Jonathan D Turner

Jonathan D Turner
LIH Luxembourg Institute of Health | CRP Santé · Department of Infection and Immunity

PhD

About

86
Publications
17,414
Reads
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2,319
Citations
Additional affiliations
May 2015 - present
LIH Luxembourg Institute of Health
Position
  • Principal Investigator, Immune, Endocrine and Epigenetics Research Group.
May 2003 - present
Universität Trier
May 2003 - May 2015
Laboratoire National de Santé
Position
  • Group Leader
Education
January 1996 - December 2000
Aston University
Field of study
  • Pharmaceutical Science
October 1992 - July 1995
Imperial College London
Field of study
  • Chemistry

Publications

Publications (86)
Article
The 5' untranslated region (UTR) of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) plays a key role in determining tissue-specific expression and protein isoforms. Analysis of the 5' UTR of the human GR (hGR) has revealed 11 splice variants of the hGR exon 1, based on seven exon 1s, four of which (1-D to 1-F and 1-H) were previously unknown. All of the exon 1 va...
Article
Animal studies have identified persistent and functional effects of traumatic stress on the epigenome. This review discusses the clinical evidence for trauma-induced changes in DNA methylation across the life span in humans. Studies are reviewed based on reports of trauma exposure during the prenatal period (13 studies), early life (20 studies), an...
Article
Full-text available
Gender, genetic makeup, and prior experience interact to determine physiological responses to an external perceived stressor. Here, we investigated the contribution of both genetic variants and promoter methylation of the NR3C1 (glucocorticoid receptor) gene to the cardiovascular and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis response to the sociall...
Article
Full-text available
The role of twins in research is evolving as we move further into the post-genomic era. With the re-definition of what a gene is, it is becoming clear that biological family members who share a specific genetic variant may well not have a similar risk for future disease. This has somewhat invalidated the prior rationale for twin studies. Case co-tw...
Article
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) maintain immune homeostasis and prevent autoimmunity. Serine stimulates glutathione (GSH) synthesis and feeds into the one-carbon metabolic network (1CMet) essential for effector T cell (Teff) responses. However, serine’s functions, linkage to GSH, and role in stress responses in Tregs are unknown. Here, we show, using mi...
Article
Full-text available
Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) is the gatekeeper enzyme of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. Here we show that the deglycase DJ-1 (encoded by PARK7, a key familial Parkinson’s disease gene) is a pacemaker regulating PDH activity in CD4⁺ regulatory T cells (Treg cells). DJ-1 binds to PDHE1-β (PDHB), inhibiting phosphorylation of PDHE1-α (PDHA), thus...
Article
Full-text available
Type-2 diabetes is a complex disorder that is now considered to have an immune component, with functional impairments in many immune cell types. Type-2 diabetes is often accompanied by comorbid obesity, which is associated with low grade inflammation. However,the immune status in Type-2 diabetes independent of obesity remains unclear. Goto-Kakizaki...
Article
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Evidence is now growing that exposure to environmental pollutants during the critical early-life period of brain development may contribute to the emergence of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). This study seeks to compare the developmental neurotoxicity of the α-isomer of hexabromocyclododecane (α-HBCDD), a persistent brominated flame retardant, to...
Article
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Background: Chief among mechanisms of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) reactivation is the appearance of mutations in the TERT promoter. The two main TERT promoter mutations are C>T transitions located −146C>T and −124C>T upstream from the translational start site. They generate a novel Ets/TCF binding site. Both mutations are mutually exclu...
Article
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The early-life microbiome (ELM) interacts with the psychosocial environment, in particular during early-life adversity (ELA), defining life-long health trajectories. The ELM also plays a significant role in the maturation of the immune system. We hypothesised that, in this context, the resilience of the oral microbiomes, despite being composed of d...
Article
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The women’s right to respectful and dignified care during labour and childbirth is strategically accepted [1]. As management committee members of the EU COST Action CA18211 network (‘DEVOTION’) focused on traumatic childbirth (www.ca18211.eu), we are concerned with ensuring a positive birth experience for all. We work on a pan‐European level to ens...
Article
Full-text available
Early Life Adversity (ELA) is closely associated with the risk for developing diseases later in life, such as autoimmune diseases, type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. In humans, early parental separation, physical and sexual abuse or low social-economic status during childhood are known to have great impact on brain development, in the hor...
Article
Full-text available
The consumption of prebiotic fibers to modulate the human gut microbiome is a promising strategy to positively impact health. Nevertheless, given the compositional complexity of the microbiome and its inter-individual variances, generalized recommendations on the source or amount of fiber supplements remain vague. This problem is further compounded...
Preprint
Full-text available
Consumption of prebiotic fibers to modulate the human gut microbiome is a promising strategy to positively impact health. Nevertheless, given the compositional complexity of the micro-biome and its inter-individual variances, generalized recommendations on the source or amount of fiber supplements remain vague. This problem is further compounded by...
Article
Full-text available
DNA methylation is one of the most important epigenetic modifications and is closely related with several biological processes such as regulation of gene transcription and the development of non-malignant diseases. The prevailing dogma states that DNA methylation in eukaryotes occurs essentially through 5-methylcytosine (5mC) but recently adenine m...
Article
Full-text available
Asymptomatic individuals, called “silent spreaders” spread SARS-CoV-2 efficiently and have complicated control of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. As seen in previous influenza pandemics, socioeconomic and life-trajectory factors are important in disease progression and outcome. The demographics of the asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 carriers are unknown. We...
Article
There are many 'faces' of early life adversity (ELA), such as childhood trauma, institutionalisation, abuse or exposure to environmental toxins. These have been implicated in the onset and severity of a wide range of chronic non-communicable diseases later in life. The later-life disease risk has a well-established immunological component. This rai...
Preprint
Full-text available
Early Life Adversity (ELA) is closely associated with the risk for developing diseases later in life, such as autoimmune diseases, type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. In humans, early parental separation, physical and sexual abuse or low social-economic status during childhood are known to have great impact on brain development, in the hor...
Article
Full-text available
The physiological response to a psychological stressor broadly impacts energy metabolism. Inversely, changes in energy availability affect the physiological response to the stressor in terms of hypothalamus, pituitary adrenal axis (HPA), and sympathetic nervous system activation. Glucocorticoids, the endpoint of the HPA axis, are critical checkpoin...
Article
Full-text available
The potent neurotoxicity of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) has been suggested to be a susceptibility factor accelerating the onset of brain tumours and the emergence of neurobehavioural disturbances. B[a]P has been shown to be neurotoxic, acting directly on both the central and peripheral nervous systems, as well as indirectly via peripheral organs like li...
Preprint
Full-text available
There are many ‘faces’ of early life adversity (ELA), such as childhood trauma, institutionalization, abuse or exposure to environmental toxins. These have been implicated in the onset and severity of a wide range of chronic non-communicable diseases later in life. The later-life disease risk has a well-established immunological component. This rai...
Preprint
Full-text available
The physiological response to a psychological stressor broadly impacts energy metabolism. Inversely, changes in energy availability affect the physiological response to the stressor in terms of hypothalamus, pituitary adrenal gland axis and sympathetic nervous system activation upon exposure to a stressor. Glucocorticoids, the endpoint of the HPA a...
Article
Full-text available
A poor socioeconomic environment and social adversity are fundamental determinants of human life span, well-being and health. Previous influenza pandemics showed that socioeconomic factors may determine both disease detection rates and overall outcomes, and preliminary data from the ongoing coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic suggests that this...
Article
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Endogenous opioid peptides and prescription opioid drugs modulate pain, anxiety and stress by activating opioid receptors, currently classified into four subtypes. Here we demonstrate that ACKR3/CXCR7, hitherto known as an atypical scavenger receptor for chemokines, is a broad-spectrum scavenger of opioid peptides. Phylogenetically, ACKR3 is interm...
Preprint
Full-text available
A poor socioeconomic environment and social adversity are fundamental determinants of human life span, well-being and health. Previous influenza pandemics showed that socioeconomic factors may determine both disease detection rates and overall outcomes, and preliminary data from the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic suggests that this is still true. Over t...
Preprint
Full-text available
BACKGROUND: After the World Health Organization declared the outbreak of coronavirus disease to be a public health emergency of international concern on January 30, 2020, the first SARS-CoV-2 infection was detected in Luxembourg on February 29, 2020. Representative population-based data, including asymptomatic individuals for assessing the viral sp...
Article
Early life adversity (ELA) has been associated with inflammation and immunosenescence, as well as hyporeactivity of the HPA axis. Because the immune system and the HPA axis are tightly intertwined around the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), we examined peripheral GR functionality in the EpiPath cohort among participants who either had been exposed to...
Article
When studying the factors which influence stress reactivity in within-subject designs, test-retest reproducibility data is needed to estimate power and sample size. We report such data regarding a new experimental stress protocol, based on simultaneous application of the socially evaluated, bilateral feet Cold Pressor Test (CPT) and the Paced Audit...
Article
Full-text available
The incidence of neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative diseases worldwide has dramatically increased over the last decades. Although the aetiology remains uncertain, evidence is now growing that exposure to persistent organic pollutants during sensitive neurodevelopmental periods such as early life may be a strong risk factor, predisposing the i...
Experiment Findings
Full-text available
Chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factors (COUP-TFII, gene symbol NR2F2) are orphan nuclear receptors (NRs) involved via gene regulation in differentiation, development, homeostasis and disease. Although, most NRs undergo alternative splicing events to increase diversity, only few variants of the COUP-TFII have been investigated clo...
Article
Secretion of the stress hormone cortisol follows a circadian rhythm and is stimulated following stress exposure. Cortisol regulates the transcription of several genes, primarily through activation of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Previously, we showed an upregulation of PERIOD genes PER1 and PER3 after pharmacological/glucocorticoid challenge i...
Article
Full-text available
The negative health effects of early life adversity (ELA) continue long into adulthood. Changes in the physiological response to psychosocial stressors have been proposed to mediate this effect. However, many previous studies have come to contradicting conclusions as to whether ELA induces a long-term increase or decrease in stress reactivity. Ther...
Article
Full-text available
Early life adversity (ELA) has been associated with an increased risk for diseases in which the immune system plays a critical role. The ELA immune phenotype is characterized by inflammation, impaired cellular immunity, and immunosenescence. However, data on cell-specific immune effects are largely absent. Additionally, stress systems and health be...
Article
The cardiovascular system is responsible for transport of blood and nutrients to tissues, and is pivotal to the physiological health and longevity. Epigenetic modification is a natural, age-associated process resulting in highly contextualised gene expression with clear implications for cell differentiation and disease onset. Biological/epigenetic...
Article
Full-text available
Early life adversity (ELA) increases the risk for multiple age-related diseases, such as diabetes type 2 and cardiovascular disease. As prevalence is high, ELA poses a major and global public health problem. Immunosenescence, or aging of the immune system, has been proposed to underlie the association between ELA and long-term health consequences....
Article
Full-text available
The environment and experiences in early childhood prime the immune system. Early life adversity (ELA) has been linked to alterations in immune function, especially an impaired cell-mediated immunity. However, it is unclear which functions of cell-mediated immunity are affected. This study investigated T cells activity in 77 healthy young adults wi...
Article
Full-text available
DNA methylation, through 5-methyl- and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5mC and 5hmC), is considered to be one of the principal interfaces between the genome and our environment, and it helps explain phenotypic variations in human populations. Initial reports of large differences in methylation level in genomic regulatory regions, coupled with clear gene e...
Article
Full-text available
The physiological stress system and the circadian clock system communicate with each other at different signaling levels. The steroid hormone cortisol, the end-effector of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis, is released in response to stress and acts as a mediator in circadian rhythms. We determined the effect of escalating cortisol doses on t...
Article
Current restriction enzyme based reduced representation methylation analyses aim for limited, but unbiased, methylome coverage. As the current best estimate suggests that only ~20% of CpGs are dynamically regulated, we characterised the CpG and genomic context surrounding all suitable restriction enzyme sites to identify those that were located in...
Article
The external environment plays a primordial role in determining gene expression, and protein production, which may in turn define a behavioral or physiological phenotype. This control occurs at both the transcriptional and translational levels and involves a wide range of mechanisms, providing a plethora of opportunities for altering the final leve...
Article
Full-text available
The variability and complexity of the transcription initiation process was examined by adapting RNA ligase-mediated rapid amplification of 5′ cDNA ends (5′-RACE) to Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS). We oligo-labelled 5′-m7G-capped mRNA from two genes, the simple mono-exonic Beta-2-Adrenoceptor (ADRB2R) and the complex multi-exonic Glucocorticoid Re...
Article
Full-text available
Background and Objective: Early life adverse events may influence susceptibility/resistance to chronic inflammatory diseases later in life by permanently dysregulating brain-controlled immune-regulatory systems. We have investigated the impact of infant-mother separation during early postnatal life on the severity of experimental periodontitis, as...
Chapter
The external environment plays a primordial role in determining gene expression, and protein production, which may in turn define a behavioral or physiological phenotype. This control occurs at both the transcriptional and translational levels and involves a wide range of mechanisms, providing a plethora of opportunities for altering the final leve...
Article
Stress glucocorticoids and insulin are important endocrine regulators of energy homeostasis, but little is known about their central interaction on the reward-related processing of food cues. According to a balanced group design, healthy food deprived men received either 40IU intranasal insulin (n=13), 30mg oral cortisol (n=12), both (n=15), or pla...
Article
GR transcripts display a remarkable heterogeneity in their 5' untranslated regions (5'UTRs). These variable 5'UTRs are encoded by a series of alternative 1st exons, and together with their associated promoters they maintain tissue-specific GR expression levels. In this study we over-expressed GR transcripts containing individual 1st exons, and asse...
Article
Glucocorticoids and the glucocorticoid (GR) and mineralocorticoid (MR) receptors have been implicated in many processes, particularly in negative feedback regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Epigenetically programmed GR alternative promoter usage underlies transcriptional control of GR levels, generation of GR 3' splice variants,...
Article
Immune cell trafficking is crucial for surveillance and effector functions of the immune system. Circadian rhythms of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and of cortisol have been implicated in circadian redistribution of circulating lymphocytes and granulocytes. However, information regarding the diurnal redistribution of immune cells an...
Article
Full-text available
Glucocorticoids exert rapid non-genomic effects by several mechanisms including the activation of a membrane-bound Glucocorticoid Receptor (mGR). Here, we report the first proteomic study on the effects of mGR activation by BSA-conjugated cortisol (Cort-BSA). A subset of target proteins in the proteomic dataset was validated by Western blot and we...