Jordi Vallverdu

Jordi Vallverdu
Autonomous University of Barcelona | UAB · Departament de Filosofia

B. Phil, B.Mus, M.Sci, Ph.D
Causality in Deep Learning Research

About

198
Publications
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Introduction
ICREA Acadèmia Researcher. I'm philosopher, with deep interests in epistemology and cognitive sciences, two sides of the same coin. I'm especially devoted to the analysis of the role of emotions within natural and artificial entities. Cultural and natural heuristics are also under my deepest interest. And last but not least, I work on Causality in Deep Learning. Perhaps I'm not a true philosopher, perhaps much better a thinker with several interests. Anyhow, I enjoy doing research!!!
Additional affiliations
January 2002 - March 2017
Autonomous University of Barcelona
Position
  • Professor
September 1999 - present
Autonomous University of Barcelona
Position
  • Tenured-Assistant Professor (Professor Agregat)

Publications

Publications (198)
Chapter
This chapter offers arguments in favor of a morphological characterization of situated abductive processes in perception, considering them as adaptation mechanisms to the varieties of experience. The mechanism that has been analyzed in this essay is the creativity. The thesis defended in this chapter is that the human being maintains a constant hyp...
Article
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Toda la ciencia para la sociedad, pero sin la sociedad Toda ciência para a sociedade, mas sem sociedade All Science for Society, but without Society Jordi Vallverdú * Introducción Los estudios CTS no pueden ser enfocados del mismo modo que cualquier otro estudio en el cual el objeto analizado es (relativamente) ajeno al propio sujeto analizador. Po...
Research Proposal
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Call for papers for the Special issue of Philosophies (ISSN 2409-9287), "Death and Robots: Updating Techno-Death Debates"
Preprint
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This work is dedicated to the review and perspective of the new direction that we call "Neuropunk revolution" resembling the cultural phenomenon of cyberpunk. This new phenomenon has its foundations in advances in neuromorphic technologies including memristive and bio-plausible simulations, BCI, and neurointerfaces as well as unconventional approac...
Article
Today, biomimetic approaches to unconventional computing have been exploring neurotransmitters’ roles. But hormonal aspects of artificial cognition are still unexplored. And from a cognitive perspective, such a complex biochemical combination allows fundamental mechanisms of information processing, from abductive tasks to attention or intentionalit...
Preprint
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Fungal organisms can perceive the outer world in a way similar to what animals sense. Does that mean that they have full awareness of their environment and themselves? Is a fungus a conscious entity? In laboratory experiments we found that fungi produce patterns of electrical activity, similar to neurons. There are low and high frequency oscillatio...
Article
Self-adaptive behavior can be defined as the behavior that allows an agent to adapt to a context using her/his/its resources. The property of being ‘selfadaptive’ implies considering some preliminary sources or elicitors for such skill. In the case of machine learning, all the learning or self-adaptive behavior mechanisms are related to algorithmic...
Chapter
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Most of the bioinspired morphological computing studies have departed from a human analysis bias: to consider cognitive morphology as encapsulated by one body, which, of course, can have enactive connections with other bodies, but that is defined by clear bodily boundaries. Such complex biological inspiration has been directing the research agenda...
Chapter
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El tema de este capítulo, que forma parte el debate sobre el malestar genuino y necesario de los humanos que viven en de-mocracias, se conecta con la naturaleza tanto profundamente emotiva como heurísticamente dispersa de tales agentes. Me he ocupado de ambos elementos en publicaciones anteriores, sin relacionarlos con el debate político relativo a...
Article
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In this paper, we suggest that architectures, especially sacred ones, play a significant role to shape cognition. Therefore, cognition is the result of the relationships between the subjects and their surroundings. By sharing the same environment and the relationships with it, the members of a community would weave "common-sense", as a common attit...
Article
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Creativity is The Holy Grail of the Cognitive Sciences and it is very important for researchers in the Computer Sciences and AI fields. Although all attempts to explain and replicate intelligence have so far failed, the quest remains a key part of their research. This paper takes two innovative approaches. First, we see cognitive processes as invol...
Chapter
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The use of AI in medical scenarios is currently biased by a conceptual bias: universal emotions. A real analysis of emotions in real health procedures shows a completely different perspective: emotional responses in medical practices are heavily culturally mediated. Therefore, situated and multicultural approaches must be implemented into medical p...
Article
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La creatividad es el santo grial de las ciencias cognitivas y tiene especial importancia para los investigadores de las ciencias de la computación y la inteligencia artificial. Es obvio que la creatividad forma parte esencial de la inteligencia, a pesar de que la mayoría de estudios que intentan explicarla o incluso replicarla han fallado. En el pr...
Preprint
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The arrival of Immersive Virtual and Augmented Reality hardware to the consumer market suggests seamless multi-modal communication between human participants and autonomous interactive characters is an achievable goal in the near future. This possibility is further reinforced by the rapid improvements in the automated analysis of speech, facial exp...
Article
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Cómo citar este artículo/Citation: Vallverdú, Jordi; Boix, Sarah (2021). Éticas falibles para máquinas (in)falibles. Arbor, 197(800): https://doi.org/10.3989/arbor.2021.800003 Recibido: 21 febrero 2021. Aceptado: 15 mayo 2021. Publicado: RESUMEN: los códigos éticos humanos no son coherentes en su diseño ni tampoco tienen una distribución universal....
Article
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Currently, the main intense debates about the next steps of AI advancements are related to two concepts: the singularity, and AGI (Artificial General Intelligence). By one side, the crucial moment in which AI will reach and surpass the human brain (and collective brain cooperation) power and, by the other, the birth of a conscious and creatively in...
Article
AI has achieved great results using bioinspired ideas. Taking into consideration that information is not a fact to be captured but a process that involves both (even minimal) minds and bodies, the author suggests to use a new two-dimensional or blended approach for the design of AI systems: cultural and natural heuristics, including their “biased”...
Article
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En aquest escrit s'ofereix una anàlisi de la situació de pandèmia que estem vivint, aproximant-hi des de la filosofia de la ciència i l'epistemologia. La idea central rau en mostrar que l'epidemiologia, igual que la resta de pràctiques científiques, és una activitat humana i social. Per això, s'ha volgut presentar una dimensió més complerta de la r...
Article
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This document provides the framework for the optimum method of applying ECSA’s (European Citizen Science Association) ten principles of citizen science engagement for quality assurance in ethical and inclusive citizen science engagement in the CSI-COP project for the purposes of investigating the extent of online tracking. Following a dynamic recru...
Article
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Opinion The first approach to the field of fuckbots, or sexual robotics (also lovotics, dildonics), shows us an astonishing result; we do not have data about them. Taking into consideration that sexual industries (porn, gadgets) provide incredible benefits, the lack of open interest into such research area is, at minimum, a complete absurdity. The...
Research
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This report is a deliverable on the EU Horizon2020 research and innovation project, CSI-COP. It details the literature review conducted to find the best practices in citizen science engagement.
Article
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Causality is the most important topic in the history of western science, and since the beginning of the statistical paradigm, its meaning has been reconceptualized many times. Causality entered into the realm of multi‐causal and statistical scenarios some centuries ago. Despite widespread critics, today deep learning and machine learning advances a...
Chapter
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Empathy is a basic emotion trigger for human beings, especially while regulating social relationships and behaviour. The main challenge of this paper is study whether people's empathic reactions towards robots change depending on previous information given to human about the robot before the interaction. The use of false data about robot skills cre...
Chapter
Human emotions and social processes are evolutionary intertwined, as the result of neuromodulatory mechanisms that define the nature of how bodies interact with the world and create strategies with other bodies and agents. This article presents the previous simulations of TPR, TPR 2.0 and The Game of Emotions. Ideas are also justified in order to a...
Conference Paper
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With the diffusion and successful new implementation of several machine learning techniques, together with the substantial cost decrease of sensors, also included in mobile devices, the field of emotional analysis and modeling has boosted. Apps, web apps, brain-scanning devices, and Artificial Intelligence assistants often include emotion recogniti...
Article
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Since the development of software such as The Logic Theory Machine in 1956 or The General Problem Solver in 1957 the relationship between computers and philosophy has been viewed as a formal, and theoretical one. Computers offered a way to implement and test theoretical philosophical models on language, thought, or methodology.This paper presents e...
Chapter
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Capítulo donde se analizan diversos elementos filosóficos en relación a los videojuegos y la noción de realidad.
Preprint
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Causality is the most important topic in the history of Western Science, and since the beginning of the statistical paradigm, it meaning has been reconceptualized many times. Causality entered into the realm of multi-causal and statistical scenarios some centuries ago. Despite of widespread critics, today Deep Learning and Machine Learning advances...
Chapter
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Preface of the book Blended Cognition
Article
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Spacetime dynamics of crowds are proved to be like dynamics of perturbation waves propagating in an excitable nonlinear medium. This analogy is developed further by studying the propagation of excitation—as represented by the two-variable Oregonator model of the Belousov–Zhabotinsky medium—and by then providing a thorough explanatory application st...
Chapter
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This chapter is a transdisciplinary study on the fundaments of cognition, considering this process at human level as the combination of biological and (multi)cultural values. The main idea is to describe the skill of human beings for using several heuristics for task-solving activities as a process of combining and blending techniques, something th...
Chapter
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In this paper we present a new computational bio-inspired approach. We use the three-dimensional model of emotions created by the Hugo Lövheim “cube of emotions” and validated it via neurosimulation in NEST. We present a computational model that bridges psycho-emotional states with computational processes as the extension of the model “cube of emot...
Book
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This edited volume is about how unprejudiced approaches to real human cognition can improve the design of AI. It covers many aspects of human cognition and across 12 chapters the reader can explore multiple approaches about the complexities of human cognitive skills and reasoning, always guided by experts from different but complimentary academic f...
Article
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Artificial Intelligence (AI) is the motor that fuels the most profound revolution in the history of humankind. The new era of information society, even called “the Fourth Revolution”, has produced deep changes into sciences, economies, and societies. This revolution is not only about formal heuristics, or the called “algorithmic society”, but also...
Book
This interdisciplinary volume gathers selected, refereed contributions on various aspects of public health from several disciplines and research fields, including the philosophy of science, epidemiology, statistics and ethics. The contributions were originally presented at the 1st Barcelona conference of “Philosophy of Public Health” (5th – 7th May...
Chapter
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Technofeminisms are dealing with new sets of challenges directly related to the possibilities opened by transhumanism. Among the huge list of possible technological advances, we direct our interest towards reproductive technologies, in particular ectogenesis (foetus pregnancy and growth outside a human womb). Although some authors defend the benefi...
Article
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The concept of affordance perception is one of the distinctive traits of human cognition; and its application to robots can dramatically improve the quality of human-robot interaction (HRI). In this paper we explore and discuss the idea of "emotional affordances" by proposing a viable model for implementation into HRI; which considers allocentric a...
Book
It has been observed how the technological progress of our civilization mimics the extraordinarily smart design choices of the nature surrounding us. As scientists have been inspired by the cosmos to observe and understand its mechanics from the deepest to the smallest particle, so engineers have found inspiration in biological systems to design t...
Article
In this paper we present the validation of the three-dimensional model of emotions by Hugo Lövheim the "cube of emotion" via neurosimulation in the NEST. We also present the extension of original "cube of emotion" with the bridge to computational processes parameters. The neurosimulation is done via re-implementation of DA, 5-HT and NA subsystems o...
Preprint
Affordances are an important concept in cognition, which can be applied to robots in order to perform a successful human-robot interaction (HRI). In this paper we explore and discuss the idea of emotional affordances and propose a viable model for implementation into HRI. We consider “2-ways” affordances: perceived object triggering an emotion, and...
Article
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National or intra-national research programs (like FP7 or H2020, in EU zone) foster and reinforce specific ways to do research, selecting the best proposals to implement next researches thanks the provided funds. Very frequently, these programs are based on beliefs about the reliability and best chances of becoming successful researches. We analyse...
Article
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This paper summarizes several lexical methods for more comprehensive affect recognition in text using an example of typed utterances. We introduce a set of algorithms that are capable of recognizing emotions of user's statements in order to achieve more effective and smoother human-machine conversation. Aspects often neglected by existing systems w...
Article
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Following classic studies on the psychology and cognition of learning, educators designed teaching heuristics adapted to the real skills of their students, from early to advanced ages, or even combining ages in interactive and cooperative active learning by doing. My point here is to remark the necessity of forcing a Copernican turn into the educat...
Article
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Los problemas éticos se ven delim-tados aquí a tres aspectos: beneficios y perjuicios para los robots; beneficios y perjuicios para los humanos, y bene-ficios y perjuicios para la sociedad. En estos debates hay implícito diversos aspectos que son revisados y analizados en esta reseña.
Article
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How Newspeak is a Deep Danger for Science, in this case Epidemiology
Article
The slime mould Physarum polycephalum has been used in developing unconventional computing devices for in which the slime mould played a role of a sensing, actuating, and computing device. These devices treated the slime mould rather as an active living substrate yet the slime mould is a self-consistent living creature which evolved for millions of...
Article
Full-text available
The interest on embodied cognition provides great clues for the understanding of human and other animals data-processing and their social behaviors. On the other side, this understanding offers us new ways to conceptualize and to design from scratch new embodiments for artificial cognitive Systems (AI, robots). We need to take into account that: a)...
Article
Full-text available
Empathy is a basic emotion trigger for human beings, especially while regulating social relationships and behaviour. The main challenge of this paper is study whether people's empathic reactions towards robots change depending on previous information given to human about the robot before the interaction. The use of false data about robot skills cre...
Article
Full-text available
This work aims at demonstrating that the neuromodulatory mechanisms that control the emotional states of mammals (specifically rat’s brains) can be represented and re-implemented in a computational model processed by a machine. In particular we specifically focus on two neurotransmitters, serotonin and dopamine, starting from their fundamental role...
Article
Full-text available
Si bien la creatividad metodológica es una fuente de avance en las disciplinas científicas, podemos decir que durante su proceso de implementación es al mismo tiempo fuente de confusión. Las controversias científicas producidas a lo largo del siglo XX e inicios del XXI en torno a la epidemiología se nutren o son incentivadas por los debates paralel...
Article
Full-text available
The slime mould Physarum polycephalum has been used in developing unconventional computing devices for in which the slime mould played a role of a sensing, actuating, and computing device. These devices treated the slime mould rather as an active living substrate yet the slime mould is a self-consistent living creature which evolved for millions of...
Preprint
Full-text available
The slime mould Physarum polycephalum has been used in developing un-conventional computing devices for in which the slime mould played a role of a sensing, actuating, and computing device. These devices treated the slime mould rather as an active living substrate yet the slime mould is a self-consistent living creature which evolved for millions o...
Article
Full-text available
One of the challenges of 21 st Century sciences is how to deal with and manage huge amounts of raw data [1] Using several computational tools, scientists are able to capture, process and, finally, to understand that data. The visual aspects of this understanding process are of the utmost importance due to the specific cognitive mechanisms that make...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Human-robot interactions (henceforth HRI) are an increasing research field as well as a real problem for industries and laboratories. The challenges are several, from ethical, economic, cultural or to emotional. New robotic products can or not to be anthropomorphic or adopt ubiquitous shapes and locations, being produced in a range array of forms....
Article
Contemporary scientific approaches to Biology are the result of some cultural ideas considered as universal by Western reductionist traditions. The study of the cultural, symbolic and historical approaches to reality and Life provides us important lessons about the necessity of integrating Eastern holistic views into the study of Life. This is both...
Article
The philosophical differences between Western and Eastern philosophy not only derive from general cultural ideas about reality, but as Nisbet writes (2003), are also methodological, ontological, and cognitively driven. Thus, we can see that strategies of thought and theory-generation are constrained and enabled by conceptual levels, and that the ex...
Conference Paper
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Emotional affordances represent a recently introduced concept which model all the mechanisms used to collect/transmit emotional meaning in the context of human machine interaction. In this work, we introduce and formally define the cognitive role of emotional affordances in a collaboration human-machine dialogue as tools for triggering or recognizi...
Article
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Considering the current advancements in biometric sensors and other related technologies, and using bio-inspired models for AI improvements, we can infer that swarm intelligence paradigm can be implemented in human daily spheres through the connectivity between user gadgets connected to the Internet of Things. This is a first step towards the a rea...
Article
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El presente artículo propone una reflexión crítica sobre el llamado bioarte. La intención es dilucidar cómo dicha práctica ha generado una propuesta innovadora y desafiante en los territorios del arte contemporáneo, y además funciona como motivo para pensar los avances científicos más relevantes de nuestra época, principalmente en los enfocados al...
Article
Full-text available
Human emotions and social processes are evolutionary intertwined, as the result of neuromodulatory mechanisms that define the nature of how bodies interact with the world and create strategies with other bodies and agents. In this paper we present our previous simulations TPR, TPR 2.0 and The Game of Emotions. We also justify the necessary ideas in...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
One fundamental aspect of Human-Robot Interactions is the role of the morphologies of both humans and machines. Basically, humans are naturalistically oriented towards the social interaction with other humans. Taking into account that fact that human morphologies run a social role, and that affection or emotion are fundamental aspects of the eco-co...
Article
Full-text available
One fundamental aspect of Human-Robot Interactions is the role of the morphologies of both humans and machines. Basically, humans are naturalistically oriented towards the social interaction with other humans. Taking into account that fact that human morphologies run a social role, and that affection or emotion are fundamental aspects of the eco-co...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The debate about information is clearly ontological: how do we know what is real? Which is the object of our knowledge? Only after having clarified this point we can start epistemological debates, which at their turn, are part of the ontological perspective (about nature, knowledge, and the world itself, here the vicious circle). Therefore: things...
Chapter
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The next evolution of intelligent, physical life on earth will be to artificial, super-intelligent agents or even entities we might call ‘post’- or ‘trans’ humans. And, contrary to popular opinion about the man-made advanced intelligences, these entities will not be just information-driven machines devoid of emotion. Instead, today’s computing and...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This work aims at demonstrating that the neuromodulatory mechanisms that control the emotional states of mammals (specifically rat's brains) can be represented and re-implemented in a computational model processed by a machine. In particular we specifically focus on two neurotransmitters, sero-tonin and dopamine, starting from their fundamental rol...
Chapter
Full-text available
The purpose of this chapter is to delineate a naturalistic approach to consciousness. This bioinspired method does not try to emulate into a 1:1 scale real mechanisms but instead of it, we capture some basic brain mechanisms prone to be implemented into computational frameworks. Consequently, we adopt a functional view on consciousness, considering...
Book
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There are many different approaches to understanding human consciousness. By conducting research to better understand various biological mechanisms, these can be redefined and utilized for technological purposes. Advanced Research on Biologically Inspired Cognitive Architectures is an essential reference source for the latest scholarly research on...
Conference Paper
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In this paper, we present a novel approach to model and re-implement the noradrenaline influence in a bio-plausible manner suitable for the modelling of emotions in a computational system. We have upgraded our previous bio-inspired architecture NEUCOGAR (Neuromodulating Cognitive Architecture) to capture a key aspect of cognitive processes: novelty...
Article
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Hay obras que devuelven el sentido de la filosofía a sus orígenes, apuntando de nuevo al profundo sentido que la mueve, siendo ésta es una de ellas. Por fin dispone-mos de un volumen único fundamental para el estudio en castellano de la Filosofía Japonesa útil tanto para especialistas, como profesionales del pensamiento o estu-diantes universitario...
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L a epidemiología analiza relaciones entre eventos que suceden por la conjun-ción de determinantes que posibilitan el propio evento que situamos como objeto de estudio. En la propia historia de la disciplina, el modelo de aná-lisis de los factores causales o determinantes ha ido cambiando, a medida que se ha ido ampliando el espectro de los eventos...
Chapter
First chapter analyzes how living systems such as amoebae, insects, fishes, chicks, or dolphins are able to deal with numbers without any symbolic system, explaining the notions of “subitization” or “numerosity,” among others. At the same time, the cognitive limits for humans in relation to number processing are explored, especially those expressed...
Chapter
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During the second half of the twentieth century, the statistical arena experienced a turbulence of new debates: first, among frequentists, especially the classic such as K. Pearson, Neyman, E. Pearson, and the so-called likelihoodist R. Fisher, second among objective and subjective Bayesian, and finally, between Bayesian and frequentists. After exp...
Chapter
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This chapter is entirely devoted to the historical roots of human interest of chance, from gambling activities and theories to the role of insurance companies, the medical aspects of vaccination, the notion of legal evidence or even the existence and intervention of some divinity. Conjoined to several human practices, the philosophical aspects impl...
Chapter
Rev. Bayes and his friend Richard Price created a new way to deal with the philosophical and theological problems on induction as were explained by Hume. This mathematical formula included the notion of subjective probabilities and, consequently, opened a debate on its validity. French mathematician Pierre-Simon Laplace applied it successfully to a...
Chapter
The response to subjective probabilities of the Bayesian approach was frequentism, that is, the analysis of long-run series of frequencies of an event from which came the possibilities to extract statistical data. Frequentism became the dominant view in scientific practices during most of the twentieth century. This academic view was espoused by se...
Chapter
The concluding chapter of this book makes a revision about the way by which scientists choose between ideas or techniques and how it is important for statistics. The notion of epistemological opportunism and the consideration of sciences as problem-solving activities make it possible to understand the fierce statistical debates as well as show us a...
Article
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This paper provides a new concept for the improvement of human–robot interaction (HRI) models: 'emotional affor-dances'. Emotional affordances are all the mechanisms that have emotional content as a way to transmit and/or collect emotional meaning about any context; it can include bodily expressions, social norms, values-laden objects or extended s...
Article
In this work we propose the following hypothesis: the neuromodulatory mechanisms that control the emotional states of mammals can be translated and re-implemented in a computer by controlling the computational performance of a hosted computational system. In our specific implementation, we represent the simulation of the ‘fear-like’ state based on...
Article
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Machines are more and more complex, thanks to the implementation of greater computational power as well as to the use of biomimetic AI/hardware. Such mixed heuristics define an horizon for intelligent machines in which temporal issues, like loss of memory, system accuracy damages or become elderly can affect not only their function but also their o...
Article
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Los intentos por encontrar una explicación naturalista, ¿fallidos? E l estudio de la consciencia es uno de los caballos de batalla de las ciencias cognitivas en nuestros días. Por otro lado, la aproximación naturalista, que propone la explicación de la consciencia a partir de su estructura física-biológica, constituye la tendencia con mayor predica...
Research
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Accepted for presentation in Ethical and Legal Aspect of Social Robots Workshop, Barcelona, November 2016. https://legalaspectsofsocialrobots.wordpress.com/ Part of New Friends 2016 conference: http://www.newfriends2016.org/ Short Abstract: The idea for utilising intelligent agents in education is not new (Johnson, Rickel & Lester, 2000). Even usi...