Jørgen Melau

Jørgen Melau
Norwegian Armed Forces

PhD

About

25
Publications
5,505
Reads
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63
Citations
Citations since 2017
23 Research Items
63 Citations
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2017201820192020202120222023051015202530
Introduction
I recently finished my PhD. The title of my thesis was «Physiological changes following swimming in cold water in triathlon and military operations». We use BodyCap and iButton systems. I do statistics with Python. My main interest is Extreme Environments Physiology and Emergency Medicine. I have been working 10 years as a rescue paramedic in the air ambulance in Norway. I am Chief of Medical and Safety at the world´s hardest one-day endurance competition, the Norseman Xtreme Triathlon.
Additional affiliations
August 2015 - present
Vestfold Hospital Trust
Position
  • PhD Student
August 2012 - June 2017
Skogmo School of Prehospital Care
Position
  • Teacher
May 2005 - August 2015
AirAmbulance
Position
  • HEMS Rescue Paramedic
Education
August 2010 - June 2011
Norwegian Police College University
Field of study
  • Safety and organising of big events
August 2009 - June 2010
Aalborg University
Field of study
  • Medical Informatics
August 2002 - December 2003
Universitetet i Agder
Field of study
  • Nurse Anestehsiology

Publications

Publications (25)
Article
Full-text available
A common effort for both military and civil healthcare is to achieve knowledge-based health care in cold weather injuries and fatal accidents in harsh arctic environment. The Cold Weather Operations Conference in November 2021, having more than 300 participants from 20 countries, was addressing the prevention and treatment of injuries and trauma ca...
Thesis
Full-text available
Cold water activities have evolved increasingly popular. However, how this affects the body is relatively heterogeneous among individuals. For some, cold water swimming can be harmful. In his dissertation "Physiological changes following swimming in cold water in triathlon and military operations", Jørgen Melau and colleagues have studied how swimm...
Article
Funding Acknowledgements Type of funding sources: Foundation. Main funding source(s): Norwegian Health Association Introduction Ultra-endurance exercise can be harmful according to previous studies, indicated by reduction in functional parameters and increase in cardiac biomarkers. Changes in load and heart rate with exercise influence left ventri...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Special Operation Forces (SOF) operate regularly in extreme environmental conditions that may affect tactical and physical performance. The main aims of the present study were to elucidate the impact of a long cold-water swim on SOF recruits' dexterity, performance, and reaction time. Material and methods: Eleven recruits from Norweg...
Cover Page
Full-text available
The endothelial vasodilatory function is NO-dependent and has been found to be reduced in athletes finishing the Norseman Extreme Triathlon. To elucidate the NO metabolism after such strenuous exercise, we measured circulatory L-arginine, the L-arginine/ADMA ratio, and SDMA before and after the Norseman Xtreme Triathlon in forty subjects. We found...
Article
Full-text available
Endothelial vasodilatory function is dependent on the NO synthesis from L-arginine by endothelial NO-synthetase (eNOS). eNOS can be inhibited by asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) by competitive inhibition on the binding site, and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) can reduce the L-arginine availability intracellularly through competing for transpor...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract: Triathlon and other endurance races have grown in popularity. Although participants are generally fit and presumably healthy, there is measurable morbidity and mortality associated with participation. In triathlon, most deaths occur during the swim leg, and more insight into risk factors, such as hypothermia, is warranted. In this study,...
Article
Full-text available
We assessed endothelial function by flow-mediated dilatation (FMD), levels of the NO-precursor L-arginine, and markers of endothelial inflammation before, at the finish line, and one week after the Norseman Xtreme triathlon. The race is an Ironman distance triathlon with a total elevation of 5200 m. Nine male participants were included. They comple...
Article
Full-text available
Objective Recent terror attacks led the Norwegian government to develop a procedure for emergency and law enforcement services cooperation during Active Violent Incidents (AVI, abbreviated PLIVO in Norwegian). To address further national initiatives to improve preparedness for mass casualty events and penetrating injuries among emergency medical se...
Article
Full-text available
The acute effects of cold-water endurance swimming on the respiratory system have received little attention. We investigated pulmonary responses to cold-water endurance swimming in healthy recreational triathletes. Pulmonary function, alveolar diffusing capacity (DLCO), fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) and arterial oxygen saturation by pulse...
Article
Full-text available
Prolonged exercise is known to cause changes in common biomarkers. Occasionally, competition athletes need medical assistance and hospitalisation during prolonged exercise events. To aid clinicians treating patients and medical teams in such events we have studied common biomarkers after at The Norseman Xtreme Triathlon (Norseman), an Ironman dista...
Article
Full-text available
Choline is an essential nutrient that has been implicated in athletic performance due to its role in maintaining normal muscle function. The concentration of free choline in serum may decrease during long-distance high-intensity exercise, yet few nutritional strategies to counteract this potentially performance-depleting loss in choline have been i...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: To examine evidence of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) defined as ≥ 10% reduction in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 ) and exercise-induced arterial hypoxemia (EIAH) defined as ≥ 4% reduction in oxygen saturation (SpO2 ) from before to after participation in the Norseman Xtreme Triathlon. Secondarily, to assess...
Article
Full-text available
The cover image is based on the Original Article Lung function and oxygen saturation after participation in Norseman Xtreme Triathlon by TRINE STENSRUD** et al., https://doi.org/10.1111/sms.13651.*** image
Article
Full-text available
Swimming-induced pulmonary edema (SIPE) may develop during strenuous physical exertion in water. This case series reports on three cases of suspected late-presenting SIPE during the Norseman Xtreme Triathlon. A 30-year-old male professional (PRO) triathlete, a 40-year-old female AGE GROUP triathlete and a 34-year-old male AGE GROUP triathlete prese...
Article
Full-text available
Low water temperature (<15 °C) has been faced by many organizers of triathlons and swim-runs in the northern part of Europe during recent years. More knowledge about how cold water affects athletes swimming in wetsuits in cold water is warranted. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate the physiological response when swimming a fu...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Quality of bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) skills may influence out of hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) outcomes. We analyzed how the level of CPR training related to indicators of good CPR quality and also the relationship between self-reported skills and actual CPR performance. Methods: Two hundred thirty-seven persons...
Poster
Full-text available
Afterdrop is defined as a continuously drop in core temperature after the human body has been removed from the cold environment, and a feared condition increasing the severity of hypothermia. The mechanisms behind afterdrop is not yet fully understood, and both the magnitude and the pattern seem to vary between subjects exposed for hypothermia. The...
Poster
Full-text available
Massive bleeding as initial focus in a prehospital trauma life-support algorithm in Norwegian Armed Forces
Article
Full-text available
Background: Penetrating trauma kills rapidly. Thorough and efficient examination and aggressive hemorrhage control is important to save lives. The aim of this study was to assess the skills of civilian Emergency Medical Technicians (EMTs) in bleeding examination and control compared to Army Medics. Our hypothesis was that civilian pre-hospital sys...
Poster
Full-text available
Performance of Norwegian civilian EMTs and Army Medics in treating penetrating trauma.

Questions

Questions (2)
Question
I am recently in the process of teaching first aid personnel on how to manage traumatic injuries. In the case of a penetrating injury to the chest (like a knife stab), we will teach them to give oxygen, maybe a chest seal, and then rapid transport to a trauma hospital. Guidelines state that if the patient needs to be in a recovery position, the injured side of the thorax should be facing upward.
Could anyone help me explain why the upward position is the best position for a penetrating injury to the chest? Is there a physiological explanation? Or is it more a practical question? I can easily see that having the injuries facing upwards is more practical during transport for inspection and treatment.
Question
In Military Medicine and TCCC the term MARCH is used as acronym to assess a casualty and to prioritize treatment.
Different from the traditional ABC approach (Airway, Breathing, Circulation), TCCC and MARCH prioritizes Massive Hemorrhage/Bleeding ahead of other treatments as hemorrhage is the number one preventable death on the battlefield
The term has several different variants, like MARCH ON or MARCH-E PAWS-B.
Does anyone know the origin of this term? Is the origin the TCCC course or is the origin older than this?

Network

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Projects

Projects (2)
Project
Research from on of the hardest races in the world, the Norseman Xtreme Triathlon. www.nxtri.com