Joon Young Kim

Joon Young Kim
Syracuse University | SU · Department of Exercise Science

PhD

About

67
Publications
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Introduction
Joon Young Kim currently works at the Department of Exercise Science, Syracuse University. His research has focused on (1) identification of novel phenotypic biomarkers and genetic targets of obesity and type 2 diabetes; (2) pathophysiology of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes in obese youth vs. adults; (3) genetic contributions (i.e., SNPs) to the emerging biomarkers of type 2 diabetes, (4) interaction effects of genetic component and physical activity on cardiometabolic traits; and (5) Effects of lifestyle intervention on emerging biomarkers of type 2 diabetes risk in obese youth.
Additional affiliations
August 2019 - present
Syracuse University
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)
July 2017 - June 2019
University of Pittsburgh
Position
  • PostDoc Position
June 2015 - June 2017
Childrens Hospital of Pittsburgh
Position
  • PostDoc Position

Publications

Publications (67)
Article
Full-text available
A complex network of biochemical pathways carries out the process of muscle regeneration/growth following resistance exercise. The initial inflammatory response following muscle damage is primarily mediated by the nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB), cyclooxygenase enzymes, and prostaglandins. Muscle damage also stimu...
Article
Surrogate indices for insulin resistance of various insulin-responsive tissues are critical in epidemiological studies of youth at risk for developing type 2 diabetes (T2D) . Having established surrogate indices for peripheral insulin sensitivity (JCEM 2011; 96:2136) , we aimed to develop HIR-I in youth spanning from normal-weight (NW) to obese and...
Article
Physical markers of adiposity including BMI, WC and WHtR have been utilized as physical surrogates of IS and βCF to examine type 2 diabetes risk but without attention to race/ethnicity specific differences. Herein, we examined race-specific differences in the relationships between those physical surrogates and clamp-measured IS and βCF in obese Afr...
Article
The concept of metabolically unhealthy vs. healthy obese (MUO vs. MHO) was expanded to non-obese individuals as obesity-related comorbidities exist in a subgroup of metabolically unhealthy vs. healthy normal-weight (MUNW vs. MHNW) . It is unclear if MUNW differs from MHO with respect to cardiometabolic health. Here, we applied a widely accepted def...
Article
Full-text available
In the clinical setting, anabolic agents serve to ameliorate muscle- and bone-wasting diseases. However, many of these anabolic agents are also used by bodybuilders to surpass natural limits of body composition as performance-enhancing drugs (PEDs). The first generation of PEDs comprises testosterone-derived anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) which...
Article
Background The variation in parameters for childhood metabolic syndrome (MetS) has hindered the development of a consensus for the diagnostic criteria in this group. Despite these inconsistencies, it is accepted that exercise can ameliorate the deleterious effects of MetS. However, direct comparison between aerobic versus resistance exercise on Met...
Article
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The combat sports athletes developed great gains in both muscular function and fatigue resistance by utilizing high-intensity interval training (HIIT). However, it has not fully investigated whether the different work-to-rest ratios of HIIT show the effectiveness on muscle function in adolescent athletes. The purpose of the study was to compare dif...
Article
Full-text available
Individuals with obesity have metabolic inflexibility with diminished fasting fat oxidation and blunted increase in respiratory quotient (RQ) in insulin‐stimulated states. However, it is unclear if metabolic inflexibility is a characteristic of obesity per se or is unique to youth who have metabolically unhealthy obesity (MUO) compared with metabol...
Article
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Background Glucose concentrations during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) have been used as biomarkers to differentiate type 2 diabetes risk phenotypes. No studies have examined changes in OGTT-glucose phenotypes following lifestyle intervention among high-risk youth. Objective To examine changes in OGTT-glucose phenotypes following lifestyle...
Article
Full-text available
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a multifaceted metabolic disorder associated with distinctive pathophysiological disturbances. One of the pathophysiological risk factors observed in T2D is a dysregulation of the incretin hormones glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). Both hormones stimulate insulin secretion by...
Article
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Background The American Diabetes Association recommends risk-based screening for dysglycaemia (prediabetes and type 2 diabetes) in youth with overweight/obesity plus ≥1 risk factor. However, evidence for these recommendations is lacking. Objectives Examine the association between the number of risk factors and the prevalence of dysglycaemia in you...
Article
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The present study hypothesized that treatment with GW501516 (a selective PPAR-δ agonist) lowers lipids by increasing fatty acid oxidation without adverse effects on oxidative stress. Caucasian men (age 18-50 years, n=18) were randomly assigned to treatment with GW501516, GW590735, or placebo for two weeks while residing in a clinical research facil...
Article
Previous studies in adults have found a correlation between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and sarcopenia. The present study evaluated the relationship between NFALD and skeletal muscle mass in overweight/obese youth. A total of 234 children and adolescents (age 8-16) was stratified into tertiles based on relative muscle mass (RMM). Total...
Article
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Background: The oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)-glucose response curves (GRCs; incessant increase, monophasic, and biphasic) reflect insulin sensitivity and β-cell function, being worse in the former and superior in the latter. Here, we examined if the OGTT-GRC pattern is worse in obese antibody (glutamic acid decarboxylase 65-kDa [GAD65] and i...
Article
Background: Previous studies have identified biomarkers derived from glucose concentrations during a 2-h Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) that differentiate type 2 diabetes risk phenotypes. Such markers include 1-h glucose concentrations (1hG), shape of the glucose response curve (GRC), and time to glucose peak (TGP). Lifestyle intervention is th...
Article
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a chronic metabolic disorder characterized by a progressive loss of ß-cell function relative to insulin resistance. Once thought to be an adult disease, T2D has emerged as an increasingly prevalent health concern in obese youth, suggesting that early identification of those who are at high-risk for T2D is critical. Traditio...
Article
In obese non-diabetic youth, glucose response curve (GRC) and 1-hr glucose concentration during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) represent novel biomarkers for T2D risk. Obese youth with monophasic- vs. biphasic-GRC and 1-hr glucose concentration of ≥155 (Above155) vs. <155 mg/dL (Below155) are at increased risk for T2D. However, to date, it i...
Article
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Frequent/intense training increases the risk of overtraining in athletes.When overtrained, despite high effort in training, performance stagnates and/or deteriorates (Cadegiani & Kater, 2018). A growing body of literature has attempted to decipher the pathophysiology of overtraining. However, the majority of these literatures focus on the metabolic...
Article
Full-text available
Km is currently employed by eli lilly and company objective: We examined the glucose response curves (biphasic [BPh], monophasic [MPh], incessant increase [IIn]) during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and their relationship to insulin sensitivity (IS) and β-cell function (βCF) in youth versus adults with impaired glucose tolerance or recentl...
Article
Full-text available
Parallel with the current pediatric obesity epidemic, the escalating rates of youthonset type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have become a major public health burden. Although lifestyle modification can be the first-line prevention for T2DM in youths, there is a lack of evidence to establish optimal specific exercise strategies for obese youths at high...
Article
Full-text available
Incretin hormones have recently been considered an important pathophysiological factor for T2D in adults and youth due to their role in augmenting insulin secretion (Michaliszyn et al., 2014). It is recognized that glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) are glucose-dependent hormones released from the gut...
Article
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Type 2 diabetes is traditionally diagnosed by the use of an oral glucose tolerance test and/or HbA1c, both of which require serum collection. Various biomarkers, which are measurable biological substances that provide clinical insight on disease state, have also been effective in the early identification and risk prediction of inflammatory diseases...
Article
In adults and youth without diabetes, the shape of the OGTT-GRC [Biphasic (BPh), Monophasic (MPh), Incessant Increase (IIn)], identifies individuals with impairment in IS and βCF, worst in IIn, and least in BPh. Youth in the TODAY Study with IIn OGTT-GRC had higher glycemic failure rates and accelerated decline in βCF. In RISE we examined: 1) the s...
Article
In OY it is not clear what degree of βCF impairment translates to increases in OGTT glucose area under the curve (G-AUC) commensurate with transition from NGT to IGT to T2D, and whether there are racial differences. Given the high rates of T2D in Black (BY) vs. White youth (WY), we hypothesized that βCF decline in BY is more detrimental and results...
Article
Full-text available
Obese individuals have metabolic inflexibility evidenced by diminished fasting fat oxidation and blunted increase in respiratory quotient (RQ) from fasting to insulin-stimulated state. Metabolically unhealthy obese (MUHO) adolescents, unlike their metabolically healthy obese (MHO) peers, have unfavorable metabolic characteristics despite having com...
Article
Full-text available
Background: In adults, the time to glucose peak at or after 30 min during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) identifies physiologically distinct groups with differences in insulin sensitivity, β-cell function and risk for type 2 diabetes. In obese non-diabetic adolescents, we investigated if the OGTT-time-to-glucose-peak also reflects incretin...
Presentation
Text: Introduction: Impairment in β-cell function (BCF) relative to insulin sensitivity (IS) [disposition index (DI)] is the pathophysiological hallmark, and the strongest predictor of future T2D. However, it is not clear what degree of β-cell impairment it takes to impair glucose regulation. Objective: We investigated the quantitative relationship...
Poster
The OGTT-GRCs [Incessant Increase (IIn), Monophasic (Mph), and Biphasic (Bph)] reflect insulin sensitivity (IS) and b-cell function (BCF), being worse in the former and best in the latter. Accordingly, the prevalence of these GRCs differ in diabetic and non-diabetic individuals (Table). While islet-cell Ab-obese youth CDX-T2D have worse IS, Ab + yo...
Poster
The time to glucose peak occurring at or after 30 min. during an OGTT identifies physiologically distinct groups of adults with differences in insulin sensitivity (IS) and secretion and risk of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes. We stratified 102 obese non-diabetic youth (age 15.0 ± 0.2 yrs; 49 M/53 F; 42 black/60 white) to Early-peak (EP) vs. Late-p...
Article
Metabolic flexibility reflects the ability to switch from lipid to carbohydrate oxidation during insulin stimulation manifested in increased respiratory quotient (∆RQ). Obese adolescent girls with PCOS have metabolic inflexibility compared with their non-PCOS obese peers (JCEM 2018, PMID 29220530). To examine if metabolic inflexibility is also pres...
Presentation
Contributed equally to this work. Metabolic flexibility reflects the ability to switch from lipid to carbohydrate oxidation during insulin stimulation manifested in increased respiratory quotient (∆RQ). Obese adolescent girls with PCOS have metabolic inflexibility compared with their non-PCOS obese peers (JCEM 2018, PMID 29220530). To examine if me...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Adipose tissue insulin resistance is one of the pathophysiological components of type 2 diabetes. Herein we investigated: 1) adipose insulin resistance index (Adipose-IR) (calculated as fasting insulin × free fatty acids [FFAs]) in youth across the spectrum of adiposity from normal weight to obese and the spectrum from normal glucose to...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Obese youth without diabetes with monophasic oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) glucose-response curves have lower insulin sensitivity (IS) and impaired β-cell function compared with those with biphasic curves. The OGTT glucose response curve has not been studied in youth-onset type 2 diabetes. Here we test the hypothesis that the OGTT...
Presentation
One of the pathophysiological components of T2D is adipocyte insulin resistance. We demonstrated diminished insulin suppression of lipolysis, using the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp combined with [ 2 H5]glycerol tracer, in obese IGT vs. NGT youth (Diabetes 66: 2017). Herein we examined a surrogate index of adipose tissue insulin resistance (AT-...
Presentation
Metabolic flexibility reflects the ability to adjust fuel oxidation to fuel availability and switch from lipid oxidation to carbohydrate oxidation during insulin stimulation. Obese individuals have metabolic inflexibility evidenced by diminished fasting fat oxidation, impaired suppression of lipid oxidation and blunted stimulation of glucose oxidat...
Article
Full-text available
CONTEXT Metabolic flexibility reflects the ability to switch from lipid to carbohydrate oxidation during insulin stimulation manifested in increased respiratory quotient (RQ). Despite insulin resistance in glucose metabolism in PCOS women and adolescents, little is known about adipose tissue metabolism and metabolic flexibility. OBJECTIVE To inves...
Article
Full-text available
Despite evidence of insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction in glucose metabolism in youth with prediabetes, the relationship between adipose tissue insulin sensitivity (ATIS) and β-cell function remains unknown. We investigated whole-body lipolysis, ATIS and β-cell function relative to ATIS [adipose disposition index (DI)] in obese youth with IG...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Youth type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) occurs decades earlier than adult T2DM and is characterized by high therapeutic failure rates and decreased response to insulin sensitizers suggesting a more severe disease process than in adults. To explain these observations, we hypothesized that insulin resistance is worse in obese youth than adu...
Poster
Even though insulin plays a major role in lipid metabolism, and free fatty acids (FFA) modulate insulin sensitivity and secretion, and induce beta-cell lipotoxicity in youth (Diabetes 62: 2013; JCEM 98: 2013), the quantitative relationship between insulin secretion and ATIS remains elusive in youth. Therefore, we characterized adipose disposition i...
Poster
Youth type 2 diabetes occurs decades earlier than adult type 2 diabetes and is characterized by high therapeutic failure rates and decreased response to insulin sensitizers suggesting a more severe disease process than in adults. To explain these observations, we investigated if insulin sensitivity (IS) is worse in obese youth than adults with IGT...
Article
Obesity can increase the risk of complex metabolic diseases, including insulin resistance. Moreover, obesity can be caused by environmental and genetic factors. However, the epigenetic mechanisms of obesity are not well defined. Therefore, the identification of novel epigenetic biomarkers of obesity allows for a more complete understanding of the d...
Article
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Purpose: Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is proposed as a biomarker of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). This study investigated: (1) AMH concentrations in obese adolescents with PCOS versus without PCOS; (2) the relationship of AMH to sex steroid hormones, adiposity, and insulin resistance; and (3) the optimal AMH value and the multivariable predict...
Article
Full-text available
Background Obesity is a metabolic disease caused by environmental and genetic factors. However, the epigenetic mechanisms of obesity are incompletely understood. The aim of our study was to investigate the role of skeletal muscle DNA methylation in combination with transcriptomic changes in obesity. Results Muscle biopsies were obtained basally fr...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: The shape of the glucose response curve during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), monophasic versus biphasic, identifies physiologically distinct groups of individuals with differences in insulin secretion and sensitivity. We aimed to verify the value of the OGTT-glucose response curve against more sensitive clamp-measured biomarker...
Presentation
The shape of the glucose response curve during an OGTT, monophasic (Mph) vs. biphasic (Bph), identifies physiologically distinct groups of individuals with differences in insulin secretion and sensitivity. We stratified 106 obese non-diabetic youth (age 15.3 ± 0.2 yrs; 50M/56F) to Mph vs. Bph according to their OGTT-glucose response and assessed th...
Presentation
The "healthy obese" phenotype is described as a subtype of obesity because some obese individuals exhibit metabolic health despite having excess body fat. This study investigated the key physical, metabolic, hormonal and cardiovascular characteristics of metabolically healthy obese (MHO) vs. unhealthy obese (MUHO) adolescent girls with PCOS. A tota...
Presentation
AMH, a possible surrogate for ovarian antral follicle number, is proposed as a biomarker of PCOS. A variety of cutoff values of AMH have been suggested in adult women but with differing sensitivity and specificity. This study investigated: 1) AMH levels cross-sectionally in obese adolescents with PCOS in comparison to obese non-PCOS girls, 2) the e...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: To investigate the key physical, metabolic, hormonal and cardiovascular characteristics of metabolically healthy obese (MHO) versus unhealthy obese (MUHO) girls with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Research center. Patient(s): Seventy obese girls with PCOS were divided into 19 MHO and 51 M...
Article
Full-text available
BACKGROUND: Although the effect of the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene on adiposity is well established, there is a lack of evidence whether physical activity (PA) modifies the effect of FTO variants on obesity in Latino populations. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine PA influences and interactive effects between FTO var...
Article
Full-text available
Background Although the effect of the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene on adiposity is well established, there is a lack of evidence whether physical activity (PA) modifies the effect of FTO variants on obesity in Latino populations. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine PA influences and interactive effects between FTO vari...
Article
Full-text available
Background/Objectives Low-grade inflammation is an underlying feature of obesity and identifying inflammatory markers is crucial to understanding this disease. Therefore, the purpose of this study was twofold: (i) to perform a global microarray analysis and (ii) to investigate the role of lactoferrin (LTF), one of the most altered genes, in relatio...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: One hour (1-hr) glucose during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) is an emerging biomarker for type 2 diabetes. We compared the predictive power of 1-hr glucose to traditional glycemic markers for prospectively identifying prediabetes in youth. Research design and methods: Obese normoglycemic Latino youth (N = 116) were assessed at...
Article
Full-text available
Despite evidence to the contrary, exercise interventions for obese youth target weight loss as a means for improving health. Using Exercise is Medicine® as a framework, we present a conceptual model for the beneficial effects of exercise independent of weight loss in obese youth and highlight novel biomarkers of cardiometabolic health that could pr...
Article
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Background/aims: The increased occurrence of type 2 diabetes and its clinical correlates is a global public health issue, and there are continued efforts to find its genetic determinant across ethnically diverse populations. The aims of this study were to determine the heritability of diabetes and metabolic syndrome phenotypes in the Arizona Insul...
Article
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OBJECTIVE In adults, 1-h glucose during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) predicts the development of type 2 diabetes independent of fasting and 2-h glucose concentrations. The purpose of the current investigation was to examine the utility of elevated 1-h glucose levels to prospectively predict deterioration in β-cell function and the developm...
Article
Full-text available
In adults, the shape of the glucose response during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) prospectively and independently predicts type 2 diabetes. However, no reports have described the utility of this indicator in younger populations. The purpose of this study was to compare type 2 diabetes risk factors in Latino adolescents characterized by eith...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of the current study was to investigate the association of obesity level, physical fitness level, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level and metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk factors among Korean adults. A total of 557 adults (272 males and 285 females) who underwent medical check-up at local hospital were recruited. In addition to regular health ch...

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