alarm-rate estimate of less than one per 8.0×104 years. We infer the component masses of the...

The source of the gravitational-wave signal GW170817, very likely a binary neutron star merger, was also observed electromagnetically, providing the first multi-messenger observations of this type. The two week long electromagnetic counterpart had a signature indicative of an r-process-induced optical transient known as a kilonova. This Letter exam...

On August 17, 2017 the merger of two compact objects with masses consistent with two neutron stars was discovered through gravitational-wave (GW170817), gamma-ray (GRB170817A), and optical (SSS17a/AT 2017gfo) observations. The optical source was associated with the early-type galaxy NGC 4993 at a distance of just $\sim$40 Mpc, consistent with the g...

The LIGO Scientific and Virgo Collaborations have announced the first detection of gravitational waves from the coalescence of two neutron stars. The merger rate of binary neutron stars estimated from this event suggests that distant, unresolvable binary neutron stars create a significant astrophysical stochastic gravitational-wave background. The...

On August 14, 2017 at 10∶30:43 UTC, the Advanced Virgo detector and the two Advanced LIGO detectors coherently observed a transient gravitational-wave signal produced by the coalescence of two stellar mass black holes, with a false-alarm rate of ≲1 in 27 000 years. The signal was observed with a three-detector network matched-filter signal-to-noise...

Spinning neutron stars asymmetric with respect to their rotation axis are potential sources of continuous gravitational waves for ground-based interferometric detectors. In the case of known pulsars a fully coherent search, based on matched filtering, which uses the position and rotational parameters obtained from electromagnetic observations, can...