Joop W.P. Coolen

Joop W.P. Coolen
Wageningen University & Research | WUR · Wageningen Marine Research

PhD

About

69
Publications
25,627
Reads
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748
Citations
Introduction
Joop Coolen is a marine biologist specialised in the ecology of natural reefs, coastal defences, ship wrecks and offshore installations such as oil & gas platforms and wind farms in the North Sea.
Additional affiliations
December 2016 - present
Wageningen University & Research
Position
  • PostDoc Position
December 2016 - January 2022
Wageningen University & Research
Position
  • Researcher
October 2012 - November 2016
Wageningen Marine Research
Position
  • PhD-Student Biodiversity of old production platforms and new offshore wind farms
Education
October 2012 - March 2017
Wageningen University & Research
Field of study
  • Marine biology and oceanography
September 2004 - August 2009
University of Groningen
Field of study
  • Marine Biology

Publications

Publications (69)
Article
Reefs play an important role in the distribution of species associated with hard substrates and are of value for biodiversity conservation. High densities of the habitat building annelid Lanice conchilega also increase local biodiversity. This study describes the benthic biodiversity of a rocky reef and its surrounding sand bottom with dense L. con...
Article
Full-text available
The introduction of artificial hard substrates in an area dominated by a sandy seabed increases habitat available to epifouling organisms. To investigate this, samples were taken on old offshore oil and gas platforms, and data were compared with data of a young wind farm and a natural reef. Depth, sampling date, abundance of Mytilus edulis, Psammec...
Article
Full-text available
Artificial structures such as offshore oil and gas platforms can significantly alter local species communities. It has been argued that this effect should be considered during decisions over their removal during decommissioning. In the North Sea, leaving such structures in place is prohibited but derogations are allowed for large concrete installat...
Article
Full-text available
Recent papers suggest that epifaunal organisms use artificial structures as stepping-stones to spread to areas that are too distant to reach in a single generation. With thousands of artificial structures present in the North Sea, we test the hypothesis that these structures are connected by water currents and act as an interconnected reef. Populat...
Article
Full-text available
Over the last years, the development of offshore renewable energy installations such as offshore wind farms led to an increasing number of man-made structures in marine environments. Since 2009, benthic impact monitoring programs were carried out in wind farms installed in the southern North Sea. We collated and analyzed data sets from three major...
Article
Full-text available
The establishment of artificial hard substrates (i.e. offshore wind farms and oil and gas platforms) on marine soft sediments increases the available habitat for invertebrate communities that would otherwise be restricted to natural hard bottoms. Suspension feeding invertebrates clear a significant amount of particles from the water column and rele...
Article
Full-text available
Offshore platforms, subsea pipelines, wells and related fixed structures supporting the oil and gas (O&G) industry are prevalent in oceans across the globe, with many approaching the end of their operational life and requiring decommissioning. Although structures can possess high ecological diversity and productivity, information on how they intera...
Technical Report
Full-text available
In The Netherlands, the first offshore wind farm (OWF) became fully operational in 2007. This OWF was followed by several others. The establishment of wind farms is accompanied by a rapid colonisation by fouling species, which attach on the newly introduced hard substrates. Monitoring programmes of the communities on wind turbine foundations in the...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The aim of the Working Group on Marine Benthal and Renewable Energy Developments (WGMBRED) is to increase scientific exchange and efficiency of benthal renewable energy related research. In 2019–2021, the group discussed guidelines for data collection and methodologies and developed an integrated example dataset on benthos data of marine renewable...
Article
Full-text available
Offshore wind farms (OWFs) are proliferating globally. The submerged parts of their structures act as artificial reefs, providing new habitats and likely affecting fisheries resources. While acknowledging that the footprints of these structures may result in loss of habitat, usually soft sediment, we focus on how the artificial reefs established by...
Article
Full-text available
1. Oyster reefs are among the most threatened marine habitats globally. In Europe, oyster reefs have been extirpated from most locations within their historical range. Active restoration of the native oyster (Ostrea edulis) in Europe has grown substantially in recent years. In sharing experiences between oyster restoration projects in Europe at the...
Preprint
Full-text available
Artificial structures such as offshore oil and gas platforms can significantly alter local species communities. It has been argued that this effect should be considered during decisions over their removal during decommissioning. In the North Sea, leaving such structures in place is prohibited but derogations are allowed for large concrete installat...
Article
Full-text available
The geographic distributions of some coastal marine species have appeared as cosmopolitan ever since they were first scientifically documented. In particular, for many benthic species that are associated with anthropogenic substrata, there is much speculation as to whether or not their broad distributions can be explained by natural mechanisms of d...
Article
Full-text available
Human‐mediated transport creates secondary contacts between genetically differentiated lineages, bringing new opportunities for gene exchange. When similar introductions occur in different places, they provide informally replicated experiments for studying hybridisation. We here examined 4279 Mytilus mussels, sampled in Europe and genotyped with 77...
Preprint
Full-text available
During diving expeditions in July and September 2019 two live European flat oysters (Ostrea edulis) were observed by SCUBA divers. The first oyster was found lying amongst coarse shelly material in the scour hole around shipwreck #3251, 37 nautical miles north west of Texel (NL). The second oyster was found on the Gustav Nachtigal wreck, 6 nautical...
Article
Full-text available
Offshore energy production has been a rising industry in the North Sea since the past century and will likely gain more importance in the future with the increasing development of renewable alternatives. The platforms that are responsible for harvesting and producing energy provide a hard substrate in areas where most substrate is soft, establishin...
Article
Full-text available
Flat oyster (Ostrea edulis L.) beds were once a dominant habitat type in the Dutch Delta and North Sea, but overharvesting resulted in soft sediment habitats devoid of oysters. Natural recovery of oyster beds will be slow if the natural substrate is lost and therefore, many oyster restoration projects have been set up worldwide. One way to enhance...
Preprint
Full-text available
Human-mediated transport creates secondary contacts between genetically differentiated lineages, bringing new opportunities for gene exchange. When similar introductions occur in different places, they provide informally replicated experiments for studying hybridisation. We here examined 4279 Mytilus mussels, sampled in Europe and genotyped with 77...
Article
As decommissioning of oil and gas (O&G) installations intensifies in the North Sea, and worldwide, debate rages regarding the fate of these novel habitats and their associated biota-a debate that has important implications for future decommissioning of offshore wind farms (OWFs). Calls to relax complete removal requirements in some circumstances an...
Article
Offshore oil and gas platforms, shipwrecks and wind farms are known to act as artificial reefs, attracting a broad range of marine species such as algae, invertebrate species and fish. Using Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) videos made for technical inspection of eight Dutch and nine Danish oil and gas platforms, we characterize the abundance and di...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Vanuit het beleid is er behoefte aan ruimtelijke informatie over actuele en potentiële voorkomens van een aantal rifbouwende soorten in de Nederlandse Noordzee in verband met bescherming (Kaderrichtlijn Mariene Strategie, Natura 2000, OSPAR) en de geplande uitrol van windenergie op zee en integraal Noordzeebeleid (Strategische Agenda Noordzee 2030)...
Technical Report
Full-text available
In de Nederlandse Exclusieve Economische Zone (EEZ) zijn windparken gepland op diverse locaties. Door de windparken ontstaan nieuwe kansen voor multifunctioneel gebruik zoals maricultuur en nietbodemberoerende visserij met passieve vistuigen. Deze studie heeft de relatieve geschiktheid van bestaande, geplande en mogelijke toekomstige windparklocati...
Presentation
Full-text available
As a result of the increasing number of offshore energy devices in the North Sea, the amount of artificial hard substrate available to fouling organisms increases steadily (Coolen et al. 2018). In time, this may result in changes to populations of marine growth species such as mussels, anemones, hydroids and corals, resulting in a change in total b...
Article
Offshore environments are increasingly invaded by man-made structures that form hard-substrate habitats for many marine species. Examples include oil and gas platforms, wind turbines and shipwrecks. One of the hypothesised effects is an increased genetic connectivity among natural populations due to new populations growing on man-made structures th...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This report provides an overview of the state of affairs (1) with regards to the deployment of wet renewables and (2) marine energy storage systems; (3) how they affect abiotic and biotic compo-nents of the marine ecosystem and (4) developments and concepts on cumulative impact assess-ments related to marine renewable energy devices and (5) future...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This report provides an overview of the state of affairs (1) with regards to the deployment of wet renewables and (2) marine energy storage systems; (3) how they affect abiotic and biotic compo-nents of the marine ecosystem and (4) developments and concepts on cumulative impact assess-ments related to marine renewable energy devices and (5) future...
Article
As the EU's commitment to renewable energy is projected to grow to 20% of energy generation by 2020, the use of marine renewable energy from wind, wave and tidal resources is increasing. This literature review (233 studies) (i) summarizes knowledge on how marine renewable energy devices affect benthic environments, (ii) explains how these effects c...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The Dutch government has the ambition to realise 3,5 GW in offshore wind farms before 2023. Longer term outlooks estimate 35 to 75 GW for 2050. This would result in the construction of 5,000 wind turbines in the Dutch North Sea. The introduction of artificial hard substrates by placing wind turbine foundations and scour protection facilitates epibe...
Article
Full-text available
After being ecologically extinct for almost a century, the discovery of a shellfish reef with native European flat oysters (Ostrea edulis) in the Dutch coastal area of the North Sea by the authors of this study called for an extensive survey to better understand some of the key requirements for the return of the native oyster in coastal waters. We...
Article
Full-text available
Maritime industries routinely collect critical environmental data needed for sustainable management of marine ecosystems, supporting both the blue economy and future growth. Collating this information would provide a valuable resource for all stakeholders. For the North Sea, the oil and gas industry has been a dominant presence for over 50 years th...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Native oyster restoration, North Sea, Ostrea edulisARK Nature and World Wildlife Fund Netherlands are working on shellfish bed restoration in the Haringvliet coastal zone (the so-called Voordelta). The project was started in 2016. Total project duration is at least 3 years. Results of 2017 monitoring and experiments are described in the current rep...
Article
Full-text available
The European flat oyster, Ostrea edulis, is an emblematic and ecologically important species that was fished to virtual extinction in Belgian and Dutch waters in the 19th century. We report on recent findings of live specimens in Belgian and Dutch waters, an indication for the presence of O. edulis in these waters. Though small, these relict popula...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The RECON project was carried out from October 2015 till September 2017 and was part of the INSITE programme wherein the INfluence of man-made Structures In the Ecosystem is being investigated. The project “RECON: Reef effects of structures in the North Sea, islands or connections?” was initiated to investigate and model species patterns and inter-...
Article
Full-text available
Harmothoe aspera has been recorded in surveys off the Strait of Georgia, the Skagerrak, and the Barents, Mediterranean and Japanese sea. The recorded depth ranged from circa 48 m to circa 1500 m. This is the first report of H. aspera in the Dutch Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ), and the first report in a depth range between 15 and 20 m.
Technical Report
Full-text available
In juni 2017 is de 11e duikexpeditie op de Noordzee georganiseerd, door Stichting Duik de Noordzee Schoon. Op 18 juni werd er een duik gemaakt op het grind- en stenensubstraat van de Klaverbank, op locatie 54.021019 N / 3.165225 O, waterdiepte 38 meter. Van dit gebied is het bekend dat er veel stenen liggen (Leewis et al., 2015). Op de Klaverbank k...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Syllis vittata is present from British Waters to the Mediterranean Sea, Morocco and the Canary Islands and recorded from the South African coast and Indian Ocean. Results and conclusion: In this paper, S. vittata is reported for the first time in the Dutch EEZ.
Article
Full-text available
The expansion of the leopard-spotted goby Thorogobius ephippiatus in different countries in north-western Europe is assessed. In the Dutch part of the North Sea the fist record was in 1988. In recent years, this goby has become a frequent inhabitant of wrecks in the southern North Sea.
Thesis
Full-text available
The objective of the research presented in this thesis was to understand the patterns of benthic biodiversity on reefs in the North Sea. To gain this understanding, I studied which species are present on natural and artificial reefs, what environmental and biotic variables influence the presence and absence of a selection of these species and one o...
Article
Full-text available
This study reports on bryozoan species collected at three offshore gas platforms in the Dutch part of the North Sea. Four out of thirteen observed species are considered as rare in the Netherlands, whereas Cribrilina punctata is a new species for Dutch waters.
Article
Full-text available
Studying offshore natural and artificial hard substrates in the southern North Sea (51ºN–57ºN/1ºW–9ºE), the invasive introduced Japanese skeleton shrimp Caprella mutica Schurin, 1935 was found to co-exist with the native Caprella linearis (Linnaeus, 1767) only on near-shore locations that had an intertidal zone (e.g., wind farm foundations). In con...
Article
Full-text available
For many species of metagenic jellyfish the location of the benthic polyps is unknown. To gain insight in the distribution, species composition and population structure of scyphozoan jellyfish polyps in the southern North Sea area, polyp samples were collected from natural and artificial substrates (settling plates, marina floats and wrecks) at ten...
Article
For many species of metagenic jellyfish the location of the benthic polyps is unknown. To gain insight in the distribution, species composition and population structure of scyphozoan jellyfish polyps in the southern North Sea area, polyp samples were collected from natural and artificial substrates (settling plates, marina floats and wrecks) at ten...
Article
Full-text available
Offshore platforms are known to act as artificial reefs, though there is on-going debate on whether this effect is beneficial or harmful for the life in the surrounding marine environment. Knowing what species exist on and around the offshore platforms and what environmental variables influence this species assemblage is crucial for a better unders...
Article
Full-text available
Moss animals from North Sea wrecks new to the fauna of the Netherlands (Bryozoa) During an expedition of the foundation ‘Duik De Noordzee Schoon’ to the Dogger Bank ghost fishing nets were removed from several wrecks. After return to the harbour nets originating from four wrecks were inspected. Sixteen species of bryozoans were found, including fou...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This report provides an overview of the important benefits and costs for six variant closures for the protection of the benthic ecosystem on the Frisian Front and the Central Oyster Grounds. The proposed closures lead to a range of ecological benefits and economic costs. The current study facilitates an informed discussion about an optimal allocati...
Article
In the North Sea, observations of the solitary coral Caryophyllia smithii are mostly limited to the north-east coast of the United Kingdom including the Shetland and Orkney islands. To date, C. smithii has not been reported from far offshore locations in the North Sea south of 57.7°N. Distribution of this species appears limited by the restricted a...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The third annual meeting of the working group on Marine Benthal and Renewable Ener- gy developments was attended by 15 experts, representing seven countries (Belgium, Estonia, France, Germany, United Kingdom (England and Scotland) and the Nether- lands; with remote input from Poland and Sweden) and was held on 21–25 April 2015 in Oban, Scotland/U...