Jose Cortina

Jose Cortina
Virginia Commonwealth University | VCU · Department of Management

About

86
Publications
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13,937
Citations

Publications

Publications (86)
Article
Climate strength is often included in organizational climate models, however, its role in such models remains unclear. We propose that the inconsistent findings regarding the effects of climate strength are due in part to its complicated relationship with climate level. Specifically, we propose that the relationship between level and strength is he...
Article
Models that combine moderation and mediation are increasingly common. One such model is that in which one variable causes another variable that, in turn, moderates the relationship between two other variables. There are many recent examples of these Endogenous Moderator Models (EMMs). They bear little superficial resemblance to second-stage moderat...
Article
One of the most important methods that psychological scientists use to understand behavior and cognition is theorizing. Increasingly, theorizing is used to support not only additive hypotheses, but also multiplicative ones. And yet, authors often struggle to provide adequate theoretical justifications for multiplicative hypotheses. In the late 1960...
Article
Full-text available
The psychometric soundness of measures has been a central concern of articles published in the Journal of Applied Psychology (JAP) since the inception of the journal. At the same time, it isn't clear that investigators and reviewers prioritize psychometric soundness to a degree that would allow one to have sufficient confidence in conclusions regar...
Article
Latent variable models and interaction effects have both been common in the organizational sciences for some time. Methods for incorporating interactions into latent variable models have existed since at least Kenny and Judd, and a great many articles and books have developed these methods further. In the present article, we present an empirical re...
Article
Mischel's (1973, 1977) theory of situational strength has been used widely within the organizational sciences to help explain why contextual factors moderate predictor-criterion relationships. Situational strength interactions represent a particular type known as a restricted variance (RV) interaction (Cortina, Köhler, & Nielsen, 2015). The theory...
Article
Replication is an essential part of any science, confirming or adjusting our understanding of the world through repeated exploration of a phenomenon of interest. While there has been an increased interest in the role of replication studies, there also exists skepticism regarding the need for more replication. Our empirical analysis of 406 recent st...
Article
Although interaction hypotheses are increasingly common in our field, many recent articles point out that authors often have difficulty justifying them. The purpose of this article is to describe a particular type of interaction: the restricted variance (RV) interaction. The essence of the RV interaction is that, as the value of one variable in a s...
Article
Full-text available
In light of renewed debate regarding publication rigor and ethics, this commentary raises questions about the subjectivity of the peer review process. We argue that the same biases organizational scientists consider as topics of our research—such as confirmation bias, negative bias, anchoring and adjustment, overconfidence bias, and social dynamics...
Article
We offer a critical review and synthesis of research methods in the first century of the Journal of Applied Psychology. We divide the chronology into 6 periods. The first emphasizes the first few issues of the journal, which, in many ways, set us on a methodological course that we sail to this day, and then takes us through the mid-1920s. The secon...
Article
Advances in data science, such as data mining, data visualization, and machine learning, are extremely well-suited to address numerous questions in the organizational sciences given the explosion of available data. Despite these opportunities, few scholars in our field have discussed the specific ways in which the lens of our science should be brou...
Article
Structural equation modeling (SEM) has been a staple of the organizational sciences for decades. It is common to report degrees of freedom (df) for tested models, and it should be possible for a reader to recreate df for any model in a published paper. We reviewed 784 models from 75 papers published in top journals in order to understand df-related...
Article
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Usage of models integrating mediation and moderation is on the rise in the organizational sciences. While moderation and mediation are fairly well understood by themselves, additional complexities emerge when combining them. Some guidance exists regarding the empirical testing of such models, but this guidance is widely misunderstood. Furthermore,...
Article
Over the last 50 years, the organizational sciences have gone from being largely atheoretical to relying heavily on theory. For various reasons, our approach to theory building has strayed from the principles of scientific acceptability. In this paper, I explore the problems with our approach to theory, the systemic causes of these problems, and th...
Article
Researchers have become increasingly interested in conducting analyses on meta-analytic correlation matrices. Methodologists have provided guidance and recommended practices for the application of this technique. The purpose of this article is to review current practices regarding analyzing meta-analytic correlation matrices, to identify the gaps b...
Article
This study empirically examined the statistical and methodological issues raised in the reviewing process to determine what the “gatekeepers” of the literature, the reviewers and editors, really say about methodology when making decisions to accept or reject manuscripts. Three hundred and four editors’ and reviewers’ letters for 69 manuscripts subm...
Book
The amount of data in our world has been exploding, and analyzing large data sets-so called big data-will become a key basis of competition in business. Statisticians and researchers will be updating their analytic approaches, methods and research to meet the demands created by the availability of big data. The goal of this book is to show how adva...
Article
Full-text available
In light of the prevalent experience, theoretical importance, and underexamination of the intersection of pregnancy and work, the current study explores how pregnant employees manage their concealable stigmatized identities at work over the course of pregnancy. Using a weekly survey methodology, we were able to examine within-person changes in iden...
Article
Full-text available
A recent Journal of International Business Studies editorial on interaction effects within and across levels highlighted the importance of and difficulty associated with justifying and reporting of such interaction effects. The purpose of this editorial is to describe a type of interaction hypothesis that is very common in international business (I...
Article
The formulae for attenuation correction in meta-analysis treat reliabilities as if they were independent of each other. The current study puts this assumption of independence to the test by empirically examining the correlation among predictor and criterion reliability estimates across studies. Interdependence of reliabilities would result in eithe...
Article
The amount of information (data) that is generated by individuals (both within and outside of their employing organizations) may seem overwhelming at times. For example, in 2010 Eric Schmidt was serving as the Chief Executive Officer at Google and has been quoted as saying, “There were 5 exabytes of information created between the dawn of civilizat...
Article
Sleepiness, the biological drive to sleep, is an important construct for the organizational sciences. This physiological phenomenon has received very little attention in the organizational science literature in spite of the fact that it influences a wide variety of workplace behaviors. In this article, we develop a framework through which sleepines...
Article
The current meta-analysis examines the relationship between shared leadership and team performance. It also assesses the role of team confidence (i.e., collective efficacy and team potency) in this relationship. Mediation analyses supported the hypothesis that team confidence partially mediates the effects of shared leadership on team performance....
Article
Graduate training in industrial and organizational (I–O) psychology has long prepared students with skills and knowledge that are highly valued by employers, both in practice and academe alike. Our article, based on a panel discussion, explores what aspects of graduate training are sought out by employers in multiple fields, what new I–O hires need...
Article
Full-text available
The actions of organizational leaders are important determinants of the emergence, management, and consequences of employee emotional experience. However, the nature and dimensionality of leader emotion management and the behaviors that constitute such management are largely unknown. The authors present a comprehensive, theoretically-derived model...
Chapter
Full-text available
Personnel selection is one of the cornerstones of I/O psychology. In the first edition of this volume in the Handbook of Psychology, Schmitt, Cortina, Ingerick, and Weichmann published a comprehensive review of the existing personnel selection literature. In this second edition update, which includes approximately 240 new references, we sought to a...
Article
Continued discussion and debate regarding the appropriate use of null hypothesis significance testing (NHST) has led to greater reliance on effect size testing (EST) in published literature. This article examines the myth that uncritical replacement of NHST with EST will improve our science. The use of NHST and EST is described along with a summary...
Article
Reports an error in "Conscientiousness and reactions to psychological contract breach: A longitudinal field study" by Karin A. Orvis, Nicole M. Dudley and Jose M. Cortina (Journal of Applied Psychology, 2008[Sep], Vol 93[5], 1183-1193). Six correlations in Table 1 on page 1187 are incorrectly reported. A corrected table is presented in the erratum,...
Article
The central premise of this article is that organizations have social and economic interests in building policies and practices that support lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgendered (LGBT) workers. This argument is based on empirical evidence that (a) LGBT workers continue to face discrimination at work from which they are not protected under fede...
Article
This response highlights the common themes across the commentaries that reflect both opportunities and barriers to the successful creation of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgendered supportive organizations. In addition, in the interest of comprehensiveness, we describe additional perspectives and points that were not offered in the dialogue. Fin...
Chapter
Full-text available
The purpose of this chapter is to review recent research on two performance dimensions that represent departures from traditional job performance models: adaptive performance and citizenship performance. For each of these dimensions, we begin by offering definitions that clarify their nature and their distinctiveness. We then review research on dis...
Chapter
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Imagine a situation in which an innocent researcher wishes to explain variance in some critical criterion variable. For expedience, he uses only a single predictor in his validation study. After data collection, the researcher observes a rather unimpressive correlation (e.g., r xy =.10 ). The researcher then explains in his Discussion section that...
Article
Efforts to identify the individual attributes that predict organizational citizenship have focused largely on dispositional factors. This focus reflects an unstated assumption that anyone can engage in successful citizenship, but only some choose to do so. The authors contend that, although this may be true of some dimensions of citizenship, it is...
Article
The authors examined the role of employee conscientiousness as a moderator of the relationships between psychological contract breach and employee behavioral and attitudinal reactions to the breach. They collected data from 106 newly hired employees within the 1st month of employment (Time 1), 3 months later (Time 2), and 8 months after Time 1 (Tim...
Article
Full-text available
Recent research has suggested that scores on measures of cognitive ability, measures of Conscientiousness, and interview scores are positively correlated with job performance. There remains, however, a question of incremental validity: To what extent do interviews predict above and beyond cognitive ability and Conscientiousness? This question was a...
Article
Rational and empirical linkages were formed between the “Big Five” personality factors and two personality inventories: the Inwald Personality Inventory (IPI), which is a personality inventory designed especially for use in the selection of corrections officers, and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI). A criterion-related validat...
Article
Much research on the journal review process has found little consistency among reviewers' evaluations of manuscripts. We propose theoretical explanations for these differences related to gatekeeping and particularism phenomena and generate hypotheses regarding influences on initial editorial decisions. A sample of 823 original submissions to the Jo...
Article
Researchers of broad and narrow traits have debated whether narrow traits are important to consider in the prediction of job performance. Because personality-performance relationship meta-analyses have focused almost exclusively on the Big Five, the predictive power of narrow traits has not been adequately examined. In this study, the authors addre...
Chapter
Approaches to Traits and Measurement in I/O PsychologyTraits, Self-report, and I/OAlternatives to a Trait ApproachAlternatives to Assumptions of StabilityAlternatives to Self-reportLooking Forward by Looking BackWhat the Future Might Hold for I/O PsychologyIntegration as an OpportunityIntegration as a ChallengeFinal ThoughtsReferences
Article
The authors discuss potential confusion in conducting primary studies and meta-analyses on the basis of differences between groups. First, the authors show that a formula for the sampling error of the standardized mean difference (d) that is based on equal group sample sizes can produce substantially biased results if applied with markedly unequal...
Article
The purpose of this article is to review current practices with respect to detection and estimation of moderators in meta-analysis and to develop recommendations that are driven by the results of this review and previous research. The first purpose was accomplished through a review of the meta-analyses published in Journal of Applied Psychology fro...
Chapter
This paper is organized around a model of job performance in which personality and ability constructs (KSASOs) are seen as leading to procedural and declarative knowledge and motivation which, in turn, lead to task proficiency and contextual and adaptive behavior. These latter individual performance variables are thought to have implications for a...
Article
Most statistical/methodological topics seem to have certain components that are poorly understood by many researchers. The purpose of this paper was to discuss some of the problem areas in significance testing, meta-analysis, multiple regression, factor analysis, structural equations modeling, validity, and outliers. These topics were chosen becaus...
Article
Most statistical/methodological topics seem to have certain components that are poorly understood by many researchers. The purpose of this paper was to discuss some of the problem areas in significance testing, meta-analysis, multiple regression, factor analysis, structural equations modeling, validity, and outliers. These topics were chosen becaus...
Article
The dynamic nature of the predictor-criterion relationship has long been a concern in psychology, especially with regard to the deterioration of validity over time. The authors examine P. L. Ackerman's ( 1987, 1988) hypothesized relationships between different types of predictors and criteria over time using data from previous longitudinal studies....
Article
Full-text available
The concomitant proliferation of causal modeling and hypotheses of multiplicative effects has brought about a tremendous need for procedures that allow the testing of moderated structural equation models (MSEMs). The seminal work of Kenny and Judd and Hayduk has been drawn on by several authors in the past 10 years, thus producing procedures that a...
Article
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Although cognitive ability and conscientiousness have been found to predict work-related performance, less is known about whether and when certain mediating variables help explain these relationships. This study examined meta-analytically whether self-efficacy mediates the cognitive ability-performance and conscientiousness-performance relationship...
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The importance of cognitive styles as psychological antecedents of psychopathology has gained increasing acceptance over the past 2 decades. Although ample research has explored cognitive styles that confer vulnerability to depression, cognitive styles that confer vulnerability to anxiety have received considerably less attention. In the present in...
Article
Hanges, Grojean, and Smith (this issue) reaffirmed the Cascio, Outtz, Zedeck, and Goldstein (1991) "traditional" test score banding procedure and argued that the "alternative" method proposed by Aguinis, Cortina, and Goldberg (1998) is problematic. We clarify 4 differences between the traditional and alternative procedures. We suggest once again th...
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Full-text available
this paper is to describe some of the ways that outliers of different types can be dealt with and the reasons for doing so (or not). Since this is supposed to be part of a running "Ethics" column, we have tried to include treatments of the ethical dilemmas that can arise when identifying and coping with outliers. The core of the dilemma is found in...
Article
We advance and illustrate a new procedure for the formation of equivalence bands in preemployment tests for situations in which criterion data are available. The proce- dure consists of 3 steps: (a) the computation of the width of a band of statistically indistinguishable scores on a performance measure Y, (b) the determination of the upper and low...
Article
A recent comparison of typical extreme-groups designs and observational designs (G. H. McClelland and C. M. Judd, see record 1994-00225-001) showed that extreme-groups designs have greater power to detect interactions than do observational designs and that extreme-groups designs provide estimates of unstandardized parameter values that have smalle...
Article
Previous research has suggested that there exists a bias in the social sciences against no-effect hypotheses. This is regrettable given the importance of establishing not only when an effect does occur but also the boundary conditions of that effect. The purposes of this article are two-fold The first purpose is to review relevant portions of the h...
Article
There has been much recent attention given to the problems involved with the traditional approach to null hypothesis significance testing (NHST). Many have suggested that, perhaps, NHST should be abandoned altogether in favor of other bases for conclusions such as confidence intervals and effect size estimates (e.g., F. L. Schmidt; see record 83-24...
Article
Full-text available
Pearson (1897) investigated correlations of ratios of bone measurements and found that although the correlations among the original measures were low, the correlations among ratios with common measures were about .5. To understand this result, he developed an approximate equation for the correlations of ratios. In the present study, Monte Carlo met...
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Tests for experiments with matched groups or repeated measures designs use error terms that involve the correlation between the measures as well as the variance of the data. The larger the correlation between the measures, the smaller the error and the larger the test statistic. If an effect size is computed from the test statistic without taking t...
Article
Full-text available
Tests for experiments with matched groups or repeated measures designs use error terms that involve the correlation between the measures as well as the variance of the data. The larger the correlation between the measures, the smaller the error and the larger the test statistic. If an effect size is computed from the test statistic without taking t...
Article
Full-text available
Recent research by Tubbs and Dahl (1991) and Tubbs (1993) has proposed that discrepancy measures of goal commitment are superior to self-report measures. We explore the theoretical, practical, and empirical problems with discrepancy measures of goal commitment. We reanalyzed some of the relationships discussed by these authors using their data and...
Article
Moderated hierarchical multiple regression (MHMR) typically is used to test for the presence of interactions. When an interaction term is composed of correlated variables, linearity and additivity become confounded. The result of this confounding is that an interaction term in MHMR may be statistically significant only because of its overlap with u...
Article
Unmotivated or suspicious test takers in con current validation studies can cause numerous problems for test users. The effects of these problems, however, have not been carefully examined. This study used item response theory-based appro priateness fit indexes to identify and remove from a validation sample those examinees whose response patterns...
Article
Psychological research involving scale construction has been hindered considerably by a widespread lack of understanding of coefficient alpha and reliability theory in general. A discussion of the assumptions and meaning of coefficient alpha is presented. This discussion is followed by a demonstration of the effects of test length and dimensionalit...
Article
The present chapter is organized as follows. First, we offer a brief review of the meaning of effect size. Second, we describe the urban legend that is the focus of this chapter as well as the kernel of truth that drives it. Third, we describe relevant lessons from W. V. Quine, the foremost authority on the language of science. Fourth, we use these...
Article
Thesis (M.A.)--Michigan State University. Dept. of Psychology, 1991. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 70-72).