# José M CarcioneOGS Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale · Geophysics

José M Carcione

PhD Geophysics

Geophysics

## About

604

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Introduction

José M Carcione currently works at the Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale.
My papers can be download from my private webpage:
http://www.lucabaradello.it/carcione/pubs.html

## Publications

Publications (604)

This chapter illustrates the most used numerical methods to solve wave and diffusion equations, including fractional derivatives. To solve the equations, the model is approximated by a numerical mesh. These algorithms are called grid and full-wave equation methods, since the solution implicitly gives the full wave field. Direct methods do not have...

This chapter focuses on the reflection-transmission problem in anisotropic viscoelastic media. In general, the reflected and transmitted waves are inhomogeneous. The reflected wave is homogeneous only when the symmetry axis is perpendicular to the interface. The relevant physical phenomena are not related to the propagation direction (slowness vect...

This chapter considers isotropy and viscoelasticity. Attenuation is introduced in the form of the Boltzmann superposition law, which implies a convolutional relation between stress and strain through the relaxation and creep matrices. Mostly, the analysis is restricted to the one-dimensional case, where some of the consequences of anelasticity beco...

The effects of the space dimension are considered in this chapter, revealing other properties of wave fields. The attenuation vector plays a role at the same level as the wavenumber vector. Snell law, for instance, implies continuity of the tangential components of both vectors at the interface of discontinuity. For inhomogeneous viscoelastic waves...

The combined effect of anisotropy and viscoelasticity is the subject of this chapter, where the first problem is to obtain the time dependence of the relaxation components based on physical grounds. Fine layering has an “exact” description in the long-wavelength limit. The concept of eigenstrain allows us to limit the number of relaxation functions...

Reciprocity is usually applied to concentrated point forces and point receivers. However, reciprocity has a much wider application potential; in many cases, it is not used at its full potential because either a variety of source and receiver types are not considered, or their implementation is not well understood. In this chapter, the reciprocity r...

This chapter explores the analogy between the fields of acoustics and electromagnetism. The two-dimensional Maxwell equations are equivalent to the SH-wave equation based on the Maxwell mechanical model. It is shown that Fresnel formulae can be obtained from the reflection and transmission coefficients of shear waves. The layer problem illustrates...

Wave propagation in anisotropic lossless media is the subject of this chapter. In anisotropic media, the directions of the wavevector and power-flow vector do not coincide. This implies that the phase and energy velocities differ. However, some ideal properties prevail: there is no dissipation, the group-velocity vector is equal to the energy-veloc...

Biot theory is the basis to describe wave propagation in porous media, starting with Terzaghi law, Gassmann equation, and the static approach leading to the concept of effective stress, much used in soil mechanics. The coefficients of the strain energy are obtained by the so-called jacketed and unjacketed experiments. The theory includes anisotropy...

The wave-induced local fluid flow mechanism is relevant to the complex heterogeneity of pore structures in rocks. The analysis of the local fluid flow mechanism is useful for accurately describing the wave propagation characteristics in reservoir rocks. In the exploration and production of hydrocarbon reservoirs, the real stratum may be partially s...

Fracture-induced azimuthal anisotropy of seismic waves has useful applications in the characterization of hydrocarbon reservoirs as well as the overburden. Existing theories face problems estimating the fracture-weakness parameters, identifying the saturating fluid, and constraining the depth model building. To overcome these problems, we have adop...

The acoustic-electrical (AE) response of subsurface hydrocarbon reservoirs is highly affected by rock heterogeneity. In particular, the characterization of the microstructure of tight (low-permeability) rocks can be aided by a joint interpretation of AE data. To this purpose, we evaluate cores from a tight-oil reservoir to obtain the rock mineralog...

Petrophysical seismic inversion, aided by rock physics, aims at estimating reservoir properties based on reflection events, but it is generally based on the Gassmann equation, which precludes its applicability to complex reservoirs. To overcome this problem, we present a methodology based on the double-porosity Biot–Rayleigh (BR) model, which takes...

The Lord-Shulman thermoporoelasticity theory couples the Biot and hyperbolic heat equations to describe wave propagation, modeling explicitly the effects of heat and fluid flows. We extend the theory to the case of double porosity by taking into account both the local heat flow (LHF) and local fluid flow (LFF) due to wave propagation. The plane-wav...

We obtain the amplitude and energy reflection coefficients of seismic waves in porous media with penny-shaped inclusions, based on the generalized Biot-Rayleigh model that takes into account the attenuation due to mesoscopic local fluid flow (LFF). We consider two cases, including a contact between two porous media having either different fluids (g...

We simulate the effects of diagenesis, cementation and compaction on the elastic properties of shales and sandstones with four different petro-elastic theories and a basin-evolution model, based on constant heating and sedimentation rates. We consider shales composed of clay minerals, mainly smectite and illite, depending on the burial depth, and t...

High temperature affects the seismic properties of cracked and faulted reservoirs and can be an indicator for their detection. To this purpose, we study the wave-induced thermal flux (WITF) and develop two exact solutions for the scattering of compressional waves by a circular crack filled with a compressible fluid, where the approach is based on t...

We study the reflection and transmission coefficients of plane waves incident at an interface between two isotropic thermoelastic half spaces and compare them with those of the elastic case. The models include the classical-Biot (B) and extended Lord-Shulman (LS) theories, and predict reflected and transmitted fast-compressional (P), thermal (T) an...

Understanding the dependence of the rock properties on temperature is essential when dealing with heavy oil reservoirs. Reported rock physics models can hardly capture the effect of temperature on wave velocities. We propose a dual-porosity temperature-dependent model based on the coherent potential approximation, combining temperature- and frequen...

Laboratory experiments on partially saturated rocks show that seismic attenuation can be significant. The main mechanism, wave‐induced local fluid flow (WILFF), is affected by the spatial fluid distribution, especially in conditions of patchy saturation at different spatial scales. We propose a theory to obtain the seismic properties of partially s...

In many cases, multilayered media with flat interfaces are a suitable representation of the geologic features of the crust. In general, the isothermal theory is used, and the transfer-matrix (TM) method is applied to compute the scattering reflection and transmission (R/T) coefficients. We have generalized the TM algorithm to the more general case...

Tight sandstones have low porosity and permeability and strong heterogeneities with microcracks, resulting in small wave impedance contrasts with the surrounding rock and weak fluid-induced seismic effects, which make the seismic characterization for fluid detection and identification difficult. For this purpose, we propose a reformulated modified...

Seismic exploration of unconventional hydrocarbon reservoirs (e.g., shale rocks) must take into account the VTI characteristics (transverse isotropy with a vertical axis of symmetry). Prestack inversion for VTI media is more complex than the isotropic case, since the forward engine is highly nonlinear and more unknowns (five instead of three) are i...

We describe a methodology to estimate the seismic velocities and attenuation of gas-hydrate bearing sediments as a function of the differential pressure and partial saturation. The model is based on a generalization of the Biot theory of poroelasticity, considering two solids (sediment grains and clathrate hydrate) and two immiscible fluids (water...

We present a novel numerical upscaling technique for modeling the wave response of gas-hydrate bearing sediments composed of a rock frame, gas-hydrate and water, where the hydrate consists of ice-like lattice of water molecules with methane trapped inside. These sediments are highly heterogeneous at mesoscopic scales, much smaller than the waveleng...

The exploration and exploitation of shale oil is an important aspect in the oil industry. Seismic properties and well‐log data are essential to establish wave‐propagation models. Specifically, the description of wave dispersion and attenuation under complex geological conditions needs proper lithological and petrophysical information. This complex...

Elastic wave propagation in partially saturated reservoir rocks induces fluid flow in multi-scale pore spaces, leading to wave anelasticity (velocity dispersion and attenuation). The propagation characteristics cannot be described by a single-scale flow-induced dissipation mechanism. To overcome this problem, we combine the White patchy-saturation...

We simulate the effects of diagenesis, cementation and compaction on the elastic properties of shales and sandstones with four different petro-elastical theories and a basin-evolution model, based on constant heating and sedimentation rates. We consider shales composed of clay minerals, mainly smectite and illite, depending on the burial depth, and...

Low porosity-permeability structures and microcracks, where gas is produced, are the main characteristics of tight sandstone gas reservoirs in the Sichuan Basin, China. In this work, an analysis of amplitude variation with offset (AVO) is performed. Based on the experimental and log data, sensitivity analysis is performed to sort out the rock physi...

Seismic wave scattering dispersion and attenuation can be significant in cracked reservoirs. Many scattering models have been proposed, and the fractal (self-similar) features of the medium need to be further incorporated and analyzed. We solve the P-wave scattering caused by fluid-saturated aligned cracks of finite thickness embedded in fractal me...

We study the wave anelasticity (attenuation and velocity dispersion) of a periodic set of three flat porous layers saturated by two immiscible fluids. The fluids are very dissimilar in properties, namely gas, oil, and water, and, at most, three layers are required to study the problem from a general point of view. The sequence behaves as viscoelast...

Ultra-deep carbonate reservoirs have low porosity, a complex pore space with microcracks of varying aspect ratio and dissolved pores, that affect the seismic and transport properties. We propose a rock-physics model based on penny-shaped inclusions in the framework of the double-porosity theory to estimate rock features, such as the crack porosity...

A pandemic caused by a new coronavirus (Covid-19) has spread worldwide, inducing an epidemic still active in Argentina. In this chapter, we present a case study using an SEIR (Susceptible-Exposed-Infected-Recovered) diffusion model of fractional order in time to analyze the evolution of the epidemic in Buenos Aires and neighboring areas (Región Met...

Tight-gas sandstone reservoirs of the Ordos Basin of China are characterized by high rock-fragment content, dissimilar pore types and a random distribution of fluids, leading to strong local heterogeneity. We model the seismic properties of these sandstones with the double-double porosity (DDP) theory, which considers water saturation, porosity and...

Estimation of subsurface properties by using the scattering integral equation is a method that finds increasing use in near-surface and shallow oil/gas exploration, based on seismic, low-frequency electromagnetic, and surface-radar surveys. The method can accurately simulate physical realizations induced by small-scale perturbations, but its accura...

Wave anelasticity of the fast P wave at mesoscopic scales is due to energy dissipation by conversion to slow P diffusive modes at heterogeneities much smaller than the wavelength and much larger than the pore size. We consider frames composed of two minerals and study the dissipation effects based on a generalized White plane-layered model, where t...

Tight-oil reservoirs have low porosity and permeability, with microcracks, high clay content, and a complex structure resulting in strong heterogeneities and poor connectivity. Thus, it is a challenge to characterize this type of reservoir with a single geophysical methodology. We propose a dual-porosity-clay parallel network to establish an electr...

We analyse the concepts of instantaneous frequency (IF) and quality factor (IQ). It is verified that the time-averaged IF is equal to the centroid of the signal energy of the spectrum and that the centroid of the signal spectrum is equal to the IF at the peak of the signal envelope. The latter property can be used to obtain the frequency-shift requ...

We compare the exact normal-incidence PP reflection coefficient [Geertsma–Smit expression] to approximations reported by several authors, based on open-pore boundary conditions at a plane interface between two porous media. The approximations correspond to low frequencies. Two of them are derived from the low-frequency Biot theory below the Biot ch...

A pandemic caused by a new corona virus has spread worldwide, affecting Argentina. We implement an SEIR model to analyze the disease evolution in Buenos Aires and neighboring cities.The model parameters are calibrated using the number of casualties officially reported. Since infinite solutions honor the data, we show different cases. In all of them...

The conversion of fast to slow diffusion P-waves in fluid-saturated porous media induces attenuation and dispersion of waves at seismic frequencies. This effect, known as wave induced fluid flow, occurs at mesoscopic scales, which are much larger than the average pore size and much smaller than the average fast P-wave wavelength. When analyzing thi...

Tight-sandstone gas reservoirs have low porosity and permeability, dissimilar pore types, and generally high clay content. Partial saturation leads to local fluid flow induced by seismic waves, resulting in velocity dispersion and attenuation, and this is the reason why the dissipation factor (Q-1) (inverse quality factor) is highly sensitive to fl...

Tight-sandstone reservoirs have a complex pore structure with microcracks and intergranular pores, which have a significant impact on the seismic properties. We have performed ultrasonic measurements at different confining pressures for 15 tight-gas sandstone samples of the Xujiahe formation in Western Sichuan Basin, and have available well-log and...

The petrophysical properties can be proper indicators to identify oil and gas reservoirs, since the pore fluids have significant effects on the wave response. We have performed ultrasonic measurements on two sets of tight siltstones and dolomites at partial saturation. P- and S-wave velocities are obtained by the pulse transmission technique, while...

Prestack seismic inversion for VTI media (transversely isotropic with vertical axis of symmetry) is a technique that can be useful to obtain the properties (velocity, density, and anisotropy parameters) of shale reservoirs. Since conventional inversion with smooth constraints (e.g., L₂-norm) is not appropriate, we propose a basis pursuit inversion...

We develop a methodology, based on rock-physics templates, to effectively identify reservoir fluids in ultra-deep reservoirs, where the poroelasticity model is based on the double double-porosity theory. P-wave attenuation, the ratio of the first Lamé constant to mass density (λ/ρ) and Poisson ratio are used to build the templates at the ultrasonic...

Natural gas hydrates have the properties of ice with a microporous structure and its concentration in sediments highly affects the wave velocity and attenuation. Previous studies have performed investigations based on the measurements of laboratory data, sonic-log data, and field data, whereas the variation trend of wave dissipation with increasing...

A pandemic caused by a new coronavirus (COVID-19) has spread worldwide, inducing an epidemic still active in Argentina. In this chapter, we present a case study using an SEIR (Susceptible-Exposed-Infected-Recovered) diffusion model of fractional order in time to analyze the evolution of the epidemic in Buenos Aires and neighboring areas (Regi\'on M...

The fractal texture (or fabric) of porous media, which supports fluid flow at different scales, is the main cause of wave anelasticity (dispersion and attenuation) on a wide range of frequencies. To model this phenomenon, we develop a theory of wave propagation in a fluid saturated infinituple‐porosity media containing inclusions at multiple scales...

In thermoelastic wave attenuation, such as that caused by heterogeneities much smaller than the wavelength, e.g., Savage theory of spherical pores, the shape of the relaxation peak differs from that of the Zener (or standard linear solid) mechanical model. In these effective homogeneous media, the anelastic behavior is better represented by a stres...

Ultra-deep carbonate reservoirs have high temperatures and pressures, complex pressure/tectonic stress settings and pore structures. These conditions make their seismic detection and characterization difficult, particularly if the signal-to-noise ratio is low, as it is the case in most situations. Moreover, the high risk of deep-drilling exploratio...

Thermoelasticity is important in seismic propagation due to the effects related to wave attenuation and velocity dispersion. We apply a novel finite-difference solver of the Lord-Shulman thermoelasticity equations to compute synthetic seismograms that include the effects of the thermal properties (expansion coefficient, thermal conductivity and spe...

Tight-oil reservoirs are classified as unconventional hydrocarbon resources, having a complex system of pores and cracks and low porosity/permeability. A good pore-crack connectivity is required for hydrocarbon production, but clay minerals filling the pores and throats may hinder the fluid migration. Thus, the combined effects of the pore-crack ne...

In wave propagation in rocks, the strain field affects the internal energy such that compressed regions become hotter and expanded regions cooler. This thermoelastic effect is that the lack of thermal equilibrium between various parts of the vibrating medium and energy is dissipated when irreversible heat flow driven by the temperature gradient occ...

We establish a generalization of the thermoelasticity wave equation to the porous case, including the Lord–Shulman (LS) and Green–Lindsay (GL) theories that involve a set of relaxation times (\(\tau _i, \ i = 1, \ldots , 4\)). The dynamical equations predict four propagation modes, namely, a fast P wave, a Biot slow wave, a thermal wave, and a shea...

We compare viscoelastic models to obtain the seismic properties of a partially molten rock as a function of temperature, pressure and tectonic stress. Invoking the correspondence principle, the material of the inclusions is represented by a Maxwell mechanical model, where the Arrhenius equation and the octahedral stress criterion define the Maxwell...

We present results on the existence and uniqueness of a new formulation of wave propagation in linear thermo-poroelastic isotropic media in bounded domains under appropriate boundary and initial conditions. The linear theory of thermo-poroelasticity describes wave propagation in fluid-saturated poroelastic media including the temperature. In the mo...

We analyze the reflection coefficient of an inhomogeneous plane wave incident on the thermally insulated surface of a thermo-poroelastic medium. The theory, which includes the classic Lord-Shulman (LS) and Green-Lindsay (GL) theories as well as a generalization of the LS model, predicts three inhomogeneous longitudinal waves and one transverse wave...

Acoustoelasticity describes the interaction of acoustic waves with non-linear elastic deformations, particularly the change of wave velocity due to initial stresses or strains in a pre-deformed body. The theory extends the strain energy to cubic terms (third-order elasticity) and allows for finite strains to model deformations at high confining pre...

The acoustic properties of rocks depend on porosity, pressure, and pore fluid and also on pore geometry. Anelasticity (attenuation and velocity dispersion) is more affected by crack aspect ratio and fraction (soft pores) than by equant (stiff) pores. To study this fact, we have performed ultrasonic measurements on two dolomite samples under variabl...

Determining rock microstructure remains challenging, since a proper rock-physics model is needed to establish the relation between pore microstructure and elastic and transport properties. We present a model to estimate pore microstructure based on porosity, ultrasonic velocities and permeability, assuming that the microstructure consists on random...

P-wave conversion to slow diffusion (Biot) modes at mesoscopic (small-scale) inhomogeneities in porous media is believed to be the most important attenuation mechanisms at seismic frequencies. This study considers three periodic thin layers saturated with gas, oil, and water, respectively, a realistic scenario in hydrocarbon reservoirs, and perform...