Joost de Winter

Joost de Winter
Delft University of Technology | TU · Cognitive Robotics

PhD

About

384
Publications
331,592
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Introduction
My research is concerned with cognitive human-robot interaction. We study and develop machines (robots, vehicles) that understand and communicate with users.

Publications

Publications (384)
Preprint
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Perceived (i.e., subjective) risk is a key construct in traffic psychology and, more recently, in the area of automated driving. If the automated vehicle would be able to estimate the risk perceived by its occupants, this would allow the automated vehicle to adjust its behavior accordingly. This paper examines whether perceived risk in images of tr...
Article
Full-text available
During the last 20 years, technological advancement and economic interests have motivated research on automated driving and its impact on drivers’ behaviour, especially after transitions of control. Indeed, once the Automated Driving System (ADS) reaches its operational limits, it is forced to request human intervention. However, the fast accumulat...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Future automated vehicles may be equipped with external human-machine interfaces (eHMIs) capable of signaling whether pedestrians can cross the road. Industry and academia have proposed a variety of eHMIs featuring a text message. An eHMI message can refer to the action to be performed by the pedestrian (egocentric message) or the automated vehicle...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Mobile applications that provide GPS-based route navigation advice or driver diagnostics are gaining popularity. However, these applications currently do not have knowledge of whether the driver is performing a lane change. Having such information may prove valuable to individual drivers (e.g., to provide more specific navigation instructions) or r...
Preprint
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A major question in human-automation interaction is whether tasks should be traded or shared between human and automation. This work presents reflections—which have evolved through classroom debates between the authors over the past ten years—on these two forms of human-automation interaction, with a focus on the automated driving domain. As in the...
Preprint
This study explores how drivers of an automated vehicle distribute their attention as a function of environmental events and driving task instructions. Twenty participants were asked to monitor pre-recorded videos of a simulated driving trip while their eye movements were recorded using an eye-tracker. The results showed that eye movements are stro...
Article
Full-text available
This study explores how drivers of an automated vehicle distribute their attention as a function of environmental events and driving task instructions. Twenty participants were asked to monitor pre-recorded videos of a simulated driving trip while their eye movements were recorded using an eye-tracker. The results showed that eye movements are stro...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Past research suggests that displays on the exterior of the car, known as eHMIs, can be effective in helping pedestrians to make safe crossing decisions. This study examines a new application of eHMIs, namely the provision of directional information in scenarios where the pedestrian is almost hit by a car. In an experiment using a head-mounted disp...
Preprint
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Automated vehicles (AVs) may feature blinded (i.e., blacked-out) windows and external Human-Machine Interfaces (eHMIs), and the driver may be inattentive or absent, but how these features affect cyclists is unknown. In a crowdsourcing study, participants viewed images of approaching vehicles from a cyclist’s perspective and decided whether to brake...
Article
Full-text available
The last few years have seen a wealth of research on external human-machine interfaces (eHMIs). It has been argued that eHMIs are vital because they fill the social interaction void that arises with the introduction of automated vehicles (AVs). However, there is still much discussion about whether eHMIs are needed. The present article surveys argum...
Article
Humans are embarking on a new era of space exploration with the plan of sending crewed spacecraft to the Moon, Mars, and beyond. Extravehicular activities (EVAs) will be an essential part of the scientific activities to be carried out in these missions, and they will involve extensive geological fieldwork. EVAs entail many challenges as real-time s...
Article
Full-text available
Recent research suggests the existence of a general acceptance factor (GAF), similar to the “big one” in personality research or the general intelligence factor (g). The current study, written in the form of a short commentary, sought empirical support for the GAF by using data from a large multinational questionnaire of the L3Pilot project on the...
Article
Full-text available
Automated vehicles (AVs) can perform low-level control tasks but are not always capable of proper decision-making. This paper presents a concept of eye-based maneuver control for AV-pedestrian interaction. Previously, it was unknown whether the AV should conduct a stopping maneuver when the driver looks at the pedestrian or looks away from the pede...
Preprint
Full-text available
Recent research suggests the existence of a general acceptance factor (GAF), similar to the “big one” in personality research or the general intelligence factor (g). The current study, written in the form of a short commentary, sought empirical support for the GAF by using data from a large multinational questionnaire of the L3Pilot project on the...
Preprint
Full-text available
The last few years have seen a wealth of research on external human-machine interfaces (eHMIs). It has been argued that eHMIs are vital because they fill the social interaction void that arises with the introduction of automated vehicles (AVs). However, there is still much discussion about whether eHMIs are needed. The present article surveys argum...
Preprint
Humans are embarking on a new era of space exploration with the plan of sending crewed spacecraft to the Moon, Mars, and beyond. Extravehicular activities (EVAs) will be an essential part of the scientific activities to be carried out in these missions, and they will involve extensive geological fieldwork. EVAs entail many challenges as real-time s...
Preprint
Full-text available
Objective. This paper aimed to investigate whether steering gain (SG) mode changes should be made by the driver or automatically. Introduction. Cars are increasingly computerized, and vehicle settings such as SG can now be altered during driving. However, it is unknown whether transitions in SG should be adaptable (i.e., triggered by driver input)...
Preprint
Full-text available
Raven’s matrices are widely used to measure fluid intelligence, and much has been said about the visual and cognitive strategies employed by test-takers. The aim of the present study was to explore in a data-driven manner how participants move their eyes when solving Raven’s matrices. One hundred fifty-nine participants were presented with a 12-ite...
Preprint
Full-text available
A key question in transportation research is whether drivers show behavioral adaptation, that is, slower or faster driving, when new technology is introduced into the vehicle. This study investigates behavioral adaptation in response to the sport mode, a technology that alters the vehicle’s auditory, throttle-mapping, power-steering, and chassis se...
Preprint
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This study explored how people look at The Night Watch (1642), Rembrandt’s masterpiece. Twenty-one participants each stood in front of the painting for 5 minutes while their eyes were recorded with a mobile eye-tracker and their thoughts were verbalized with a think-aloud method. We computed a heatmap of the participants’ attentional distribution u...
Article
Full-text available
Objective To share results of an experiment that used visual occlusion for a new purpose: inducing a waiting time. Background Senders was a leading figure in human factors. In his research on the visual demands of driving, he used occlusion techniques. Methods In a simulator experiment, we examined how drivers brake for different levels of urgenc...
Article
Full-text available
Cars are increasingly capable of providing drivers with warnings and advice. However, whether drivers should be provided with ipsilateral warnings (signaling the direction to steer towards) or contralateral warnings (signaling the direction to avoid) is inconclusive. Furthermore, how auditory warnings and visual information from the driving environ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Chunking theory and previous eye-tracking studies suggest that expert chess players rely on peripheral vision when judging a chess position and determining the best move to play. However, so far, the role of peripheral vision in chess has mostly been inferred rather than based on controlled experimentation. In this study, we used a gaze-contingent...
Preprint
Full-text available
https://doi.org/10.1177%2F00187208221101301 Objective. To share and discuss results from an occlusion experiment in which Senders was involved. Background. Senders was a leading figure in human factors science. This includes studies on visual occlusion in driving. Methods. In a simulator experiment, we examined how drivers brake for different leve...
Preprint
Full-text available
Cars are increasingly capable of providing drivers with warnings and advice. However, whether drivers should be provided with ipsilateral warnings (signaling the direction to steer towards) or contralateral warnings (signaling the direction to avoid) is inconclusive. Furthermore, how auditory warnings and visual information from the driving environ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Mok, C. S., Bazilinskyy, P., & De Winter, J. C. F. (2022). Stopping by looking: A driver-pedestrian interaction study in a coupled simulator using head-mounted displays with eye-tracking. Applied Ergonomics, 105, 103825. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apergo.2022.103825 -------------------------------------------------------- Automated vehicles (AVs) ca...
Article
Full-text available
Cyclists are expected to interact with automated vehicles (AVs) in future traffic, yet we know little about the nature of this interaction and the safety implications of AVs on cyclists. On-bike human-machine interfaces (HMIs) and connecting cyclists to AVs and the road infrastructure may have the potential to enhance the safety of cyclists. This s...
Article
Full-text available
Many fatal accidents that involve pedestrians occur at road crossings, and are attributed to a breakdown of communication between pedestrians and drivers. Thus, it is important to investigate how forms of communication in traffic, such as eye contact, influence crossing decisions. Thus far, there is little information about the effect of drivers' e...
Preprint
Full-text available
Many fatal accidents that involve pedestrians occur at road crossings, and are attributed to a breakdown of communication between pedestrians and drivers. Thus, it is important to investigate how forms of communication in traffic, such as eye contact, influence crossing decisions. Thus far, there is little information about the effect of drivers’ e...
Article
Full-text available
Quantifying drivers' perceived risk is important in the design and evaluation of the behaviour of automated vehicles (AVs) and in predicting takeovers by the driver. A 'Driver's Risk Field' (DRF) function has been previously shown to be able to predict manual driving behaviour in several simulated scenarios. In this paper, we tested if the DRF-base...
Article
Full-text available
Vehicles are increasingly equipped with sensors that capture the state of the driver, the vehicle, and the environment. These developments are relevant to formal driver testing, but little is known about the extent to which driving examiners would support the use of sensor data in their job. This semi-structured interview study examined the opinion...
Preprint
Full-text available
Modern computerized vehicles offer the possibility of changing vehicle parameters with the aim of creating a novel driving experience, such as an increased feeling of sportiness. For example, electric vehicles can be designed to provide an artificial sound, and the throttle mapping can be adjusted to give drivers the illusion that they are driving...
Article
Full-text available
Modern computerized vehicles offer the possibility of changing vehicle parameters with the aim of creating a novel driving experience, such as an increased feeling of sportiness. For example, electric vehicles can be designed to provide an artificial sound, and the throttle mapping can be adjusted to give drivers the illusion that they are driving...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The future urban environment may consist of mixed traffic in which pedestrians interact with automated vehicles (AVs). However, it is still unclear how AVs should communicate their intentions to pedestrians. Augmented reality (AR) technology could transform the future of interactions between pedestrians and AVs by offering targeted and individualiz...
Preprint
Full-text available
Vehicles are increasingly equipped with sensors that capture the state of the driver, the vehicle, and the environment. These developments are relevant to formal driver testing, but little is known about the extent to which driving examiners would support the use of sensor data in their job. This semi-structured interview study examined the opinion...
Article
Full-text available
Non-verbal communication, such as eye contact between drivers and pedestrians, has been regarded as one way to reduce accident risk. So far, studies have assumed rather than objectively measured the occurrence of eye contact. We address this research gap by developing an eye contact detection method and testing it in an indoor experiment with scrip...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In a crowdsourced experiment, the effects of distance and type of the approaching vehicle, traffic density, and visual clutter on pedestrians’ attention distribution were explored. 966 participants viewed 107 images of diverse traffic scenes for durations between 100 and 4000 ms. Participants’ eye-gaze data were collected using the TurkEyes method....
Chapter
Full-text available
In a crowdsourced experiment, the effects of distance and type of the approaching vehicle, traffic density, and visual clutter on pedestrians’ attention distribution were explored. 966 participants viewed 107 images of diverse traffic scenes for durations between 100 and 4000 ms. Participants’ eye-gaze data were collected using the TurkEyes method....
Preprint
Full-text available
Non-verbal communication, such as eye contact between drivers and pedestrians, has been regarded as one way to reduce accident risk. So far, studies have assumed rather than objectively measured the occurrence of eye contact. We address this research gap by developing an eye contact detection method and testing it in an indoor experiment with scrip...
Article
Full-text available
Future vehicles may drive automatically in a human-like manner or contain systems that monitor human driving ability. Algorithms of these systems must have knowledge of criteria of good and safe driving behavior with regard to different driving styles. In the current study, interviews were conducted with 30 drivers, including driving instructors, e...
Article
Full-text available
An important question in the development of automated vehicles (AVs) is which driving style AVs should adopt and how other road users perceive them. The current study aimed to determine which AV behaviours contribute to pedestrians’ judgements as to whether the vehicle is driving manually or automatically as well as judgements of likeability. We te...
Preprint
Full-text available
The future urban environment may consist of mixed traffic in which pedestrians interact with automated vehicles (AVs). However, it is still unclear how AVs should communicate their intentions to pedestrians. Augmented reality (AR) technology could transform the future of interactions between pedestrians and AVs by offering targeted and individualiz...
Article
Full-text available
External human-machine interfaces (eHMIs) may be useful for communicating the intention of an automated vehicle (AV) to a pedestrian, but it is unclear which eHMI design is most effective. In a crowdsourced experiment, we examined the effects of (1) colour (red, green, cyan), (2) position (roof, bumper, windshield), (3) message (WALK, DON'T WALK, W...
Article
Full-text available
It may be necessary to introduce new modes of communication between automated vehicles (AVs) and pedestrians. This research proposes using the AV’s lateral deviation within the lane to communicate if the AV will yield to the pedestrian. In an online experiment, animated video clips depicting an approaching AV were shown to participants. Each of 110...
Preprint
Full-text available
Future vehicles may drive automatically in a human-like manner or contain systems that monitor human driving ability. Algorithms of these systems must have knowledge of criteria of good and safe driving behavior with regard to different driving styles. In the current study, interviews were conducted with 30 drivers, including driving instructors an...
Preprint
Full-text available
An important question in the development of automated vehicles (AVs) is which driving style AVs should adopt and how other road users perceive them. The current study aimed to determine which AV behaviours contribute to pedestrians’ judgements as to whether the vehicle is driving manually or automatically as well as judgements of likeability. We te...
Preprint
Full-text available
This chapter highlights four common pitfalls in the use of statistics in the area of traffic psychology. Through computer simulations of scenarios that are typical in the field, it is first shown that a statistically significant p-value does not prove that the effect is true, especially when the effect is surprising and the p-value barely significa...
Article
This article highlights four common pitfalls in the use of statistics in the area of traffic psychology. Through computer simulations of scenarios that are typical in the field, it is first shown that a statistically significant P-value does not prove that the effect is true, especially when the effect is surprising and the P-value barely significa...
Preprint
Cyclists are expected to interact with automated vehicles (AVs) in future traffic, yet we know little about the nature of this interaction and the safety implications of AVs on cyclists. On-bike human-machine interfaces (HMIs) and connecting cyclists to AVs and the road infrastructure may have the potential to enhance the safety of cyclists. This s...
Article
Full-text available
Various external human-machine interfaces (eHMIs) have been proposed that communicate the intent of automated vehicles (AVs) to vulnerable road users. However, there is no consensus on which eHMI concept is most suitable for intent communication. In nature, animals have evolved the ability to communicate intent via visual signals. Inspired by inten...
Article
Full-text available
The last decade has seen a surge of driving simulator research on automation-to-manual takeovers. In this commentary, we argue that most research within the takeover paradigm bears little resemblance to real automated driving. Furthermore, we claim that results within this paradigm could already be known based on published research from the previou...
Article
Full-text available
Automated vehicles (AVs) are able to detect pedestrians reliably but still have difficulty in predicting pedestrians' intentions from their implicit body language. is study examined the effects of using explicit hand gestures and receptive external human-machine interfaces (eHMIs) in the interaction between pedestrians and AVs. Twenty-six participa...
Preprint
Full-text available
Various visual external human-machine interfaces (eHMIs) have been proposed that communicate the intent of automated vehicles (AVs) to vulnerable road users. However, there is no consensus on which eHMI concept is most suitable for intent communication. In nature, animals have evolved the ability to communicate intent via visual signals. Inspired b...
Preprint
Full-text available
Several papers by Eckhard Hess from the 1960s and 1970s report that the pupils dilate or constrict according to the interest value, arousing content, or mental demands of visual stimuli. However, Hess mostly used small sample sizes and undocumented luminance control. In a first experiment (N = 182) and a second preregistered experiment (N = 147), w...