Jorge Chavarro

Jorge Chavarro
Harvard University | Harvard · Department of Nutrition

MD, ScD

About

529
Publications
53,810
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16,067
Citations
Citations since 2016
374 Research Items
13769 Citations
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201620172018201920202021202205001,0001,5002,0002,5003,000
201620172018201920202021202205001,0001,5002,0002,5003,000

Publications

Publications (529)
Article
Background Adherence to healthy lifestyles can be beneficial for depression among adults, but the intergenerational impact of maternal healthy lifestyles on offspring depressive symptoms is unknown. Methods In total, 10 368 mothers in Nurses' Health Study II and 13 478 offspring in the Growing Up Today Study were paired. Maternal and offspring hea...
Article
Background: Females with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are at higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) later in life. Objective: This study prospectively examined whether greater habitual coffee consumption was related to a lower risk of T2D among females with a history of GDM. Methods: We followed 4522 parti...
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Purpose To investigate whether history of comorbidities is associated with markers of ovarian reserve among subfertile women. Methods This observational study includes 645 women seeking fertility care at the Massachusetts General Hospital who enrolled in the Environment and Reproductive Health (EARTH) study (2005–2019). Women completed a comprehen...
Article
Objective To investigate barriers in accessing care for infertility in Mexico, as little is known about this issue for low and middle-income countries, which comprise 80% of the world’s population. Design Cross-sectional analysis Setting Mexican Teachers’ Cohort Patients 115,315 female public-school teachers from 12 states in Mexico Interventio...
Article
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Importance Menstrual cycle characteristics may be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, existing studies are limited, and few have explored the mediating role of established CVD risk factors. Objective To explore the associations of menstrual cycle characteristics across the reproductive lifespan with the risk...
Article
Published studies report inconsistent associations of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) risk. We conducted a nested case-control study in Nurses' Health Study and Health Professionals Follow-Up Study participants to evaluate a hypothesis of inverse association of pre-diagnosis red blood cell (RBC) membrane PUF...
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Background Breastfeeding has been associated with a reduced maternal long-term risk of chronic diseases, but its association with mortality is poorly known. Methods We included 166,708 female United States (US) nurses from the Nurses’ Health Study (1986-2016) and the Nurses’ Health Study II (1989-2019) who experienced at least one pregnancy lastin...
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Objective Energy drinks are consumed for a variety of reasons, including to boost mental alertness and energy. We assessed associations between demographic factors and various high-risky behaviours with energy drink consumption as they may be linked to adverse health events. Design We conducted cross-sectional analysis including basic descriptive...
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Objective To assess whether maternal ultra-processed food intake during peripregnancy and during the child rearing period is associated with offspring risk of overweight or obesity during childhood and adolescence. Design Population based prospective cohort study. Setting The Nurses’ Health Study II (NHSII) and the Growing Up Today Study (GUTS I...
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Background Weight loss is crucial for disease prevention among individuals with overweight or obesity. This study aimed to examine associations of weight loss strategies (WLSs) with weight change and type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk among US health professionals. Methods and findings This study included 93,110 participants (24 to 60 years old; 11.6% mal...
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Objectives To evaluate the individual and combined associations of five modifiable risk factors with risk of type 2 diabetes among women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus and examine whether these associations differ by obesity and genetic predisposition to type 2 diabetes. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Nurses’ Health Stu...
Article
Objective: We examined longitudinal associations of psychosocial stressors with menopausal symptoms and well-being of women in midlife in a longitudinal cohort. Methods: This study is based on 682 women from Project Viva, a prospective cohort enrolled in 1999 to 2002 during pregnancy (median age = 33.3 y) and followed for almost two decades. In...
Article
Importance: Few risk factors for long-lasting (≥4 weeks) COVID-19 symptoms have been identified. Objective: To determine whether high levels of psychological distress before SARS-CoV-2 infection, characterized by depression, anxiety, worry, perceived stress, and loneliness, are prospectively associated with increased risk of developing post-COVI...
Article
Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the extent to which self-reported menstrual cycle length during reproductive years is associated with menopausal symptoms and age at natural menopause at midlife. Methods: This analysis includes 634 women who enrolled in Project Viva during pregnancy (1999-2002) and completed the midlife visit...
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Background Weight at birth has been associated with the development of various adult diseases, but its association with mortality remains unclear. Methods We included 22,389 men from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1994-2018) and 162,231 women from the Nurses’ Health Study (1992-2018) and the Nurses’ Health Study II (1991-2019). The haza...
Article
Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations of a lifetime history of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) with menopausal symptoms in midlife. Methods: This was a secondary analysis of women participating in Project Viva, an ongoing cohort enrolled during pregnancy. The exposure...
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Background Lactation has long term effects on maternal health, but the relationship between lactation and long-term handgrip strength, a marker of musculoskeletal function and healthy aging, has not been explored. Objective Examine the relationship between total lifetime breastfeeding duration (BFD) and midlife handgrip strength. Methods We measu...
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Background Low birth weight has been associated with a greater risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the interaction between low birth weight and adult lifestyle factors on the risk of CVD remains unclear. Methods We included 20,169 men from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS, 1986–2016), 52,380 women from the Nurses’ Health St...
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Background: Infertility has been associated with the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. It is not clear whether infertility and underlying causes of infertility or the use of medically assisted reproduction (MAR) therapies are responsible for the observed associations. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the association of history of infertility...
Article
Objective: To evaluate the associations of caffeinated, alcoholic, and sweetened beverage intakes with antral follicle count (AFC), a well-accepted biomarker of ovarian reserve. Design: Observational prospective cohort study. Setting: Fertility center at an academic hospital. Patients: This study includes 567 women seeking fertility care at...
Article
Background and Aims Sugar-sweetened soda consumption is associated with most of the cardiometabolic risk factors. The role of artificially-sweetened beverages in cardiovascular disease (CVD) is inconclusive, but their consumption correlates with health impairment. Little is known about the contribution of soda consumption in subclinical stages of a...
Article
Background Despite anecdotal reports, the impacts of SARS-CoV-2 infection or COVID-19 vaccination on menstrual health have not been systemically investigated. Objective To examine the associations of SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 vaccination with menstrual cycle characteristics. Study Design We prospectively followed 3,858 pre-menopausal wome...
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We examined the relationship between maternal intake of established dietary patterns and child autism-related outcomes in two prospective cohorts in the United States. Participants were drawn from the Early Autism Risk Longitudinal Investigation (EARLI, n = 154) and the Nurses’ Health Study II (NHSII, n = 727). Dietary information was collected via...
Article
Study question Are soy food and isoflavone intakes associated with ovarian reserve as measured by antral follicle count (AFC)? Summary answer Within the observed range of intake, soy food or isoflavone consumptions are not associated with AFC. What is known already Phytoestrogens are structurally similar to 17β-estradiol, and bind to ER-α and ER-...
Article
An epidemiological analysis assessing beverage consumption and risk factors for cardiovascular disease was conducted. Participants were 9-16 years old at enrolment, completed food frequency questionnaires in 1996-2001 and self-reported outcomes in 2010-2014. Exclusion criteria included missing data on relevant variables and covariates, prevalent di...
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Objectives To examine individual and joint associations of long-term diet quality and physical activity with sub-clinical measures of renal dysfunction in a longitudinal female cohort with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Methods This was a retrospective study of women who had reported a physician-diagnosed GDM in the Nurses' Heal...
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Background Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP), defined here as hypertensive disorders with onset in pregnancy (i.e., gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, and preeclampsia superimposed on chronic hypertension), affect up to 10% of pregnancies in the United States and are associated with substantial maternal and neonatal morbidity and morta...
Article
Purpose . To evaluate the association of a history of infertility with long-term weight, body composition, and blood pressure. Methods . We studied 1,581 women from the prospective cohort Project Viva. History of infertility was based on self-reported time to pregnancy ≥12 months or use of medical treatment to conceive for the index or any prior p...
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We examined whether urinary concentrations of phthalate and phthalate replacement metabolites were associated with lipid biomarker levels among pregnant women. This cross-sectional study included 175 women who enrolled in the Environment and Reproductive Health (EARTH) Study (2005–2017). We used linear regression models to assess the relationship b...
Article
Background Pre-pandemic psychological distress is associated with increased susceptibility to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, but associations with the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) severity are not established. The authors examined the associations between distress prior to SARS-CoV-2 infection and sub...
Article
Background Many studies have linked intakes of fat and of specific fatty acids during pregnancy and preeclampsia, however the relation of intake before pregnancy with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) is scant. Objective Evaluate intakes of major and specific types of fat before pregnancy with the risk of HDP: preeclampsia and gestational...
Article
Background The etiology of endometriosis is not well understood. Limited evidence suggests that dietary factors influence risk, but prospective data related to carbohydrate, fiber, and gluten consumption are scarce. Despite this, recommendations concerning fiber, gluten intake and endometriosis are pervasive in the lay literature. Objective To inv...
Article
Objective To examine the association between intake of fruits and vegetables with high versus low pesticide residue burden and diagnosis of laparoscopically-confirmed endometriosis. The etiology of endometriosis is not well understood, but dietary factors may influence risk. Pesticides may act as endocrine disruptors and intake of pesticide contami...
Article
Background Long-chain omega-3 fatty acids and their food sources have garnered interest as a potential nutrient with wide-range health benefits including fertility. Objective To investigate the association of women’s and men’s intake of omega-3 fatty acids and omega-3 rich-foods with semen quality and outcomes of infertility treatment with assiste...
Article
The epidemiologic literature on associations between urinary phenol concentrations and lipid profiles during pregnancy is limited. We examined whether urinary concentrations of phenol and phenol replacement biomarkers were associated with serum lipid levels among pregnant women. This cross-sectional study included 175 women attending the Massachuse...
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Purpose of Review Environmental chemicals and toxins have been associated with increased risk of impaired neurodevelopment and specific conditions like autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Prenatal diet is an individually modifiable factor that may alter associations with such environmental factors. The purpose of this review is to summarize studies exa...
Article
Prior work has suggested associations between prenatal exposure to several classes of pesticides and child autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We examined a previously developed pesticide residue burden score (PRBS) and intake of high pesticide residue foods in association with ASD‐related traits. Participants were drawn from the Early Autism Risk Long...
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Background Growing evidence suggests that adherence to certain dietary patterns is associated with improved fecundity and reproductive outcomes in the general population and infertile couples assisted reproductive treatments. The objective of this study was to assess if dietary patterns are associated with ovarian reserve in reproductive age women...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Investigating the burden of access to infertility treatment has primarily been conducted in high-income countries, with little known for low- and middle-income countries, which comprise 80% of the world’s population. The objective of this study was to investigate access to infertility care in Mexico. Methods This was a cross-sectional a...
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Lactation is associated with a lower risk of subsequent cardiometabolic disease among parous women; however, the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Further, the potential protective effects of lactation on cardiometabolic risk markers at mid-life among high-risk women with past gestational diabetes (GDM) are not established. Using data from the Dia...
Article
Objective To investigate whether men's adherence to dietary patterns promoted for the prevention of cardiovascular disease is associated with semen parameters and couples’ assisted reproductive technology (ART) outcomes. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Fertility center at an academic medical center. Patient(s) A total of 245 men and the...
Article
Background: Pesticide exposure is linked to a myriad of negative health effects; however, the mechanisms underlying these associations are less clear. We utilized metabolomics to describe the alterations in the serum metabolome associated with high and low pesticide residue intake from fruits and vegetables (FVs), the most common route of exposure...
Article
Background: Retrospective studies suggest that menstrual cycle length may be a risk marker of adverse pregnancy outcomes, but this evidence is susceptible to recall bias. Objective: To evaluate the prospective association between menstrual cycle length and the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Methods: Secondary analysis of 2046 women enroll...
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Background Intake of conventionally grown fruits and vegetables (FVs) is an important route of exposure to pesticide residues in the general population. However, whether health risk stemming from exposure to pesticides through diet could offset benefits of consuming FVs is unclear. Objective We assessed the association of FV intake, classified acc...
Article
Several studies have identified positive associations between pesticides and glioma. We aimed to determine whether intake of pesticide residues from fruits and vegetables (FV) was associated with glioma. Within three prospective cohorts from 1998-2016—the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS), Nurses’ Health Study II (NHSII), and Health Professionals Follow-U...
Article
STUDY QUESTION: Is cesarean delivery associated with earlier offspring pubertal development? SUMMARY ANSWER: We identified that boys born by cesarean delivery developed puberty earlier, evidenced by an earlier age at peak height velocity and earlier attainment of puberty score > 1, than boys born by vaginal delivery. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Cesare...
Article
STUDY QUESTION Are menstrual cycle characteristics throughout the reproductive lifespan associated with cancer risk? SUMMARY ANSWER Irregular and long menstrual cycles throughout the reproductive lifespan were associated with increased risk of total invasive cancer, especially obesity-related cancers. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Long and irregular mens...
Article
Objective: We examined lifestyle factors with midlife weight change according to history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in a large longitudinal female cohort. Research design and methods: In the Nurses' Health Study II, we categorized changes in lifestyle within 4-year periods and estimated their associations with concurrent changes in b...
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Age at first sexual intercourse and age at first birth have implications for health and evolutionary fitness. In this genome-wide association study (age at first sexual intercourse, N = 387,338; age at first birth, N = 542,901), we identify 371 single-nucleotide polymorphisms, 11 sex-specific, with a 5–6% polygenic score prediction. Heritability of...
Article
BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether pre-pregnancy physical activity influences the risk of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and whether any impact is similar for preeclampsia or gestational hypertension. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relation between pre-pregnancy physical activity with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and its alignment with curre...
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Background Infertility has been associated with common chronic non-communicable diseases. However, the association of infertility with long-term mortality is unclear. Methods We followed 101,777 women aged 25–42 years at enrollment between 1989 and 2017. Biennial questionnaires updated participants’ infertility status and underlying reasons for in...
Article
Background Male obesity has been related to poor semen quality and may also have a negative effect on assisted reproductive technologies (ART) outcomes. Whether male waist circumference (WC), as a measure of central obesity, impacts a couple's fertility independently of body mass index is unclear. Objective To examine the associations of male WC w...
Article
Background Conventionally grown fruits and vegetables (FVs) are the main source of general population exposure to pesticide residues. Objective To evaluate the relation of intake of high- and low-pesticide-residue FVs with cancer risk. Methods We followed 150,830 women (Nurses’ Health Study, 1998–2016, and Nurses’ Health Study II, 1999–2017) and...
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Aims/hypothesisMenstrual cycle dysfunction has been associated with many endocrine-related diseases, but evidence linking menstrual cycle dysfunction with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is scant. The current study investigated the association of pre-pregnancy menstrual cycle regularity and length during adolescence, early adulthood and mid-adu...
Article
Objective This study examined the associations of central adiposity gain from midchildhood to early adolescence with cardiometabolic health markers in early adolescence. Methods A total of 620 participants were studied in Project Viva. In midchildhood (mean age = 7.8 years) and early adolescence (12.9 years), waist circumference and dual-energy x-...
Article
Objective To examine the association between dietary folate intake and antral follicle count (AFC) among women seeing treatment for infertility. Design Cohort study. Setting Academic fertility center. Patients A total of 552 women attending the Massachusetts General Hospital Fertility Center (2007–2019) who participated in the Environment and Re...
Article
Aims The aim of this study was to explore the association of pregnancy loss (PL) with the incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and examine the extent to which this relation is mediated by subsequent metabolic disorders. Methods and results We followed 95 465 ever-gravid women participating in the Nurses’ Health Study II between 1993 and 2017....
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Importance: Although the literature on the association between birth by cesarean delivery and children's anthropometry has continued to increase, only a few studies have examined the association of cesarean delivery with measures of body composition assessed using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), which allows the differentiation of fat and l...
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Resumen En el 2019, en seguimiento a un taller dirigido por el Global Health Studies del Fogarty International Center sobre el tema de la prevención de la obesidad infantil y las sinergias de investigación que surgen a través de las colaboraciones transfronterizas, convocamos a un grupo de expertos de Estados Unidos y Latinoamérica para que realiza...
Conference Paper
Introduction Shift work is associated with higher risk for mothers during pregnancy and increases future obesity risk for both mothers and children. However, only limited literature examined the effect of shift work on maternal body weight changes during pregnancy and after delivery. Objectives To examine the association between maternal shift wor...
Article
Study question: Is intake of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) or artificially sweetened beverages (ASB) associated with testicular function in young men? Summary answer: Among young men unaware of their semen quality and reproductive hormone levels, intake of SSBs was associated with lower sperm concentration, lower total sperm count, and a lower...
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Background Emerging evidence suggests beneficial impacts of plant-based diets on glucose metabolism among generally healthy individuals. Whether adherence to these diets is related to risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is unknown. Objectives We aimed to examine associations between plant-based diets and GDM in a large prospective study....
Article
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Importance Women with gestational diabetes are at high risk for type 2 diabetes. Identifying modifiable dietary and lifestyle factors, such as alcohol intake, that can be useful in delaying or preventing progression to overt type 2 diabetes is of particular interest. Objective To evaluate the association between alcohol consumption and risk for ty...