Jonathan K. Wynn

Jonathan K. Wynn
VA Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System · Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioural Sciences

Ph.D.

About

154
Publications
11,452
Reads
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Citations
Introduction
Jonathan K. Wynn currently works at the Veterans Affairs Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System and the Semel Institute of Neuroscience and Human Behavior, University of California, Los Angeles. His current project is 'Affective Neuroscience of Motivation in Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder'. Dr. Wynn utilizes EEG methods, including event-related potentials (ERPs), and functional MRI to examine perceptual, cognitive, and emotional processing deficits in people with serious mental illnesses (SMI), including schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Dr. Wynn is also interested in examining the determinant of poor community integration in recently-homeless Veterans, many of whom have an SMI.
Additional affiliations
July 2017 - present
University of California, Los Angeles
Position
  • Medical Professional
August 2011 - July 2017
University of California, Los Angeles
Position
  • Research Associate
July 2005 - July 2011
University of California, Los Angeles
Position
  • Medical Professional
Education
September 1996 - June 2002
University of Southern California
Field of study
  • Psychology
September 1992 - May 1996
Occidental College
Field of study
  • Psychobiology

Publications

Publications (154)
Article
Schizophrenia is associated with deficits in both object perception and visual attention. However, few studies in schizophrenia have investigated object-based attention, which is dissociable from other forms of visuospatial attention. Recent research in healthy populations has shown that the ‘spotlight’ of sustained visual attention flickers in a r...
Article
Full-text available
Background The COVID-19 pandemic has had unprecedented effects on mental health and community functioning. Negative effects related to disruption of individuals’ social connections may have been more severe for those who had tenuous social connections prior to the pandemic. Veterans who have recently experienced homelessness (RHV) or have a psychot...
Article
Diminished social motivation is a core feature of schizophrenia that might reflect disturbances in social reward processing. It is not known whether these disturbances reflect anticipatory (“wanting”) and/or consummatory (“liking”) pleasure deficits. The primary aim of this study was to examine social versus nonsocial reward processing during these...
Article
Event-related potential (ERP) studies of motivated attention in schizophrenia typically show intact sensitivity to affective vs. non-affective images depicting diverse types of content. However, it is not known whether this ERP pattern: 1) extends to images that solely depict social content, (2) applies across a broad sample with diverse psychotic...
Article
The COVID-19 pandemic continues to disproportionately impact people of color and individuals experiencing psychosis and homelessness. However, it is unclear whether there are differences by race in psychosocial responses to the pandemic in vulnerable populations. The double jeopardy hypothesis posits that multiply marginalized individuals would exp...
Article
Black Americans are overrepresented in Veteran and non-Veteran homeless populations. Community integration remains a problem for many Veterans after they obtain housing, and Black Veterans may encounter additional difficulties due to systemic racism. However, no prior study has specifically examined whether there are racial differences in community...
Article
Social motivation disturbances have been long observed in people with schizophrenia, yet the underlying components that drive these impairments remain unclear. Social attention is one component of social motivation and involves stages of attentional orienting, alerting/sustained attention, and executive control. It is not known at which stage the b...
Article
Representation of people who identify as members of sexual and gender minority (SGM) groups is lacking in psychiatric research. Few researchers openly identify as members of an SGM group, and those who do continue to face career obstacles. Separately, in the context of psychiatric research studies, little attention has been paid to how participants...
Article
The COVID-19 pandemic and social distancing have directly impacted the socioeconomic well-being of most Americans. Veterans with psychosis (PSY) and Veterans who were recently housed (RHV) through a supportive housing programme may be especially vulnerable to experiencing negative socioeconomic effects of the pandemic. In this study, we investigate...
Preprint
Event-related potential (ERP) studies of motivated attention in schizophrenia typically show intact sensitivity to affective vs. non-affective images depicting diverse types of content. However, it is not known whether this ERP pattern: 1) extends to images that solely depict social content, (2) applies across a broad sample with diverse psychotic...
Article
Deficits in early auditory information processing contribute to cognitive and psychosocial disability; this has prompted development of interventions that target low-level auditory processing, which may alleviate these disabilities. The frequency following response (FFR) is a constellation of event-related potential and frequency characteristics th...
Article
The COVID-19 pandemic has upended the lives of everyone in the United States, negatively impacting social interactions, work, and living situations, potentially exacerbating mental health issues in vulnerable individuals. Within the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) healthcare system, two vulnerable groups include those with a psychotic disorder...
Preprint
Background: The COVID pandemic has upended the daily lives of everyone in the United States, negatively impacting social interactions, work, and living situations. The pandemic could lead to or exacerbate mental health issues, especially in people who are already vulnerable to such effects. Within the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) healthcare...
Article
Full-text available
Visual processing abnormalities in schizophrenia (SZ) are poorly understood, yet predict functional outcomes in the disorder. Bipolar disorder (BD) may involve similar visual processing deficits. Converging evidence suggests that visual processing may be relatively normal at early stages of visual processing such as early visual cortex (EVC) but th...
Article
Full-text available
Background Early-stage visual processing deficits are evident in chronic schizophrenia. Consistent with a cascade model of information processing, whereby early perceptual processes have downstream effects on higher-order cognition, impaired visual processing is associated with deficits in social cognition in this clinical population. However, the...
Preprint
Deficits in early auditory information processing contribute to cognitive and psychosocial disability; this has prompted development of interventions that target low-level auditory processing, which may alleviate these disabilities. The frequency following response (FFR) is a constellation of event-related potential and frequency characteristics th...
Article
Background Little is known about the determinants of community integration (i.e. recovery) for individuals with a history of homelessness, yet such information is essential to develop targeted interventions. Methods We recruited homeless Veterans with a history of psychotic disorders and evaluated four domains of correlates of community integratio...
Article
Background In an initial study (Study 1), we found that motivation predicted community integration (i.e. functional recovery) 12 months after receiving housing in formerly homeless Veterans with a psychotic disorder. The current study examined whether the same pattern would be found in a broader, more clinically diverse, homeless Veteran sample wit...
Article
People with schizophrenia (SZ) exhibit visual processing abnormalities that affect their daily functioning and remediating these deficits might help to improve functioning. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a potential tool for perceptual enhancement for this purpose, though there are no reports of tDCS applied to visual cortex in S...
Article
Objective: Schizophrenia is associated with impairments in social motivation. Social attention has been proposed as an underlying mechanism for social motivation. However, studies in schizophrenia have rarely examined social attention, and none of these studies examined the effects with rapidly presented stimuli. Method: The current study examin...
Article
Individuals with schizophrenia (SZ) demonstrate poor recognition memory, even when information is socially relevant. The neural alterations associated with responses to old information that is accurately recognized (true recognition) vs new information inaccurately identified as old (false recognition) are not known. Twenty SZ patients and 16 healt...
Article
The United States Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD)-Veteran Administration Supportive Housing (VASH) program uses project- and tenant-based vouchers to provide permanent supportive housing for homeless Veterans. We compared Veteran characteristics, health service utilization, and neighborhood characteristics between HUD-VASH partici...
Article
Full-text available
People with schizophrenia (SZ) or bipolar disorder (BD) experience dysfunction in visual processing. Dysfunctional neural tuning, in which neurons and neuronal populations are selectively activated by specific features of visual stimuli, may contribute to these deficits. Few studies have examined this possibility and there are inconsistent findings...
Article
Full-text available
Disturbances in motivation are prominent in the clinical presentation of people with schizophrenia and might reflect a disturbance in reward processing. Recent advances in affective neuroscience have subdivided reward processing into distinct components, but there are two limitations of the prior work in schizophrenia. First, studies typically focu...
Preprint
Full-text available
Deficient neuroplasticity has been implicated in schizophrenia and can be examined with non-invasive methods in humans. High frequency visual stimulation (HFS) induces neuroplastic changes in visual evoked potential (VEP) components, similar to the tetanizing electrical stimulation that induces synaptic long-term potentiation (LTP). While visual HF...
Article
Homelessness is a major public health problem, and serious mental illness (SMI) is highly prevalent in the homeless population. Although supported housing services-which provide permanent housing in the community along with case management-improve housing outcomes, community integration typically remains poor, and little is known about the underlyi...
Article
Background People with schizophrenia have clear impairments in early auditory processing. Mismatch negativity (MMN) is an auditory event-related potential that has been studied extensively in schizophrenia. MMN is elicited when an unexpected, low probability deviant auditory stimulus is presented after a repeated train of standard stimuli. The rovi...
Article
Background Homelessness in Veterans is a major public health problem. Even with efforts to reduce Veteran homelessness, Veterans continue to experience challenges with community integration (e.g., social functioning, independent living, work/school activities) after they receive housing. Homeless Veterans with a psychotic disorder are a unique popu...
Article
Full-text available
Background Motivational deficits are defining features of the negative symptoms of schizophrenia and are associated with substantial functional impairments yet are not well understood. Performance-based measures of effort may be more sensitive to the motivation deficits associated with negative symptoms than self-report or interview-based measures....
Article
Background Mismatch negativity (MMN) is an event-related potential (ERP) component reflecting auditory predictive coding. Repeated standard tones evoke increasing positivity (‘repetition positivity’; RP), reflecting strengthening of the standard's memory trace and the prediction it will recur. Likewise, deviant tones preceded by more standard repet...
Article
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) adaptation (also known as fMRI repetition suppression) has been widely used to characterize stimulus selectivity in vivo, a fundamental feature of neuronal processing in the brain. We investigated whether SZ patients and BD patients show aberrant fMRI adaptation for object perception. About 52 SZ patient...
Article
The development of effective cognitive training (CT) interventions is critical for improving the daily lives of people with schizophrenia. At this point, it is unclear whether a so-called “bottom-up” or “top-down” CT approach is more beneficial for inducing cognitive gains and generalization in this population. The aims of this randomized controlle...
Article
Objective: Resilience is broadly defined as the ability to respond adaptively to challenges or adversity. It is unclear which clinical and cognitive factors are most closely related to resilience. Also, the dimensions that comprise resilience may differ among different groups, such as those who are homeless. The purpose of this study was to unders...
Article
Background: Human beings find social stimuli rewarding, which is thought to facilitate efficient social functioning. Although reward processing has been extensively studied in schizophrenia, a few studies have examined neural processes specifically involved in social reward processing. This study examined neural sensitivity to social and nonsocial...
Article
Full-text available
Social perceptual deficits in schizophrenia are well established. Recent work suggests that the ability to extract social information from bodily cues is reduced in patients. However, little is known about the neurobiological mechanisms underlying this deficit. In the current study, 20 schizophrenia patients and 16 controls completed two tasks usin...
Article
Recent interest has focused on oxytocin (OT), a neurotransmitter that promotes social processing, to improve social functioning in people with schizophrenia. However, little information is available regarding the doses of OT that are effective for influencing social processing in the brain (i.e., target engagement). In this study, we conducted a do...
Article
Full-text available
Over the last decades, the treatment of schizophrenia has shifted fundamentally from a focus on symptom reduction to a focus on recovery and improving aspects of functioning. In this study, we examined the effect of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on social cognitive and nonsocial neurocognitive functions, as well as on electroenceph...
Data
Checklist of items for reporting trials of Nonpharmacologic Treatments. (DOC)
Data
Approved protocol by the Institutional Review Board. (DOCX)
Article
Effort-based decision making paradigms are increasingly utilized to gain insight into the nature of motivation deficits. Although these tasks are being used to assess effort and motivation in schizophrenia, little work has been done to confirm that effort-based decision making tasks validly manipulate effort. In the current study, we adapted the ef...
Article
Auditory hallucinations, a hallmark symptom of psychosis, are experienced by most people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia at some point in their illness. Auditory hallucinations can be understood as a failure in predictive coding, whereby abnormalities in sensory/perceptual processing combine with biased cognitive processes to result in a dampenin...
Article
Background: Enhanced memory for self-oriented information is known as the self-referential memory (SRM) effect. fMRI studies of the SRM effect have focused almost exclusively on encoding, revealing selective engagement of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) during "self" relative to other processing conditions. Other critical areas for self-proces...
Article
Full-text available
Effort-based decision-making paradigms are increasingly utilized to gain insight into the nature of motivation deficits. Research has shown associations between effort-based decision making and experiential negative symptoms; however, the associations are not consistent. The current study had two primary goals. First, we aimed to replicate previous...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Deficits in visual perception are well-established in schizophrenia and are linked to abnormal activity in the lateral occipital complex (LOC). Related deficits may exist in bipolar disorder. LOC contains neurons tuned to object features. It is unknown whether neural tuning in LOC or other visual areas is abnormal in patients, contribu...
Article
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) was applied bilaterally over the auditory cortex in 12 schizophrenia patients to modulate early auditory processing. Performance on a tone discrimination task (tone-matching task—TMT) and auditory mismatch negativity were assessed after counterbalanced anodal, cathodal, and sham tDCS. Cathodal stimulat...
Article
Social disability is a defining characteristic of schizophrenia and a substantial public health problem. It has several components that are difficult to disentangle. One component, social disconnection, occurs extensively in the general community among nonhelp-seeking individuals. Social disconnection is an objective, long-standing lack of social/f...
Article
People with schizophrenia typically show visual processing deficits on masking tasks and other performance-based measures, while people with bipolar disorder may have related deficits. The etiology of these deficits is not well understood. Most neuroscientific studies of perception in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder have focused on visual proces...
Article
Background: Individuals with schizophrenia experience very high levels of disability and poor community outcome, resulting in a major public health concern. Over the last decades, the treatment of schizophrenia has shifted fundamentally from a focus on symptom reduction to a focus on recovery and improving aspects of functioning. In this study, we...
Article
Neuroplasticity may be an important treatment target to improve the cognitive deficits in schizophrenia (SZ). Yet, it is poorly understood and difficult to assess. Recently, a visual high-frequency stimulation (HFS) paradigm that potentiates electroencephalography (EEG)-based visual evoked potentials (VEP) has been developed to assess neural plasti...
Article
Background: Schizophrenia (SZ) is an illness characterized by early sensory processing deficits, both in the visual and auditory domains. These deficits are treatment targets of interest as they contribute to higher order cognitive dysfunction and are correlated to patient functional outcomes. Current treatments have largely focused on management o...
Article
Background: Enhanced memory for self-oriented information is known as the self-referential memory (SRM) effect. fMRI studies of the SRM effect have largely focused on encoding, revealing selective engagement of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) during “self” relative to other semantic processing conditions. Other areas typically activated during self...
Article
Background: The mismatch negativity (MMN) event-related potential (ERP) reflects predictive coding as well as short-term neuroplasticity. MMN is elicited when a deviant tone violates the prediction of an expected, frequently presented standard tone. ERP amplitudes to standard tones become more positive (repetition positivity, RP) and amplitudes to...
Article
Background: The amount of improvement that people with schizophrenia (SZ) show after a cognitive remediation intervention may depend on the integrity of basic plasticity mechanisms. However, to date it has been difficult to assess cortical plasticity in vivo in humans. Recently, various electroencephalogram (EEG) paradigms have been developed to no...
Article
Background: Long-term potentiation (LTP) is a basic synaptic mechanism underlying cortical plasticity (ie, malleability of neural organization in response to experience or brain injury). Abnormalities in LTP are hypothesized to underlie cognitive impairment in schizophrenia. However, because it was not possible to evaluate human LTP-like plasticity...
Article
Background: Resilience, or the ability to withstand or adapt to adverse circumstances and events, may have important cognitive, clinical, and functional implications for homeless Veterans once they have obtained housing. This may be particularly true for the subset of homeless Veterans living with psychotic illness. In individuals with schizophreni...
Article
Full-text available
Background: People with schizophrenia show impaired performance on specific tests of visual perception, such as visual masking tasks that assess perception of objects, and these impairments have been linked to functional outcomes. People with bipolar disorder also show deficits on some visual masking tasks to a lesser degree than in schizophrenia....
Article
Individuals with schizophrenia demonstrate difficulties in attending to important stimuli (e.g., targets) and ignoring distractors (e.g., non-targets). We used a visual oddball task during fMRI to examine functional connectivity within and between the ventral and dorsal attention networks to determine the relative contribution of each network to de...
Article
Full-text available
Impaired mental state attribution is a core social cognitive deficit in schizophrenia. With functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), this study examined the extent to which the core neural system of mental state attribution is involved in mental state attribution, focusing on belief attribution and emotion attribution. Fifteen schizophrenia ou...
Data
Data file for ROI analyses are included. (SAV)
Article
Full-text available
Background: Bipolar disorder (BD) and schizophrenia (SZ) show substantial overlap. It has been suggested that a subgroup of patients might contribute to these overlapping features. This study employed a cross-diagnostic cluster analysis to identify subgroups of individuals with shared cognitive phenotypes. Method: 143 participants (68 BD patient...
Article
Patients with schizophrenia show specific abnormalities in visual perception, and patients with bipolar disorder may have related perceptual deficits. During tasks that highlight perceptual dysfunction (e.g., backward masking, contour integration), patients with schizophrenia show abnormal activity in visual brain areas including the Lateral Occipi...