Joris P.G.M. Cromsigt

Joris P.G.M. Cromsigt
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | SLU · Wildlife, Fish and Environmental Studies

Associate Professor

About

116
Publications
50,519
Reads
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3,941
Citations
Citations since 2016
82 Research Items
3228 Citations
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20162017201820192020202120220200400600800
20162017201820192020202120220200400600800
20162017201820192020202120220200400600800
Introduction
Mammalian herbivores are major drivers of terrestrial ecosystems worldwide. I study the mechanisms that drive herbivore abundance, community assemblages and their role in ecosystem functioning. My work includes herbivore-plant, herbivore-herbivore and herbivore-carnivore interactions within the abiotic setting of the ecosystem. I am exploring the (dis)similarities between browsing and grazing systems in Africa and Europe using a combination of field experiments and observational studies.
Additional affiliations
June 2013 - present
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
April 2012 - present
Nelson Mandela University
Position
  • Research Associate
September 2011 - May 2013
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)
Description
  • Assistant Professor
Education
March 2001 - June 2006
University of Groningen
Field of study
  • Community Ecology
August 1994 - November 1999
Wageningen University & Research
Field of study
  • Community Ecology

Publications

Publications (116)
Article
Evaluating how intrinsic (intraspecific density), extrinsic (interspecific density and prey density) and anthropogenic (management intervention) factors affect African wild dog (Lycaon pictus) population performance is key to implementing effective conservation strategies. Lions (Panthera leo) can affect wild dog populations, and in small and highl...
Article
Anaplasma phagocytophilum is a tick‐borne pathogen that has been detected in many tick and vertebrate species. It is among the most widespread tick‐borne pathogens in animals in Europe. The bacterium can be genetically divided into four ecotypes, which are linked to distinct but overlapping host species. However, knowledge about the transmission dy...
Article
Full-text available
Ecological niche differences are necessary for stable species coexistence but are often dif- ficult to discern. Models of dietary niche differentiation in large mammalian herbivores invoke the quality, quantity, and spatiotemporal distribution of plant tissues and growth forms but are agnostic toward food plant species identity. Empirical support f...
Article
Full-text available
Altered interactions between pathogens, their hosts and vectors have potential consequences for human disease risk. Notably, tick-borne pathogens, many of which are associated with growing deer abundance, show global increasing prevalence and pose increasing challenges for disease prevention. Human activities can largely affect the patterns of deer...
Preprint
Natural climate solutions are being advanced as cost-effective and safe ways to achieve net-zero emissions by protecting and enhancing carbon capture and storage in plants, and in soils and sediments in terrestrial and marine ecosystems. Current thinking holds that these solutions have the added benefit of protecting habitats and landscapes to rest...
Article
Full-text available
Wild ungulates are a major consumer of agricultural crops in human dominated landscapes. Across Europe, ungulate populations are leading to intensified human-wildlife conflicts. At the same time, ungulates play a vital role in the structuring and functioning of ecosystems, and are highly appreciated for recreational hunting. Thus, managers often fa...
Article
Hunting is a widespread but often overlooked land-use activity, providing major benefits to society. Hunting takes place in most landscapes, yet it remains unclear which types of landscapes foster or dampen hunting-related services, and how hunting relates to other land uses. A better understanding of these relationships is key for sustainable land...
Article
Tree architectures reflect the main abiotic and biotic selection pressures determining tree growth and survival. Studies have shown that trees growing in herbivore‐dominated ecosystems, such as savannas, develop denser, more divaricate ‘cage’‐like architectures in response to chronic browsing pressure (also known as ‘brown‐world’ architectures). In...
Article
Full-text available
Fire has been an integral evolutionary force shaping and maintaining grassy biomes, such as the Afromontane grasslands of South Africa. Afromontane grasslands represent a large carbon reservoir, but it is uncertain how fire affects their long-term C storage. We investigated the effect of fire regime on soil organic C and N (SOC; SON) in a long-term...
Article
Full-text available
Humans are increasingly acknowledged as apex predators that shape landscapes of fear to which herbivores adapt their behaviour. Here, we investigate how humans modify deer space‐use and their effects on vegetation at two spatial scales; zones with different types of human use (largescale risk factor) and, nested within that, trails (fine‐scale risk...
Article
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Megaherbivores (adult body mass > 1000 kg) are suggested to disproportionately shape ecosystem and Earth system functioning. We systematically reviewed the empirical basis for this general thesis and for the more specific hypotheses that 1) megaherbivores have disproportionately larger effects on Earth system functioning than their smaller counterp...
Article
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Landscape of fear refers to the spatial variation in prey perception of predation risk, that under certain conditions, may lead to changes in their behavior. Behavioral responses of prey in relation to large carnivore predation risk have mainly been conducted in areas with low anthropogenic impact. We used long-term data on the distribution of moos...
Article
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Fire and herbivory are fundamental top‐down processes, structuring grass‐tree ratios in ecosystems across a diversity of climates. Both are plant consumers that can strongly control the recruitment of woody seedlings and saplings to taller height classes. Without consumer control, many grass‐dominated ecosystems would convert into woodlands or fore...
Article
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Background Several ungulate species are feeding and propagation hosts for the tick Ixodes ricinus as well as hosts to a wide range of zoonotic pathogens. Here, we focus on Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi ( s.l. ), two important pathogens for which ungulates are amplifying and dilution hosts, respectively. Ungulate management is o...
Article
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Positive biodiversity‐ecosystem function relationships (BEFRs) have been widely documented, but it is unclear if BEFRs should be expected in disturbance‐driven systems. Disturbance may limit competition and niche differentiation, which are frequently posited to underlie BEFRs. We provide the first exploration of the relationship between tree specie...
Article
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A central goal in camera‐trapping (CT) studies is to maximize detection probability and precision of occupancy estimates while minimizing the number of CTs to reduce equipment and labor costs. Few studies, however, have examined the effect of CT number on detection probability. Moreover, historically, most studies focused on a specific species and...
Article
Full-text available
Ungulate browsing has been studied for several decades in the northern hemisphere. However, studies have mainly focused on just one or two ungulate species, while rarely contrasting the relative effects of summer and winter browsing. This limits our understanding of the dynamics and effects of browsing in landscapes where ungulate species diversity...
Article
As global temperatures continue to rise, increases in the frequency and intensity of climatic extremes will likely outpace average temperature increases, and may have outsized impacts on biological populations. Moose (Alces alces) are adapted to cold weather and populations are declining at the southern edge of the species’ range. Moose therefore m...
Article
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With accelerated land conversion and global heating at northern latitudes, it becomes crucial to understand, how life histories of animals in extreme environments adapt to these changes. Animals may either adapt by adjusting foraging behavior or through physiological responses, including adjusting their energy metabolism or both. Until now, it has...
Article
Full-text available
High densities of ungulates can increase human-wildlife conflicts. Where forestry is an important economy, intensive browsing can lead to browsing damage, resulting in volume losses, poor stand regeneration, and reduced timber quality. The forestry industry thus looks for practical, long-term measures to mitigate browsing damage. We tested the effe...
Article
Competitively dominant carnivore species can limit the population sizes and alter the behavior of inferior competitors. Established mechanisms that enable carnivore coexistence include spatial and temporal avoidance of dominant predator species by subordinates, and dietary niche separation. However, spatial heterogeneity across landscapes could pro...
Article
Full-text available
Population sizes and species distributions of wild ungulates in Europe have increased during the past decades, and continue to do so. As a result, browsing pressure in forests is increasing and concerns about the effects of increasingly common multi-species deer communities on forestry are rising. However, we currently lack an understanding of how...
Article
Full-text available
As wild ungulate densities increase across Europe and North America, plant–herbivore interactions are increasingly important from ecological and economic perspectives. These interactions are particularly significant where agriculture and forestry occur and where intensive grazing and browsing by wild ungulates can result in economic losses to growi...
Article
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Most European ungulate species are increasing in numbers and expanding their range. For the management and monitoring of these species, 64% of European countries rely on indirect proxies of abundance (e.g., hunting bag statistics). With increasing ungulate numbers, data on ungulate-vehicle collisions (UVC) may provide an important and inexpensive,...
Article
Herbivores balance forage acquisition with the need to avoid predation, often leading to trade‐offs between forgoing resources to avoid areas of high predation risk, or tolerating increased risk in exchange for improved forage. The outcome of these decisions is likely to change with varying resource levels, with herbivores altering their response t...
Article
Significance We develop a biogeographic approach to analyzing the presence of alternative stable states in tropical biomes. Whilst forest–savanna bistability has been widely hypothesized and modeled, empirical evidence has remained scarce and controversial, and here, applying our method to Africa, we provide large-scale evidence that there are alte...
Article
We analyzed the effect of forest management and wolf (Canis lupus) space-use on diet composition of red deer (Cervus elaphus) and European bison (Bison bonasus) in Białowieża Primeval Forest (BPF), Poland. The red deer is the main prey species for the wolf, whereas the European bison is rarely preyed upon. As both species behave as intermediate fee...
Article
Significance Herbivores influence nutrient cycling by depositing feces across the landscape. Where herbivores go in the landscape is governed by factors such as food requirements and vulnerability to predation, traits that are related to body size. We show that mammals that differ in body size not only use the landscape differently but also differ...
Article
Full-text available
Global warming compels larger endothermic animals to adapt either physiologically or behaviourally to avoid thermal stress, especially in tropical ecosystems. Their adaptive responses may however be compromised by other constraints, such as predation risk or starvation. Using an exceptional camera-trap dataset spanning 32 protected areas across sou...
Article
Full-text available
Over recent decades, ungulate populations across Europe have undergone a rapid recovery. While this constitutes a conservation success, there is increasing concern about their impacts on shared resources with humans. Understanding ungulate food choices is crucial for predicting such impacts. Numerous studies have focused on single species or commun...
Article
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Paradoxically, despite the growth in protected areas globally, many species remain threatened and continue to decline. Attempts to conserve species in suboptimal habitats (i.e., as refugee species) may in part explain this Protected Area Paradox. Refugee species yield poor conservation outcomes as they suffer lower densities and fitness. We suggest...
Article
Optimal foraging theory predicts less diverse predator diets with a greater availability of preferred prey. This narrow diet niche should then be dominated by preferred prey, with implications for predator–prey dynamics and prey population ecology. We investigated lion (Panthera leo) diets in Hluhluwe–iMfolozi Park (HiP), South Africa, to assess wh...
Article
Full-text available
Diet quality is an important determinant of animal survival and reproduction, and can be described as the combination of different food items ingested, and their nutritional composition. For large herbivores, human landscape modifications to vegetation can limit such diet-mixing opportunities. Here we use southern Sweden’s modified landscapes to as...
Article
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The physiological effects of short-term stress responses typically lead to increased individual survival as it prepares the body for fight or flight through catabolic reactions in the body. These physiological effects trade off against growth, immunocompetence, reproduction, and even long-term survival. Chronic stress may thus reduce individual and...
Article
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Plant traits—the morphological, anatomical, physiological, biochemical and phenological characteristics of plants—determine how plants respond to environmental factors, affect other trophic levels, and influence ecosystem properties and their benefits and detriments to people. Plant trait data thus represent the basis for a vast area of research sp...
Article
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Abstract Gaining a better understanding of global environmental change is an important challenge for conserving biodiversity. Shifts in phenology are an important consequence of environmental change. Measuring phenology of different taxa simultaneously at the same spatial and temporal scale is necessary to study the effects of changes in phenology...
Article
Full-text available
The coexistence of different species of large herbivores (ungulates) in grasslands and savannas has fascinated ecologists for decades. However, changes in climate, land‐use and trophic structure of ecosystems increasingly jeopardise the persistence of such diverse assemblages. Body size has been used successfully to explain ungulate niche different...
Article
Increasing deer populations in many temperate regions can affect tree regeneration, resulting in severe long-term impacts on forest structure, composition and diversity. Of the most common deer species in Europe-red deer (Cervus elaphus) and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus)-roe deer are generally thought to have the highest impact on palatable tree s...
Chapter
This chapter reviews the mechanisms underlying consumptive and non‐consumptive effects of predators on prey. It provides an overview of consumptive and non‐consumptive mechanisms, the current knowledge about their importance, and how they may interact. The chapter draws from the theoretical literature and from field studies conducted in biomes othe...
Article
Landscapes of fear have become widely studied in the northern hemisphere, but are still largely understudied in the more complex, diverse carnivore-prey communities of Africa. Habitat changes brought about by a mega-herbivore, the African elephant (Loxodonta africana), can modify the perceived landscape of fear by predation vulnerable prey species...
Article
The recolonization of wolves in European human-dominated landscapes poses a conservation challenge to protect this species and manage conflicts. The question of how humans can co-exist with large carnivores often triggers strong emotions. Here we provide an objective, science-based discussion on possible management approaches. Using existing knowle...
Article
Full-text available
Pellet counts are widely used to monitor ungulates but rely on the assumption that pellets of different species are correctly identified in the field. Recent studies question this assumption using DNA barcoding techniques to check field identification rates. For Europe, which is undergoing a rapid shift towards more diverse ungulate assemblages, su...
Article
Despite the importance of coarse woody debris (CWD) in woody ecosystems, conceptual frameworks of its dynamics currently exclude the role of the megaherbivores, focusing instead on the role of insects, disease, fire, wind and droughts. However, recognizing the ecological roles of the megaherbivores is one of the most urgent contemporary issues, par...
Article
Variation in the vulnerability of herbivore prey to predation is linked to body size, yet whether this relationship is size‐nested or size‐partitioned remains debated. If size‐partitioned, predators would be focused on prey within their preferred prey size range. If size‐nested, smaller prey species should become increasingly more vulnerable becaus...
Article
Full-text available
Obtaining reliable species observations is of great importance in animal ecology and wildlife conservation. An increasing number of studies use camera traps (CTs) to study wildlife communities, and an increasing effort is made to make better use and reuse of the large amounts of data that are produced. It is in these circumstances that it becomes p...
Article
Aim In tropical Africa, savannas cover huge areas, have high plant species richness and are considered as a major natural resource for most countries. There is, however, little information available on their floristics and biogeography at the continental scale, despite the importance of such information for our understanding of the drivers of speci...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Här rapporterar vi vad som hänt i Växjö av totalt 17 GPS-märkta vuxna älgkor och de sex rådjur som märktes i februari och mars 2017. Årsrapporten omfattar perioden mars 2017 och mars 2018. Projektet fokuserar på älgarnas rörelse, deras fördelning i landskapet, aktivitet, reproduktion och kalvöverlevnad. För rådjuren tittade vi på hemområdesstorlek,...
Article
The loss of megafauna at the terminal Pleistocene has been linked to a wide range of Earth-system-level changes, such as altered greenhouse gas budgets, fire regimes and biome-level vegetation changes. Given these influences and feedbacks, might part of the solution for mitigating anthropogenic climate change lie in the restoration of extant megafa...
Article
The loss of apex consumers (large mammals at the top of their food chain) is a major driver of global change [1]. Yet, research on the two main apex consumer guilds, large carnivores [2] and megaherbivores [3], has developed independently, overlooking any potential interactions. Large carnivores provoke behavioral responses in prey [1, 4], driving...
Article
Full-text available
Woody plant encroachment has increased across the globe and threatens biodiversity associated with open habitats. In order to prevent or reduce woody encroachment, conservation managers across Europe introduce large mammalian herbivores. While up to recently, managers were mostly using free-ranging domestic cattle and horses for this, there is an i...
Article
Large carnivores can be a key factor in shaping their ungulate prey's behavior, which may affect lower trophic levels. While most studies on trade-offs between food acquisition and risk avoidance by ungulate prey species have been conducted in areas with limited human impact, carnivores are now increasingly returning to highly anthropogenic landsca...
Article
Trophic rewilding is the introduction of species to restore top–down trophic interactions and associated trophic cascades to promote self-regulating biodiverse ecosystems. A core example of trophic rewilding is the restoration of large mammalian grazer communities to restore or maintain biodiverse open to half-open landscapes. Across Europe, cattle...
Article
Abstract It is commonly assumed that larger species are more vulnerable to extinction because of their low population densities and slow time to recover from setbacks. We report that, contrary to this expectation, it is the smaller ungulate species that first reached the brink of local extirpation within a 950 km2 fenced protected area, the Hluhluw...