Jorge Manzi

Jorge Manzi
Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile | UC · Centro de Medición MIDE UC

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89
Publications
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Publications

Publications (89)
Article
Las propiedades psicométricas de la versión en español de la escala de Atención Plena (Mindfulness) Interpersonal en la Parentalidad (IM-P) fueron examinadas en una muestra de 111 madres de niños y niñas de edad preescolar en Santiago de Chile. La estructura de cinco factores de la escala IM-P original no fue completamente respaldada mediante análi...
Article
Introducción. El estigma se ha asociado negativamente al control metabólico y la calidad de vida de pacientes con diabetes de tipo 2. El cuestionario Diabetes Stigma Assesment Scale 2 (DSAS 2) fue diseñado para medir específicamente el estigma asociado en personas con este tipo de diabetes. Sin embargo, las propiedades psicométricas de su versión e...
Article
Full-text available
Type 2 diabetes is a global epidemic, and many people feel stigmatized for having this disease. The stigma is a relevant barrier to diabetes management. However, evidence in this regard is scarce in Latin America. This study aimed to analyze the level of stigma surrounding type 2 diabetes in the Colombian population and its relationships with socio...
Chapter
This chapter analyzes and summarizes the evidence regarding the university’s entry admissions evaluation that is part of the Unified Admissions System (SUA from the acronym in Spanish of Sistema Único de Admisión) established by the universities of the Council of Rectors in Chile. It summarizes the antecedents that led to the adoption of this test...
Article
La diabetes es una epidemia a nivel mundial. Los factores psicosociales han sido reconocidos como un elemento importante en el manejo y control de la enfermedad. El estigma asociado a la diabetes ha emergido recientemente como un nuevo factor psicosocial que afecta negativamente la salud de los pacientes con diabetes. Sin embargo, la evidencia reci...
Book
This edited volume presents a systematic analysis of conceptual, methodological and applied aspects related to the validation of educational tests used in Latin American countries. Inspired by international standards on educational measurement and evaluation, this book illustrates efforts that have been made in several countries to validate differe...
Article
In this study, we examined the intergenerational transmission of collective action from parents to children. Using a mixed‐method approach combining quantitative and qualitative analysis, we analysed data from 100 dyads of activist parents in Chile (involved in the mobilizations against the dictatorship during the 1980s) and their adult children (N...
Article
The present research demonstrates intergenerational influences on collective action participation, whereby parents’ past and current participation in collective action (descriptive family norms) shape their children’s participation in conventional and radical collective action via injunctive family norms (perception that parents value such particip...
Technical Report
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Este número de MIDEvidencias reporta los resultados de un módulo de la encuesta Foco Ciudadano de MIDE Sociedad, en el que nos enfocamos en caracterizar el uso de Internet y redes sociales en la población chilena, explorando las creencias, motivaciones y temores asociados a este uso, y su relación con aspectos relativos con el bienestar psicológico...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: To validate an instrument measuring the cultural competence in health care workers from Chile. Methods: Using Sue & Sue's theoretical model of cultural competence, we designed a scale, which was assessed by health care workers and experts. Subsequently, the scale was applied to a sample of 483 different health care workers, during 201...
Article
This study purports to explore the degree of universality of the constructs involving self-beliefs, intrinsic motivation, and engagement in 58 countries. The study conducted a factor invariance analysis of six background questionnaires of the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMMS) 2011 fourth-grade. The intrinsic motivation s...
Book
Las mediciones educacionales han tenido un fuerte desarrollo en Latinoamérica en los últimos años y, al mismo tiempo, se les han ido otorgando usos cada vez más amplios y con mayor impacto a nivel individual, institucional y nacional. Sin embargo, este desarrollo no se ha acompañado de un esfuerzo sistemático para respaldar tales mediciones, con ev...
Chapter
Religion is deeply connected to the understanding of life and death and, as a result, the right to life is central to most religions. This chapter addresses the role that religion and religiosity play in the protection of the right to life, as they are compromised in situations related to abortion, euthanasia and the death penalty. This chapter ana...
Chapter
Este capítulo resume y analiza evidencia acerca de las pruebas de selección universitaria que forman parte del Sistema Único de Admisión (SUA) establecido por las universi- dades del Consejo de Rectores de Chile. Se sintetizan los antecedentes que llevaron a la adopción de esta prueba (PSU) a comienzos de la década del 2000, alineándola al currícul...
Article
An important challenge in evaluating the quality of teaching is to arrive at valid distinctions between teachers, particularly in the middle of the performance distribution. This study addressed this issue for the Chilean national teacher evaluation system. Mathematics teachers (N = 51) from the 2 middle adjacent performance categories, and their s...
Technical Report
Full-text available
La literatura internacional sobre rotación de profesores plantea que esta se encuentra conectada con el nivel socioeconómico de las escuelas. Sin embargo, esa relación no siempre es encontrada en los estudios nacionales. En esta investigación se estima quiénes son los docentes, de dónde provienen y en qué momento se encuentran cuando presentan el m...
Article
Full-text available
The current study examines the extent to which religiosity account for ideological orientations in 16 countries from five continents (Australia, Brazil, Chile, Germany, Greece, Finland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Poland, Slovakia, Spain, Turkey, Ukraine, the United Kingdom, and the United States). Results showed that religiosity was consistently related...
Preprint
Despite extensive research on intergroup contact and acculturation, our understanding of howcontact affects receiving society members' preferences for acculturation orientation ofimmigrants over time is still relatively rudimentary. This longitudinal study examined howperceived group similarity and outgroup trust mediate the effects of cross-group...
Article
Despite extensive research on intergroup contact and acculturation, our understanding of how contact affects receiving society members’ preferences for acculturation orientation of immigrants over time is still relatively rudimentary. This longitudinal study examined how perceived group similarity and outgroup trust mediate the effects of cross‐gro...
Chapter
Among the various issues involved in the relationship between religion and human rights, there is one that seems essential to the relationship between religion and politics; and more specifically, to the understanding of the role of religion in the public sphere. In this study, we investigate Chilean youth’s perception of the role of religion in th...
Presentation
La literatura internacional de rotación de profesores plantea que ésta se encuentra conectada con el nivel socioeconómico de las escuelas. Sin embargo, esta relación no siempre es encontrada en los estudios nacionales. En esta investigación, se estima quiénes, de dónde y, cuándo se encuentran en mayor riesgo de dejar su primer trabajo. Empleando la...
Article
Full-text available
Two surveys were conducted in Chile with indigenous Mapuche participants (N study 1: 573; N study 2: 198). In line with previous theorising, it was predicted that intergroup contact with the non-indigenous majority reduces prejudice. It was expected that this effect would be because of contact leading to more knowledge about the outgroup, which wou...
Book
La transición entre la etapa escolar y la vida adulta está muchas veces marcada por una revisión de las creencias más arraigadas que tienen los jóvenes, y por el análisis que hacen de la cultura y de su entorno social más inmediato. En esta etapa de transición vital, aspectos tan relevantes como las identidades, creencias y prácticas sociales, polí...
Article
Full-text available
The current study examines the contribution of left–right (or liberal–conservative) ideology to voting, as well as the extent to which basic values account for ideological orientation. Analyses were conducted in 16 countries from five continents (Europe, North America, South America, Asia, and Oceania), most of which have been neglected by previous...
Article
In three experiments (N = 56, 99, and 225) we showed that racial phenotypicality bias characterizes educational expectations for Chilean mestizo students: Participants displayed more positive educational expectations for light complexioned than for dark complexioned high school students. In Study 1, with male high school target students, the relati...
Article
La preocupación por la equidad en la medición educacional ha llevado a desarrollar diversos procedimientos para evaluar el potencial sesgo asociado a características sociodemográficas de los examinados. Estos procedimientos incluyen la validez y la predicción diferencial de los tests. En el primer caso, se analiza el grado de asociación entre los t...
Article
Full-text available
AbstrAct This paper assesses the extent to which teachers' actions in the classroom influence the school environment. The assessment is based on a statistical analysis of videotaped classroom observations of 51,329 teachers. The classroom environment was found to have a significant influence on students' performance. More specifically, the teacher'...
Article
Full-text available
This paper investigates the validity of a national, standards-based teacher evaluation programme by examining the relationship between teachers’ evaluation results and their students’ learning progress. We used census achievement data that assessed the same cohort of students at the end of 8th and 10th grade. We applied multilevel modelling and cal...
Article
Full-text available
Chile ha emprendido recientemente reformas que utilizan la información proveniente del Sistema de Medición de la Calidad de la Educación (SIMCE) para fijar metas de desempeño y evaluar a las escuelas. Sin embargo, pese a la importancia de este tipo de exámenes para la medición de aprendizajes y la retroalimentación de las políticas educativas, no s...
Article
Full-text available
Using data from 28 countries in four continents, the present research addresses the question of how basic values may account for political activism. Study 1 (N = 35,116) analyses data from representative samples in 20 countries that responded to the 21-item version of the Portrait Values Questionnaire (PVQ-21) in the European Social Survey. Study 2...
Article
Value added is a common tool in educational research on effectiveness. It is often modeled as a (prediction of a) random effect in a specific hierarchical linear model. This paper shows that this modeling strategy is not valid when endogeneity is present. Endogeneity stems, for instance, from a correlation between the random effect in the hierarchi...
Article
Full-text available
When there is neither direct experience nor formal socialization about a historical issue, the means of remembering rely only on collective memory. This study was based on interviews that addressed representations, explanations, and evaluations regarding the 1973 coup in Chile, in an intentional sample of 213 pre-adolescent students (mean age 11)....
Article
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In 2 correlational studies conducted in Santiago de Chile (N1= 996 and N2= 841) -with samples based on quotas of socioeconomic status, age, and gender- 2 hypotheses were tested: (a) that Chileans socialized in different political context (before, during or after the dictatorship) and who have different political orientations (left, center or right)...
Article
Full-text available
In the context of the Chilean political reconciliation process, the present study conceptualizes and tests a meditational model that examines the relational pattern established between social identities (national and political) and attitudes toward political forgiveness and reparation, mediated by intergroup emotional factors (anger, empathy, trust...
Article
Full-text available
Do the political values of the general public form a coherent system? What might be the source of coherence? We view political values as expressions, in the political domain, of more basic personal values. Basic personal values (e.g., security, achievement, benevolence, hedonism) are organized on a circular continuum that reflects their conflicting...
Article
The associations between school performance and cognitive abilities with birth characteristics have mostly been studied without taking into consideration the effects of gestational age (GA). Our aim was to study the association between prenatal growth and cognitive function in term-born Chilean school children. A cohort of over 200,000 term-born fo...
Article
Prejudice is more prevalent among members of the working class than among members of the middle or upper class. It is still a matter of discussion whether education works to suppress prejudice among upper class members or, on the contrary, to enhance genuinely tolerant attitudes. We propose that (i) two indicators of social class—income and educati...
Article
Full-text available
La importancia que tiene el fortalecimiento de las prácticas docentes para mejorar la calidad y equidad de la educación es aceptada mundialmente por los actores claves de las políticas educativas. Según un reciente informe de la Organización para la Cooperación y el Desarrollo Económicos (OCDE, 2013) muchos actores también concuerdan en que la eval...
Article
This paper reports on a study of the consequences of a national, standards-based, teacher evaluation system mandatory in Chile since 2005. The focus is on intended and unintended consequences at the municipal (local) level where the evaluation results are supposed to inform educational policies related to hiring and firing, professional development...
Article
Full-text available
This paper reports on a study of the consequences of a national, standards-based, teacher evaluation system mandatory in Chile since 2005. The focus is on intended and unintended consequences at the municipal (local) level where the evaluation results are supposed to inform educational policies related to hiring and firing, professional development...
Article
The goal of this qualitative study was to develop a model that demonstrates how a certification of teaching excellence programme intends to produce its desired effects. This so-alled 'programme theory' reflects the opinions of N = 11 programme designers representing four stakeholder groups, whose perceptions were captured using semi-structured inte...
Article
This paper addresses the perceived consequences of the Chilean national teacher evaluation system. We interviewed 57 school leaders in 30 schools across 10 municipalities about effects and uses of the assessment in their schools. Results show that in the large majority of schools our interviewees observe positive effects such as increased teamwork...
Article
Full-text available
Objective. To evaluate the utility of a career certification test, as a written test to measure skills defined in the graduate profile of the nursing curriculum. Methodology. The test was developed based in the definition of its characteristics, approach of the objectives, evaluated content definition, description of the questions characteristics,...
Article
The goal of this qualitative study was to assess the consequences of the "Excellence in Teaching Program", open for teachers of both public and private-subsidized schools since 2002. We interviewed N = 60 school leaders from N = 30 schools; conducted N = 5 focus groups with 35 certified teachers; and interviewed 10 teachers who failed in their appl...
Article
Full-text available
The goal of this qualitative study was to assess the consequences of the "Excellence in Teaching Program", open for teachers of both public and private-subsidized schools since 2002. We interviewed N = 60 school leaders from N = 30 schools; conducted N = 5 focus groups with 35 certified teachers; and interviewed 10 teachers who failed in their appl...
Article
The paper describes a study conducted to explicate the multiple theories underlying Chile's national teacher evaluation program. These theories will serve as the basis for evaluating the intended consequences of this evaluation system, while not losing sight of emerging unintended consequences. We first analyzed legal and policy documents and then...
Article
Full-text available
Based on a longitudinal study about political culture in Chile, we discuss the paradoxical evidence found in the literature suggesting, on the one hand, that the more pro-democratic and anti-authoritarian political attitudes are expected to be observed in higher economic level groups and, on the other hand, more conservative and anti-egalitarian at...
Article
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A partir de un estudio longitudinal sobre cultura política en chilenos, discutimos la paradojal evidencia encontrada en la literatura que plantea que, por un lado, las actitudes políticas más pro-democráticas y anti-autoritarias se observarían en sectores sociales acomodados y, por otro lado, las actitudes más pro-conservadoras y anti-igualitarista...
Article
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Three studies examined the roles of traditional and novel social psychological variables involved in intergroup forgiveness. Study 1 (N = 480) revealed that among the pro-Pinochet and the anti-Pinochet groups in Chile, forgiveness was predicted by ingroup identity (negatively), common ingroup identity (positively), empathy and trust (positively), a...
Article
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Three studies examined the hypothesis that collective guilt and shame have different consequences for reparation. In 2 longitudinal studies, the ingroup was nonindigenous Chileans (Study 1: N = 124/120, lag = 8 weeks; Study 2: N = 247/137, lag = 6 months), and the outgroup was Chile's largest indigenous group, the Mapuche. In both studies, it was f...
Article
This paper reports a survey (N = 1,465) conducted in Chile that was conceived to understand the role of coalition identification as an important sociopsychological mechanism for promoting positive affects toward own-coalition party members in a multiparty system, above and beyond interparty political differences. Participants judged their own polit...
Article
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Citizen's trust in political institutions is important for democracies. However, there are doubts regarding the nature of trust judgments. We argue that trust judgments concerning political institutions centrally involve the consideration of both the preparation and resources of the institutions that enable it to fulfill its goals (capacity), and t...
Article
Citizen's trust in political institutions is important for democracies. However, there are doubts regarding the nature of trust judgments. We argue that trust judgments concerning political institutions centrally involve the consideration of both the preparation and resources of the institutions that enable it to fulfill its goals (capacity), and t...
Article
Full-text available
In this study our focus was on forgiveness and reparation as 2 major manifestations of the Chilean political reconciliation processes initiated after the recovery of democracy in 1990. Beyond the conceptual differences between forgiveness and reparation, this study analyzes the differential relations they have with important cognitive (victimizatio...
Article
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This paper reports a study which analyzes attitudes and orientations of a group with growing significance in Chilean politics: people who do not identify with political parties or coalitions. The study was organized around a set of hypotheses derived from Social Identity Theory and previous research on generalized political attitudes. Participants...
Article
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En el presente artículo se muestran resultados de una investigación cualitativa sobre memoria colectiva acerca de los hechos acontecidos el 11 de Septiembre de 1973 en Chile, sus causas y sus consecuencias. Sobre la base de datos provenientes de 44 entrevistas semiestructuradas, se realizó un análisis cualitativo de contenidos y uno lingüístico. Lo...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, results of a qualitative research about collective memory of the facts, causes, and consequences concerning September 11th 1973 in Chile, are presented. Starting from 44 half-structured interviews, both, a qualitative content analysis, and a linguistic analysis were made. The results show a distinction between the content of collecti...
Article
Full-text available
Resumen El presente artículo muestra los resultados de una encuesta de opinión pública acerca del 11 de septiembre de 1973 y el Régimen Militar, aplicada a 792 personas de la Región Metropolitana. La muestra contempló participantes de distintas orientaciones ideológicas y de tres generaciones políticas: quienes cumplieron 18 años antes de 1973, los...
Article
Artificial social categories were created in a laboratory context in order to test predictions regarding the relative importance of group size and status as determinants of in-group favoritism. Subjects were assigned to categories of “overestimator” or “under estimator” and were told that one category included a majority of college students while t...
Article
Full-text available
Two experiments were conducted to investigate: (a) the influence of the "subjugation control over nature" value orientation, a dimension of cultural variation, on attribution processes; and (b) the effect of activation of beliefs associated with this value orientation on attribution processes and helping behavior. In Experiment 1, introductory psyc...
Article
The aim of this research was on one side, the clarification of guilt feeling and, on the other, its links with aggression. The first study was devoted to the examination of guilt feeling. Bidimensionality of guilt was hypothesized. Two scales (Fear of Punishment and Need for Reparation) were administered to 149 UCLA undergraduates. Results confirme...
Article
Full-text available
This study compared first and most recent use situations of adolescent smokeless tobacco experimenters with those of adolescent cigarette experimenters. Structured, open-ended interviews were conducted with 320 seventh and tenth grade youths in 16 Southern California schools. Students were categorized as nonusers (those who had never experimented w...