Jorge B Schvartzman

Jorge B Schvartzman
Spanish National Research Council | CSIC · Biological Research Centre

PhD

About

110
Publications
18,915
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2,409
Citations
Citations since 2017
24 Research Items
532 Citations
2017201820192020202120222023020406080100
2017201820192020202120222023020406080100
2017201820192020202120222023020406080100
2017201820192020202120222023020406080100
Introduction
Skills and Expertise
Additional affiliations
January 1991 - December 2011
Spanish National Research Council
January 1990 - present
Albert Einstein College of Medicine
January 1980 - present

Publications

Publications (110)
Article
Full-text available
DNA topoisomerases are the enzymes that regulate DNA topology in all living cells. Since the discovery and purification of ω (omega), when the first were topoisomerase identified, the function of many topoisomerases has been examined. However, their ability to relax supercoiling and unlink the pre-catenanes of partially replicated molecules has rec...
Article
Full-text available
The topology of DNA duplexes changes during replication and also after deproteinization in vitro. Here we describe these changes and then discuss for the first time how the distribution of superhelical stress affects the DNA topology of replication intermediates, taking into account the progression of replication forks. The high processivity of Top...
Article
DNA topology changes continuously as replication proceeds. Unwinding of the DNA duplex by helicases is favored by negative supercoiling but it causes the progressive accumulation of positive supercoiling ahead of the fork. This torsional stress must be removed for the fork to keep advancing. Elimination of this positive torsional stress may be acco...
Article
During replication, the topology of DNA changes continuously in response to well‐known activities of DNA helicases, polymerases, and topoisomerases. However, replisomes do not always progress at a constant speed and can slow‐down and even stall at precise sites. The way these changes in the rate of replisome progression affect DNA topology is not y...
Article
Full-text available
La línea celular murina MEL (Murine Erythroleukemia cell line) deriva de progenitores eritroides transformados con el complejo vírico Friend, formado por el “spleen focus forming virus” (SFFV) y el “Friend murine leukemia virus” (F-MuLV). Un atributo extremadamente útil de las células MEL radica en su capacidad para retomar el programa de diferenci...
Article
Full-text available
Due to helical structure of DNA, massive amounts of positive supercoils are constantly introduced ahead of each replication fork. Positive supercoiling inhibits progression of replication forks but various mechanisms evolved that permit very efficient relaxation of that positive supercoiling. Some of these mechanisms lead to interesting topological...
Article
Full-text available
Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) is a recessive X-linked inmmunodeficiency caused by loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding the WAS protein (WASp). WASp plays an important role in the polymerization of the actin cytoskeleton in hematopoietic cells through activation of the Arp2/3 complex. In a previous study, we found that actin cytoskeleton...
Chapter
Two-dimensional agarose gel electrophoresis is the method of choice to identify and quantify all the topological forms DNA molecules can adopt in vivo. Here we describe the materials and protocols needed to analyze catenanes, the natural outcome of DNA replication, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We describe the formation of pre-catenanes during repli...
Article
Full-text available
Simian Virus 40 (SV40) and Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) are frequently used as model systems to study DNA replication. Their genomes are both circular duplex DNAs organized in a single replicon where replication initiates at a precise site upon binding of a specific protein: the large tumor (T) antigen for SV40 and the Epstein-Barr Nuclear Antigen 1 (E...
Article
Full-text available
In eukaryotes, ribosomal genes (rDNA) are organized in tandem repeats localized in one or a few clusters. Each repeat encompasses a transcription unit and a non-transcribed spacer. Replication forks moving in the direction opposite to transcription are blocked at specific sites called replication fork barriers (rRFBs) in the non-transcribed spacer...
Article
Full-text available
Development of drug resistance limits the effectiveness of anticancer treatments. Understanding the molecular mechanisms triggering this event in tumor cells may lead to improved therapeutic strategies. Here we used RNA-seq to compare the transcriptomes of a murine erythroleukemia cell line (MEL) and a derived cell line with induced resistance to d...
Data
Control for sample loading with tubulin Raw data for Fig. 8.
Data
Workflow outlining RNA-seq data analysis The programs used for each step are detailed to the right of the workflow.
Data
Heat maps of genes differentially expressed between MEL and MEL-R cell lines (A) Clusters of differentially expressed genes obtained with DESeq. (B) Heat map zoomed to amplify the genes with higher expression values. Genes related to the actin cytoskeletal network are indicated by red asterisks. Sfpi/PU.1 is marked with a green asterisk. The color...
Data
Cuffdiff/DESeq analysis List of differentially expressed genes analysed by Cuffdiff and DESeq.
Data
List of actin cytoskeletal primers used for qRT-PCR
Data
Heterochromatin in MEL-DS19 and MEL-R cells (A) Confocal immunofluorescence microscopy of untreated (0 h) or HMBA-treated MEL (72 h) and MEL-R cells stained with a mouse monoclonal anti-HP1 α antibody (green). Nuclear DNA was stained with DAPI (blue). Scale bar is 50 µm. (B) Flow cytometer analysis of HP1 α fluorescence levels in the samples descri...
Data
List of histone primers used for RT-qPCR analysis
Data
List of Dnmts and Tets primers used for qRT-PCR
Data
List of primers used for bisulfite analysis
Preprint
Full-text available
Development of drug resistance limits the effectiveness of anticancer treatments. Understanding the molecular mechanisms triggering this event in tumor cells may lead to improved therapeutic strategies. Here we used RNA-seq to compare the transcriptomes of an erythroleukemia progenitor cell line (MEL-DS19) and a derived cell line with induced resis...
Preprint
Full-text available
Development of drug resistance limits the effectiveness of anticancer treatments. Understanding the molecular mechanisms triggering this event in tumor cells may lead to improved therapeutic strategies. Here we used RNA-seq to compare the transcriptomes of an erythroleukemia progenitor cell line (MEL-DS19) and a derived cell line with induced resis...
Article
Full-text available
The dynamics of DNA topology during replication is still poorly understood. Bacterial plasmids are negatively supercoiled. This underwinding facilitates strand separation of the DNA duplex during replication. Leading the replisome, a DNA helicase separates the parental strands that are to be used as templates. This strand separation causes overwind...
Article
Full-text available
We systematically varied conditions of two-dimensional (2D) agarose gel electrophoresis to optimize separation of DNA topoisomers that differ either by the extent of knotting, the extent of catenation or the extent of supercoiling. To this aim we compared electrophoretic behavior of three different families of DNA topoisomers: (i) supercoiled DNA m...
Article
Full-text available
DNA topoisomerases are thought to play a critical role in transcription, replication and recombination as well as in the condensation and segregation of sister duplexes during cell division. Here, we used high-resolution two-dimensional agarose gel electrophoresis to study the replication intermediates and final products of small circular and linea...
Article
Full-text available
In mice, the proviral integration of the Friend Spleen Focus Forming Virus (SFFV) within the PU.1 locus of erythroid precursors results in the development of erythroleukemia. SFFV integrates several kilobases upstream of the PU.1 transcription initiation start site leading to the constitutive activation of the gene which in turn results in a block...
Article
Two-dimensional (2D) agarose gel electrophoresis is nowadays one of the best methods available to analyze DNA molecules with different masses and shapes. The possibility to use nicking enzymes and intercalating agents to change the twist of DNA during only one or in both runs, improves the capacity of 2D gels to discern molecules that apparently ma...
Article
DNA topology changes dynamically during DNA replication. Supercoiling, precatenation, catenation and knotting interplay throughout the process that is finely regulated by DNA topoisomerases. In the present article, we provide an overview of theoretical and experimental approaches to understand the interplay between various manifestations of topolog...
Article
Two-dimensional (2D) agarose gel electrophoresis is one of the most powerful methods to analyze the mass and shape of replication intermediates. It is often use to map replication origins but it is also useful to characterize termination of replication, replication fork barriers and even replication fork reversal. Here, we present protocols, figure...
Article
Full-text available
Terminal differentiation is the process by which cycling cells stop proliferating to start new specific functions. It involves dramatic changes in chromatin organization as well as gene expression. In the present report we used cell flow cytometry and genome wide DNA combing to investigate DNA replication during murine erythroleukemia-induced termi...
Article
Full-text available
DNA topology plays a crucial role in all living cells. In prokaryotes, negative supercoiling is required to initiate replication and either negative or positive supercoiling assists decatenation. The role of DNA knots, however, remains a mystery. Knots are very harmful for cells if not removed efficiently, but DNA molecules become knotted in vivo....
Article
Full-text available
DNA topoisomerase II completely removes DNA intertwining, or catenation, between sister chromatids before they are segregated during cell division. How this occurs throughout the genome is poorly understood. We demonstrate that in yeast, centromeric plasmids undergo a dramatic change in their topology as the cells pass through mitosis. This change...
Article
Full-text available
Yeast Reb1 and its mammalian ortholog TTF1 are conserved Myb-type DNA-binding proteins that bind to specific sites near the 3'-end of rRNA genes (rDNA). Here, they participate in the termination of transcription driven by RNA polymerase I and block DNA replication forks approaching in the opposite direction. We found that Schizosaccharomyces pombe...
Article
Full-text available
The transcriptional response of Streptococcus pneumoniae was examined after exposure to the GyrB-inhibitor novobiocin. Topoisomer distributions of an internal plasmid confirmed DNA relaxation and recovery of the native level of supercoiling at low novobiocin concentrations. This was due to the up-regulation of DNA gyrase and the down-regulation of...
Article
During the last 20 years, two-dimensional agarose gel electrophoresis combined with other techniques such as Polymerase Chain Reaction, helicase assay and electron microscopy, helped to characterize plasmid DNA replication and topology. Here we describe some of the most important findings that were made using this method including the characterizat...
Article
Full-text available
The discrete regulation of supercoiling, catenation and knotting by DNA topoisomerases is well documented both in vivo and in vitro, but the interplay between them is still poorly understood. Here we studied DNA catenanes of bacterial plasmids arising as a result of DNA replication in Escherichia coli cells whose topoisomerase IV activity was inhib...
Article
DNA recombination was investigated by monitoring integration at the rDNA of a circular minichromosome containing a 35S minigene and a replication fork barrier (RFB). The effects of replication fork stalling on integration were studied in wild-type, FOB1Delta, SIR2Delta and the double mutant FOB1DeltaSIR2Delta cells. The results obtained confirmed t...
Article
Full-text available
Speaking to scientists about the need for more support and funding for basic scientific research usually amounts to ‘preaching to the converted’. Indeed, just a few years ago, there would have been no rationale for writing a defence of such an enterprise. Yet, recent interactions with scientists and physicians have made us aware that even the peopl...
Article
Friend murine erythroleukemia cell lines derive from erythroblasts transformed with the Friend complex where the spleen-focus forming virus integrated in the vicinity of the Sfpi-1 locus. Erythroleukemia cells do not differentiate and grow indefinitely in the absence of erythropoietin. Activation of the transcription factor PU.1, encoded by the Sfp...
Article
A series of circular shuttle vectors were constructed that could replicate and transcribe in the cells of both Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. 2-D agarose gel electrophoresis run without or in the presence of different concentrations of chloroquine (CHL) revealed that bacterial plasmids were more negatively (-) supercoiled than minic...
Article
Full-text available
Replication fork reversal was investigated in undigested and linearized replication intermediates of bacterial DNA plasmids containing a stalled fork. Two-dimensional agarose gel electrophoresis, a branch migration and extrusion assay, electron microscopy, and DNA-psoralen cross-linking were used to show that extensive replication fork reversal and...
Article
Full-text available
Two-dimensional agarose gel electrophoresis, psoralen cross-linking, and electron microscopy were used to study the effects of positive supercoiling on fork reversal in isolated replication intermediates of bacterial DNA plasmids. The results obtained demonstrate that the formation of Holliday-like junctions at both forks of a replication bubble cr...
Article
Full-text available
Schizosaccharomyces pombe rRNA genes contain three replication fork barriers (RFB1-3) located in the nontranscribed spacer. RFB2 and RFB3 require binding of the transcription terminator factor Reb1p to two identical recognition sequences that colocalize with these barriers. RFB1, which is the strongest of the three barriers, functions in a Reb1p-in...
Article
Full-text available
Clk/STY is a LAMMER protein kinase capable to phosphorylate serine/arginine-rich (SR) proteins that modulate pre-mRNA splicing. Clk/STY alternative splicing generates transcripts encoding a full-length kinase and a truncated catalytically inactive protein. Here we showed that clk/STY, as well as other members of the family (e.g. clk2, clk3 and clk4...
Article
Full-text available
Schizosaccharomyces pombe rRNA genes contain three replication fork barriers (RFB1-3) located in the nontranscribed spacer. RFB2 and RFB3 require binding of the transcription terminator factor Reb1p to two identical recognition sequences that colocalize with these barriers. RFB1, which is the strongest of the three barriers, functions in a Reb1p-in...
Data
Full-text available
Schizosaccharomyces pombe rRNA genes contain three replication fork barriers (RFB1-3) located in the nontranscribed spacer. RFB2 and RFB3 require binding of the transcription terminator factor Reb1p to two identical recognition sequences that colocalize with these barriers. RFB1, which is the strongest of the three barriers, functions in a Reb1p-in...
Article
Full-text available
The replication of circular DNA faces topological obstacles that need to be overcome to allow the complete duplication and separation of newly replicated molecules. Small bacterial plasmids provide a perfect model system to study the interplay between DNA helicases, polymerases, topoisomerases and the overall architecture of partially replicated mo...
Article
Full-text available
Polar replication fork barriers (RFBs) near the 3′ end of the rRNA transcriptional unit are a conserved feature of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) replication in eukaryotes. In the mouse, in vivo studies indicate that the cis-acting Sal boxes required for rRNA transcription termination are also involved in replication fork blockage. On the contrary, in the bu...
Article
Full-text available
Murine erythroleukemia (MEL) cells undergo erythroid differentiation in vitro when treated with hexamethylene bisacetamide (HMBA). To identify genes involved in the commitment of MEL cells to differentiate, we screened a cDNA library constructed from HMBA-induced cells by differential hybridization and isolated GTPase Ran as a down-regulated gene....
Article
Full-text available
In the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae replication forks progressing against transcription stall at a polar replication fork barrier (RFB) located close to and downstream of the 35S transcription unit. Forks blocked at this barrier are potentially recombinogenic. Plasmids bearing the RFB sequence in its active orientation integrate...
Article
The topology of plasmid DNA changes continuously as replication progresses. But the dynamics of the process remains to be fully understood. Knotted bubbles form when topo IV knots the daughter duplexes behind the fork in response to their degree of intertwining. Here, we show that knotted bubbles can form during unimpaired DNA replication, but they...
Article
Collision of transcription and replication is uncommon, but the reason for nature to avoid this type of collision is still poorly understood. In Escherichia coli pBR322 is unstable and rapidly lost without selective pressure. Stability can be rescued if transcription of the tetracycline-resistance gene (Tet(R)), progressing against replication, is...
Article
Full-text available
To study the structure of partially replicated plasmids, we cloned the Escherichia coli polar replication terminator TerE in its active orientation at different locations in the ColE1 vector pBR18. The resulting plasmids, pBR18-TerE@StyI and pBR18-TerE@EcoRI, were analyzed by neutral/neutral two-dimensional agarose gel electrophoresis and electron...
Article
Full-text available
There are two modes of bacteriophage lambda DNA replication following infection of its host, Escherichia coli. Early after infection, replication occurs according to the theta (theta or circle-to-circle) mode, and is later switched to the sigma (sigma or rolling-circle) mode. It is not known how this switch, occurring at a specific time in the infe...
Article
In Escherichia coli plasmids carrying two inversely oriented ColE1 origins, DNA replication initiates at only one of the two potential origins. The other silent origin acts as a replication fork barrier. Whether this barrier is permanent or simply a pausing site remains unknown. Here, we used a repeated primer extension assay to map in vivo, at the...
Article
Full-text available
Two-dimensional (2D) agarose gel electrophoresis was used to study termination of DNA replication in a shuttle vector, YRp7', when it replicated in Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Xenopus egg extracts. In E. coli, the 2D gel patterns obtained were consistent with uni-directional replication initiated at a specific site, the ColE1 ori...
Article
Full-text available
Blockage of replication forks can have deleterious consequences for the cell as it may prompt premature termination of DNA replication. Moreover, the blocked replication intermediate (RI) could be particularly sensitive to recombination processes. We analysed the different populations of RIs generated in vivo in the bacterial plasmid pPI21 after pa...
Article
It was previously shown that in pea (Pisum sativum), rDNA repeats contain a polar replication fork barrier that blocks progression of the replication machinery moving in the direction opposite to transcription. This barrier maps in the untranscribed spacer close to the 3' end of the 25S gene. Very similar barriers are also found in the rDNA of yeas...
Article
Bacterial plasmids with two origins of replication in convergent orientation are frequently knotted in vivo. The knots formed are localised within the newly replicated DNA regions. Here, we analyse DNA knots tied within replication bubbles of such plasmids, and observe that the knots formed show predominantly positive signs of crossings. We propose...