Joost Raeymaekers

Joost Raeymaekers
Nord University | HIBO · Faculty of Biosciences and Aquaculture

PhD

About

226
Publications
28,863
Reads
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2,697
Citations
Citations since 2017
56 Research Items
1420 Citations
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2017201820192020202120222023050100150200250300
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Introduction
My research goal is to understand how various conditions, including ecological heterogeneity, genomic architecture, population connectivity and life history, influence adaptation in natural, human-disturbed and exploited populations. To do so, I study the evolutionary ecology and population genetics of various organisms across large and ecologically diverse landscapes. The results help us to determine how organisms persist, adapt to different environments, and diversify.
Additional affiliations
October 2017 - present
Nord University
Position
  • Professor
February 2016 - September 2017
Norwegian University of Science and Technology
Position
  • PostDoc Position
October 2014 - September 2016
Ghent University
Position
  • Lecturer

Publications

Publications (226)
Article
Full-text available
Geographical isolation, habitat variation and trophic specialisation have contributed to a large extent to the astonishing diversity of cichlid fishes in the Great East African lakes. Because parasite communities often vary across space and environments, parasites can accompany and potentially enhance cichlid species diversification. However, host...
Article
Full-text available
Adaptive radiation occurs when species diversify rapidly to occupy an array of ecological niches. Since opportunities for parasite infection and transmission may greatly vary among these niches, adaptive radiation is expected to be associated with a turnover of the parasite community. As major agents of natural and sexual selection, parasites may p...
Article
Full-text available
Genes with major phenotypic effects facilitate quantifying the contribution of genetic vs. plastic effects to adaptive divergence. A classical example is Ectodysplasin (Eda), the major gene controlling lateral plate phenotype in three-spined stickleback. Completely plated marine stickleback populations evolved repeatedly towards low-plated freshwat...
Article
Full-text available
An increase in biological diversity leads to a greater stability of ecosystem properties. For host-parasite interactions, this is illustrated by the 'dilution effect': a negative correlation between host biodiversity and disease risk. We show that a similar mechanism might stabilise host-parasite dynamics at a lower level of diversity, i.e. at the...
Article
Adaptive radiation unfolds as selection acts on the genetic variation underlying functional traits. The nature of this variation can be revealed by studying the tips of an ongoing adaptive radiation. We studied genomic variation at the tips of the Darwin's finch radiation; specifically focusing on polymorphism within, and variation among, three sym...
Article
Full-text available
The conservation of biodiversity from the genetic to the community levels is fundamental for the continual provision of ecosystem services (ES), the benefits that ecosystems provide to people. Genetic and genomic diversity enhance the resilience of populations and communities that underpin the provision of ecosystem functions and services. We show...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are covalently closed-loop RNAs with critical regulatory roles in cells. The tenth of thousands of circRNAs have been unveiled due to the recent advances in high throughput RNA sequencing technologies and bioinformatic tools development. At the same time, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) cross-validation for circ...
Article
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Habitat fragmentation impacts the distribution of genetic diversity and population genetic structure. Therefore protecting the evolutionary potential of species, especially in the context of the current rate of human‐induced environmental change, is an important goal. In riverine ecosystems, migration barriers affect the genetic structure of native...
Article
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Background The hydrogeological history of Lake Tanganyika paints a complex image of several colonization and adaptive radiation events. The initial basin was formed around 9–12 million years ago (MYA) from the predecessor of the Malagarasi–Congo River and only 5–6 MYA, its sub-basins fused to produce the clear, deep waters of today. Next to the wel...
Article
Full-text available
The term terroir is used in viticulture to emphasize how the biotic and abiotic characteristics of a local site influence grape physiology and thus the properties of wine. In ecology and evolution, such terroir (i.e., the effect of space or "site") is expected to play an important role in shaping phenotypic traits. Just how important is the pure sp...
Preprint
Background The hydro-geological history of Lake Tanganyika paints a complex image of several colonization and adaptive radiation events. The initial basin was formed around 9-12 million years ago (MYA) from the predecessor of the Malagarasi–Congo River and only 5-6 MYA, its sub-basins fused to produce the clear, deep waters of today. Next to the we...
Article
Full-text available
How parasites alter host feeding ecology remains elusive in natural populations. A powerful approach to investigate the link between infection and feeding ecology is quantifying unique and shared responses to parasite infection in related host species within a common environment. Here, 9 pairs of sympatric populations of the three-spined and nine-s...
Article
Urbanization transforms environments in ways that alter biological evolution. We examined whether urban environmental change drives parallel evolution by sampling 110,019 white clover plants from 6169 populations in 160 cities globally. Plants were assayed for a Mendelian antiherbivore defense that also affects tolerance to abiotic stressors. Urban...
Article
Urbanization transforms environments in ways that alter biological evolution. We examined whether urban environmental change drives parallel evolution by sampling 110,019 white clover plants from 6169 populations in 160 cities globally. Plants were assayed for a Mendelian antiherbivore defense that also affects tolerance to abiotic stressors. Urban...
Article
Full-text available
Knowledge on the reproductive biology of the endemic clupeids Limnothrissa miodon and Stolothrissa tanganicae, two main target species of the pelagic fisheries of Lake Tanganyika, is constrained by fragmented monitoring activities. Here, we investigate the nursing areas of L. miodon, the timing of reproductive activities of littoral and pelagic L....
Article
Full-text available
Understanding why certain host species harbor more parasites is an important question in parasite and fish ecology. Parasite infection among sympatric species may integrate various processes affecting parasite assembly, including the species-specific ecology and the success of invaders. We focused on spatial, environmental, and host-related determi...
Article
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Global warming challenges the persistence of local populations, not only through heat‐induced stress, but also through indirect biotic changes. We study the interactive effects of temperature, competition and parasitism in the water flea Daphnia magna. We carried out a common garden experiment monitoring the dynamics of Daphnia populations along a...
Article
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Anthropogenic stressors, such as pollutants, act as selective factors that can leave measurable changes in allele frequencies in the genome. Metals are of particular concern among pollutants, because of interference with vital biological pathways. We use the three‐spined stickleback as a model for adaptation to mercury pollution in natural populati...
Article
Full-text available
• An optimal timing for diapause induction through the sexual production of dormant propagules is expected in organisms with temporary populations. Yet, empirical studies often find high within-population genetic variation in the sexual production of such propagules, suggesting that this is a common feature of such organisms. • Here, we hypothesize...
Article
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We lack a thorough understanding of the origin and maintenance of standing genetic variation that enables rapid evolutionary responses of natural populations. Whole genome sequencing of a resurrected Daphnia population shows that standing genetic variation in over 500 genes follows an evolutionary trajectory that parallels the pronounced and rapid...
Article
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The European Union adopted the Water Framework Directive (WFD) in the year 2000 to tackle the rapid degradation of freshwater systems. However, biological, hydromorphological, and physico-chemical water quality targets are currently not met, and identifying successful policy implementation and management actions is of key importance. We built a joi...
Article
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There is a general and solid theoretical framework to explain how the interplay between natural selection and gene flow affects local adaptation. Yet, to what extent coexisting closely related species evolve collectively or show distinctive evolutionary responses remains a fundamental question. To address this, we studied the population genetic str...
Article
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Uncertainty hampers innovative mixed‐fisheries management by the scales at which connectivity dynamics are relevant to management objectives. The spatial scale of sustainable stock management is species‐specific and depends on ecology, life history and population connectivity. One valuable approach to understand these spatial scales is to determine...
Article
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The fisheries of Lake Tanganyika play an important role in food security in Central and Eastern Africa. Conservation of these valuable fish stocks will benefit from documenting the ideas, opinions and observations of stakeholders. Knowledge of the perceptions and an understanding of the concerns and struggles of stakeholders of these fisheries can...
Article
Lake Tanganyika, East Africa, is the oldest and deepest African Great Lake and harbours one of the most diverse fish assemblages on earth. Two clupeid fishes, Limnothrissa miodon and Stolothrissa tanganicae, constitute a major part of the total fish catch, making them indispensable for local food security. Parasites have been proposed as indicators...
Article
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Sea ice loss may have dramatic consequences for population connectivity, extinction‐colonization dynamics, and even the persistence of Arctic species subject to climate change. This is of particular concern in face of additional anthropogenic stressors, such as overexploitation. In this study, we assess the population‐genetic implications of dimini...
Article
Disruptive natural selection within populations exploiting different resources is considered to be a major driver of adaptive radiation and the production of biodiversity. Fitness functions, which describe the relationships between trait variation and fitness, can help to illuminate how this disruptive selection leads to population differentiation....
Preprint
Full-text available
An optimal timing for diapause induction through the sexual production of dormant propagules is expected in populations of annual organisms. Yet, experimental work typically finds high within-population genetic variation in the sexual production of such propagules. Thus, high genetic variation in timing for diapause induction should be a common fea...
Article
Connectivity between spawning and nursery grounds influences the colonization, replenishment and resilience of populations of marine organisms. Connectivity rate, measured as the exchange of individuals between spawning and nursery grounds, is therefore a crucial determinant of stock size. However, connectivity of early-life stages is hard to explo...
Article
Full-text available
Differences in habitat and diet between species are often associated with morphological differences. Habitat and trophic adaptation have therefore been proposed as important drivers of speciation and adaptive radiation. Importantly, habitat and diet shifts likely impose changes in exposure to different parasites and infection risk. As strong select...
Article
Full-text available
Background Clupeid fisheries in Lake Tanganyika (East Africa) provide food for millions of people in one of the world’s poorest regions. Due to climate change and overfishing, the clupeid stocks of Lake Tanganyika are declining. We investigate the population structure of the Lake Tanganyika sprat Stolothrissa tanganicae, using for the first time a...
Article
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Evidence of reciprocal influences between ecological and evolutionary processes (eco‐evolutionary dynamics) is accumulating at different levels of biological organisation, ranging from populations to communities and even ecosystems. This special feature showcases the state‐of‐the art knowledge on eco‐evolutionary dynamics and dissects the feedback...
Article
1.Theoretical models pertaining to feedbacks between ecological and evolutionary processes are prevalent in multiple biological fields. An integrative overview is currently lacking, due to little crosstalk between the fields and the use of different methodological approaches. 2.Here, we review a wide range of models of eco‐evolutionary feedbacks an...
Article
Full-text available
Background Species delineation is particularly challenging in taxa with substantial intra-specific variation. In systematic studies of fishes, meristics and linear measurements that describe shape are often used to delineate species. Yet, little is known about the taxonomic value of these two types of morphological characteristics. Here, we used Tr...
Article
Full-text available
Urbanization is influencing patterns of biological evolution in ways that are only beginning to be explored. One potential effect of urbanization is in modifying ecological resource distributions that underlie niche differences and that thus promote and maintain species diversification. Few studies have assessed such modifications, or their potenti...
Article
Full-text available
Whereas Lake Tanganyika's littoral and benthic zones are famous for their diverse fish communities, its pelagic zone is dominated by few species, of which two representatives of Clupeidae (Limnothrissa miodon and Stolothrissa tanganicae) take a pivotal role. We investigated the monogenean fauna infecting these freshwater clupeids to explore the lin...
Preprint
Full-text available
1. Theoretical models pertaining to feedbacks between ecological and evolutionary processes are prevalent in multiple biological fields. An integrative overview is currently lacking, due to little crosstalk between the fields and the use of different methodological approaches. 2. Here we review a wide range of models of eco-evolutionary feedbacks a...
Article
Full-text available
Research within the SPEEDY-network has shown that urbanisation has an effect on the parasite and symbiont community. In a few cases urbanisation was associated with a reduction in the number of micro-organisms associated with the host. Nevertheless there are species specific responses: particular species increase and others decrease in the city. Th...
Article
Full-text available
Species in a common landscape often face similar selective environments. The capacity of organisms to adapt to these environments may be largely species specific. Quantifying shared and unique adaptive responses across species within landscapes may thus improve our understanding of landscape-moderated biodiversity patterns. Here we test to what ext...
Presentation
Pelagic cichlids and their monogenean fauna in Lake Tanganyika: reduced host specificity and supporting of host tribe system Lake Tanganyika (LT) is a well-known study area localized in the African Rift Valley famous for its huge species richness and has attracted scientist for decades. The most diverse vertebrate family are cichlids with more than...
Presentation
Full-text available
Unnoticed by the public, initiatives for oil exploration are advanced in Africa’s largest freshwater reservoirs, including Lakes Tanganyika, Malawi and lately Albert, threatening their ecosystems and biota. It is imperative that environmental impact assessments are conducted by independent organizations to ensure that decisions on this matter are b...
Poster
Full-text available
A detailed understanding of population connectivity and the effects of anthropogenic stressors on genetic diversity and structure are important for the conservation and management of wild populations. The wild Svalbard reindeer (Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus) is an island sub-species with particularly low genetic variation. Nevertheless, studies...
Preprint
Full-text available
In adaptive radiations species diversify rapidly to occupy an array of ecological niches. In these different niches, species might be exposed to parasites through different routes and at different levels. If this is the case, adaptive radiations should be accompanied by a turnover in parasite communities. How the adaptive radiation of host species...
Article
Full-text available
As the world’s demands for hydrocarbons increase, remote areas previously made inaccessible by technological limitations are now being prospected for oil and gas deposits. Virtually unnoticed by the public, such activities are ongoing in the East African Great Lakes region, threatening these ecosystems famed for their hyper-diverse biota, includin...
Article
Thanks to high species diversity and a broad range of speciation mechanisms, cichlid fishes represent a textbook model in evolutionary biology. They are also of substantial economic value. Despite this importance, cichlid parasites remain understudied, although some are more diverse than their hosts. They may offer important insights into cichlid e...
Article
Full-text available
Peripheral isolated populations may undergo rapid divergence from the main population due to various factors such as a bottleneck or a founder effect followed by genetic drift or local selection pressures. Recent populations of two economically important Copadichromis species in Lake Malombe, a satellite lake of Lake Malawi, were neither geneticall...
Article
Full-text available
The stunning diversity of cichlid fishes has greatly enhanced our understanding of speciation and radiation. Little is known about the evolution of cichlid parasites. Parasites are abundant components of biodiversity, whose diversity typically exceeds that of their hosts. In the first comprehensive phylogenetic parasitological analysis of a vertebr...
Article
Full-text available
Local adaptation is often obvious when gene flow is impeded, such as observed at large spatial scales and across strong ecological contrasts. However, it becomes less certain at small scales such as between adjacent populations or across weak ecological contrasts, when gene flow is strong. While studies on genomic adaptation tend to focus on the fo...
Article
Full-text available
A major goal in ecology is to unravel how species assemblages emerge and how they are structured across the landscape. Host–parasite systems are particularly interesting in this context, as limited host dispersal may promote the differentiation of parasite communities.We examined whether the patterns of species diversity in Cichlidogyrus, a genus o...
Article
The study of natural populations from contrasting environments has greatly enhanced our understanding of ecological-dependent selection, adaptation and speciation. Cases of parallel evolution in particular have facilitated the study of the molecular and genetic basis of adaptive variation. This includes the type and number of genes underlying adapt...
Article
Full-text available
Reproductive activities of two commercially exploited clupeid fishes (Stolothrissa tanganicae and Limnothrissa miodon) in the northern end of Lake Tanganyika (Bujumbura sub-basin) were investigated during two different years (2004-2005 and 2007-2008). We hypothesized that the timing of largest reproductive investment in these pelagic species coinci...