José M Facelli

José M Facelli
University of Adelaide · School of Biological Sciences

Dr (PhD Ecology and Evolution)

About

138
Publications
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Publications

Publications (138)
Article
Full-text available
Aims Invasion by exotic species commonly influences the structure and diversity of natural grasslands particularly in fertile soils. This study examined the effect of resource availability on intra- and interspecific competition between a native and an exotic grass, and provides mechanistic explanations for the successful invasion of exotic species...
Preprint
It is unknown how the combined effects of host size and water availability influence parasitic plant:host associations. This is a major gap considering that parasitic plants would frequently encounter hosts of different size growing in different water conditions in nature. In a glasshouse experiment, small or large Ulex europaeus (major invasive ho...
Preprint
There is increasing evidence that native parasitic plants are showing potential as biocontrols for plant invasions which are a major global threat to biodiversity. However, for this potential to be realised, the range of invasive hosts that can be controlled needs to be identified while also evaluating any potential off-target effects the parasite...
Preprint
Plant invasions are a major global threat to biodiversity. Traditional methods of weed control are falling short, and novel and environmentally friendly control tools are needed. Native parasitic plants are showing promise as effective biocontrols for some of the worst weeds, however, their application is in its infancy. First, we established the n...
Article
Full-text available
Questions In Mediterranean-type systems, invasive C3 annual grasses appear early in the season and can pre-empt resources and attain a competitive dominance over native perennial grasses. Here, we investigated whether planting C3 and C4 native grasses 1) combined - so that resources are extracted over a longer period - or 2) at higher density would...
Article
Phosphorus (P) is an essential plant nutrient and can become limiting in terrestrial ecosystems where parasitic plant:host associations occur. Yet little is known on how P availability influences parasite performance and its impact on hosts. We investigated the performance of the Australian native stem hemiparasite Cassytha pubescens and its impact...
Article
Plant communities within many of the world’s waterways are losing diversity where flows are stabilised for security and enriched from land-use intensification. Understanding the phenotypic plasticity of plant species that protect and/or store their below-ground biomass during floods may help to promote them if problematic, overabundant species – li...
Article
Full-text available
Mistletoes are epiphytic hemiparasitic plants that are known to negatively affect the growth of their hosts, increase tree mortality, and as a consequence change the community dynamics. Mistletoe alters the mineral nutrition of the host and the nutrient cycle in the soil. In the present study, the elemental nutrient status is described for Acacia a...
Article
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In severely degraded systems active restoration is required to overcome legacies of past land use and to create conditions that promote the establishment of target plant communities. While our understanding of the importance of soil microbial communities in ecological restoration is growing, few studies have looked at the impacts different site pre...
Article
In South Australia, Swamps of the Fleurieu Peninsula are critically endangered due to past vegetation clearance and changes in hydrology, but still contain a high diversity of threatened plant species. This vegetation community provides habitat for 82 threatened ground‐stratum plant species, including the nationally critically endangered subshrub H...
Article
Stem hemiparasites are dependent on their hosts for water and nitrogen. Most studies, however, assess the influence of one factor on parasite:host associations, thus limiting our mechanistic understanding of their performance in nature. We investigated the combined effects of water and nitrogen (N) availability on both host (Ulex europaeus) and par...
Article
Plant invasions cause biodiversity loss and degradation in ecosystems worldwide. The invasive species involved may be introduced, or native invaders, and controlling them is a major global challenge. Here, we highlight an emerging role for native parasitic plants in suppressing invasive species, thus aiding in restoration of affected habitats. Comp...
Article
Brown oak (Quercus semecarpifolia) forest is essential for ecological and socio‐economic functions, mainly grazing in the Himalayas. The tree has failed to regenerate naturally and is a threatened species. Restoration of brown oaks is crucial to ensure sustainability while maintaining livestock grazing in these habitats. Achieving this requires cos...
Article
Full-text available
Few studies have examined how parasite impact is affected by host size. In a glasshouse experiment, we investigated the impact of the Australian native hemiparasitic vine, Cassytha pubescens, on a major invasive shrub, Ulex europaeus, of different sizes. Infected plants had significantly lower total, shoot and root biomass, but the parasite's impac...
Article
We investigated the responses of two invasive and two native host species to the parasitic vine Cassytha pubescens R.Br. using glasshouse experiments. We assessed growth of the parasite and its hosts, and anatomy and functionality of haustoria. Target hosts were infected using C. pubescens already established on a donor host. This enabled measureme...
Article
Aim Biological soil crust (BSC) is a key component of arid environments and plays a major role in determining ecological structure and function. Our research aim was to examine several mechanisms that contribute to BSC–plant interactions at species and community levels, to increase our understanding of plant community dynamics. Location Yellabinna...
Article
Full-text available
Identification and assessment of socio-cultural values of ecosystem services are increasingly important for the planning and management of forest resources. Key information necessary is how different forest user groups perceive and prioritize different ecosystem services based on their local setting. We assessed the socio-cultural values of ecosyst...
Article
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Aims Plant responses to soil-borne pathogens may be modified by neighbouring plants of other species that suppress or support the pathogen without suffering any strong effects. We assessed how the effects of the soil-borne pathogen Phytophthora cinnamomi on three susceptible species (Xanthorrhoea semiplana, Eucalyptus sieberi and Allocasuarina muel...
Article
Full-text available
Background and aims The importance of plant-soil feedback is becoming widely acknowledged; however, how different soil conditions influence these interactions is still relatively unknown. Using soil from a degraded old-field and a remnant grassland, we aimed to explore home-field advantages in plant-soil feedbacks and plant responses to the abiotic...
Article
Large-scale drought and wet phases, via ecosystem responses, can significantly influence the global atmospheric carbon budget. Australian landscapes, dominated by arid and semi-arid rangelands, play an important role in this regard. In this study, temporal variation of monthly Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) of two rangelands with dif...
Article
Increasing evidence from glasshouse studies shows that native hemiparasitic plants can significantly impact the performance and growth of introduced host plants. We investigated the effect of the native Australian hemiparasite Cassytha pubescens R.Br. on the introduced shrub Ulex europaeus L. at three field sites in South Australia. Parasite infect...
Article
Full-text available
Alteration of the soil microbial communities can have important effects on plant invasion. The interdependence between plants and soil microbes could generate complex dynamics in which the composition of plant communities is regulated by the feedbacks of microbial communities on plant growth. In a greenhouse experiment we tested whether the soil mi...
Article
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Below-ground interactions between soil microbial communities and plants play important roles in shaping plant community structure, but are currently poorly understood. Understanding these processes has important practical implications, including for restoration. In this study, we investigated whether soil microbes from remnant areas can aid the res...
Article
Full-text available
Associations between plants and nitrogen (N)-fixing rhizobia intensify with decreasing N supply and come at a carbon cost to the host. However, what additional impact parasitic plants have on their leguminous hosts' carbon budget in terms of effects on host physiology and growth is unknown. Under glasshouse conditions, Ulex europaeus and Acacia par...
Article
Full-text available
Knowledge regarding the use of groundwater by plants has implications for successful mine rehabilitation and revegetation programs in water-limited environments. In this study we combined several approaches to investigate water sources used by Acacia papyrocarpa (Western myall) in the far west of South Australia, including stable isotopes, water po...
Article
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Invasive non-native plants are a major driver of native biodiversity loss, yet native biodiversity can sometimes benefit from non-native species. Depending on habitat context, even the same non-native species can have positive and negative effects on biodiversity. Blackberry (Rubus fruticosus aggregate) is a useful model organism to better understa...
Article
Background and aims: There have been very few studies investigating the influence of light on the effects of hemiparasitic plants on their hosts, despite the fact that hemiparasites are capable of photosynthesis but also access carbon (C) from their host. In this study we manipulated light availability to limit photosynthesis in an established hem...
Article
Full-text available
Environmental factors alter the impacts of parasitic plants on their hosts. However, there have been no controlled studies on how water availability modulates stem hemiparasites' effects on hosts. A glasshouse experiment was conducted to investigate the association between the Australian native stem hemiparasite Cassytha pubescens and the introduce...
Article
Plants infected with hemiparasites often have lowered rates of photosynthesis, which could make them more susceptible to photodamage. However, it is also possible that infected plants increase their photoprotective capacity by changing their pigment content and/or engagement of the xanthophyll cycle. There are no published studies investigating inf...
Article
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Habitat fragmentation, through land clearing, has been attributed in the demise of many species of plants and animals throughout the world (Kinzig and Harte 2000). Not surprisingly, much research effort has been devoted toward understanding the dynamics of populations subject to fragmentation.
Article
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Of the 300 species of orchids recorded in South Australia, over one-third have been listed as vulner- able, rare, or endangered (Barker et al. 2005). While direct habitat loss is likely to be the major cause for reductions in the former ranges of species, indirect consequences of habitat fragmentation may be responsible for the continued decline of...
Article
Full-text available
In arid regions many tree species develop broad crowns. A number of hypotheses involve trade-offs between growth in height and horizontal spreading, but there is no explanation for the switch from vertical to horizontal growth during development. Using Acacia papyrocarpa Benth as a model, we measured tree height and crown shape across different sit...
Article
Patchiness is a critical functional feature of arid lands, increasing productivity and diversity, but there is little information on the long-term dynamics of patch formation. While plant-created heterogeneity is widespread, grazing reduces plant density, hence removing patchiness. Patchiness is also associated with fallen logs and it is particular...
Article
Physical dormancy is common in seeds of arid-land legumes. Improved understanding of germination requirements of hard-seeded species will further our understanding of arid lands and aid restoration projects. We studied the germination responses of Acacia papyrocarpa (Benth.), A. oswaldii (F.Muell) and Senna artemisioides (Gaudich. ex DC.) Randell s...
Article
We investigated the physiology that underlies the influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) colonization on outcomes of interactions between plants. We grew Medicago truncatula A17 and its AM-defective mutant dmi1 in intragenotypic (two plants per pot of the same genotype, x2) or intergenotypic (one plant of each genotype, 1+1) combinations, inocula...
Article
While numerous studies focus on heterogeneity created by living plants and animal diggings in arid lands, little information exists on the pattern and role of heterogeneity created by large woody debris. We studied soil nutrient content, volumetric water content, and vegetation associated with the presence of logs in sites subject to different graz...
Article
Full-text available
We aimed to enhance understanding of the molecular diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) by building a new global dataset targeting previously unstudied geographical areas. In total, we sampled 96 plant species from 25 sites that encompassed all continents except Antarctica. AMF in plant roots were detected by sequencing the nuclear SSU r...
Article
Full-text available
Most plant species have a range of traits that deter herbivores. However, understanding of how different defences are related to one another is surprisingly weak. Many authors argue that defence traits trade off against one another, while others argue that they form coordinated defence syndromes. We collected a dataset of unprecedented taxonomic an...
Article
Thirty‐seven South Australian native plant species from 11 families, including 15 threatened species in the state (of which six are listed as threatened under the federal Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999) were assessed for response to infection by Phytophthora cinnamomi. Seedlings, 3–6 months old and grown in a greenhou...
Article
Dispersal is a major and critical process in population biology that has been particularly challenging to study. Animals can have major roles in seed dispersal even in species that do not appear specifically adapted to animal-aided dispersal. This can occur by two processes: direct movement of diaspores by animals and modification of landscape char...
Article
Full-text available
Aims To study the relationship between changes in soil properties and plant community characters produced by grazing in a meadow steppe grassland and the composition and diversity of spore-producing arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Methods A field survey was carried out in a meadow steppe area with a gradient of grazing pressures (a site with f...
Chapter
Nature is pervaded by variation: the physical environment is ever changing in time and in space, populations fluctuate, and no two organisms are the same. To explore natural environments is to be confronted by variation, and the science of ecology is challenged by the persistent question: is this variation more than variation itself? Environmental...
Article
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• It has long been believed that plant species from the tropics have higher levels of traits associated with resistance to herbivores than do species from higher latitudes. A meta-analysis recently showed that the published literature does not support this theory. However, the idea has never been tested using data gathered with consistent methods f...
Article
Abstract Interactions between species pairs are almost always mediated by interactions with other species. The outcomes of these multispecies interactions are often difficult to predict and are rarely studied. In addition to their theoretical importance, multispecies interactions are also important for management situations. Where multiple agents a...
Article
Full-text available
• It has long been believed that plant species from the tropics have higher levels of traits associated with resistance to herbivores than do species from higher latitudes. A meta-analysis recently showed that the published literature does not support this theory. However, the idea has never been tested using data gathered with consistent methods f...
Article
Despite comparatively good rates of pollination and seed production, some populations of the endangered terrestrial orchid Caladenia rigida continue to decline. To determine whether seed quality may be limiting reproductive potential, we assessed seed viability among declining populations of C. rigida (in the southern part of its distribution) and...
Article
Full-text available
Predominant frameworks for understanding plant ecology have an aboveground bias that neglects soil micro-organisms. This is inconsistent with recent work illustrating the importance of soil microbes in terrestrial ecology. Microbial effects have been incorporated into plant community dynamics using ideas of niche modification and plant-soil communi...
Article
*We studied the effects of two arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, singly or together, on the outcome of competition between a host (tomato cultivar, wild-type (WT)) and a surrogate nonhost (rmc, a mycorrhiza-defective mutant of WT) as influenced by the contributions of the direct and AM phosphorus (P) uptake pathways to plant P. *We grew plants sin...
Article
We investigated secondary dispersal of propagules of Erodiophyllum elderi (Asteraceae), a short-lived perennial plant growing in small patches in the arid lands of southern Australia. In spite of its importance for population dynamics, secondary dispersal is a little understood process. We monitored the dispersal of 2280 large woody capitula (seed...
Article
Infection with Cassytha pubescens R. Br, an Australian native hemiparasitic plant, can lead to death of the invasive shrub, Cytisus scoparius L. Link (Scotch broom). We examined the influence of C. pubescens on photosynthetic physiology of C. scoparius to determine whether this might contribute to death of infected plants. Infected C. scoparius had...
Article
Full-text available
We studied how leaf litter, water and fungal pathogens affect the establishment, survivorship, and growth of Eucalyptus obliqua using glasshouse and field experiments. In a glasshouse experiment, the presence of leaf litter of E. obliqua increased the establishment of seedlings when the seeds were placed beneath the litter, but dense litter layers...
Article
While the abundance of some plant species decreases under high grazing intensity, others become more abundant. Release from competition by decreaser species contributes to this pattern in mesic systems, but this may not be the case in xeric systems where competition may be less intense. Here we examine three mechanisms that may be involved: (i) inc...
Article
We tested the following hypotheses forthe first five years of a grassland succession: (a) community changes are mainly directional and related to time after disturbance ratherthanto environmental fluctuations; (b) rates of succession decrease over time, and (c) plant communities in different plots converge on a similar composition within five years...
Article
Herbivory is considered a major threat in many of the orchid-species recovery plans in Australia. Kangaroos and rabbits are the most commonly implicated herbivores; however, no studies have attempted to confirm their role. Regular monitoring of several populations of Caladenia rigida R.S.Rogers and C. tentaculata Schldl. during 3 years in the Mount...
Article
Orchids of the genus Caladenia have been shown to utilise two quite different pollination strategies, namely species-specific sexual deception of thynnine wasps and a more generalist strategy attracting a larger spectrum of foraging insects. While baiting techniques have enabled the identification of numerous pollinators of sexually deceptive Calad...
Article
Full-text available
While invasive species may escape from natural enemies in the new range, the establishment of novel biotic interactions with species native to the invaded range can determine their success. Biological control of plant populations can be achieved by manipulation of a species' enemies in the invaded range. Interactions were therefore investigated bet...
Article
1. Perennial plants have been shown to facilitate understorey annual plant species in arid lands through the modification of spatial patterns of resources and conditions. This effect can result from a balance between simultaneously positive and negative interactions, both direct and indirect. This balance may shift with temporal variability in wate...
Article
Litter may indirectly affect competitive interactions. It is not clear whether these changes are additive or non-additive indirect effects. Non-additivity could result from: (1) changes in biomass allocation patterns by competitors towards organs not directly involved in resource acquisition (e.g., longer hypocotyls); (2) changes in the proportion...
Conference Paper
Background/Question/Methods When species partition the temporal dimension through their responses to a changing physical environment, species coexistence may occur by the storage effect. Such coexistence relies on storage in a population of the fruits of favorable periods. It requires also covariance over time between environmental favorability a...
Article
Abstract Invasion by Mediterranean annual grasses, such as Avena L. spp. and Bronms L. spp, is one of the major threats to temperate perennial grassland. This study investigated the effects of annual grasses and their litter on the species composition of a grassland near Burra, South Australia. The placement of annual grass litter on soil samples i...
Article
Abstract We studied the germination of seeds of Carrichtera annua L. from a single cohort, stored in the field for up to 18 months, when retrieved at different times and subject to different combinations of temperature and water availability. Germination was affected by season of retrieval, and temperature and water availability in a complex intera...
Article
Introduction Seedlings are particularly susceptible to harsh conditions. Indeed, the seedling stage is considered to be the most vulnerable stage in the life of the plant (Stebbins, 1971; Fenner, 1987; Fenner & Thompson 2005) because even small reductions in biomass may lead to the death of the plant (Dirzo, 1985; Fenner & Thompson, 2005). Selectio...
Article
This study investigated the impacts of one of Australia's most serious environmental weeds, bridal creeper (Asparagus asparagoides), on a diverse native ground-cover plant community in Eucalyptus woodland. Bridal creeper is a creeping geophyte with an extensive root system of tuber-bearing rhizomes that has the potential to cover large areas of gro...
Article
Abstract In spite of numerous studies on the effect of nutrient levels and/or standing crop on the intensity of resource competition the debate has not been resolved. Field studies that have used natural productivity gradients have generally supported the argument that competitive intensity and resource availability are positively correlated, where...