Jonathan Storkey

Jonathan Storkey
Rothamsted Research · Department of Agroecology

About

69
Publications
27,575
Reads
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3,709
Citations
Citations since 2017
13 Research Items
2371 Citations
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20172018201920202021202220230100200300400

Publications

Publications (69)
Article
Full-text available
Mineral deficiencies in livestock are often prevented by using prophylactic supplementation, which is imprecise and inefficient. Instead, the trend for increased species diversity in swards is an opportunity to improve mineral concentrations in the basal diet. Currently, there are limited data on the mineral concentrations of different species and...
Article
Full-text available
Predicting the response of biological communities to changes in the environment or management is a fundamental pursuit of community ecology. Meeting this challenge requires the integration of multiple processes: habitat filtering, niche differentiation, biotic interactions, competitive exclusion, and stochastic demographic events. Most approaches t...
Article
Full-text available
Aim: The abundance-frequency relationship (AFR) is among the most-investigated pattern in biogeography, yet the relative contributions of niche-based processes related to ecological strategies, and of neutral processes related to spatial colonization-extinction dynamics, remains uncertain. Here, we tested the influences of ecological specialization...
Data
A species-rich weed community in South France, photographed in May 2018. It shows some threatened weeds of Mediterrean origin, but also the high temporal variability of these communities: in 2018, the rainy winter and spring allowed very high density of weeds in cultivated fields and fallows of the area, while most of the time the weed populations...
Article
Full-text available
The definition of “arable weeds” remains contentious. Although much attention has been devoted to specialized, segetal weeds, many taxa found in arable fields also commonly occur in other habitats. The extent to which adjacent habitats are favourable to the weed flora and act as potential sources of colonisers in arable fields remains unclear. In a...
Article
Full-text available
Establishing laws of plant and ecosystems functioning has been an enduring objective of functional and evolutionary ecology. However, most theories neglect the role of human activities in creating novel ecosystems characterized by species assemblages and environmental factors not observed in natural systems. We argue that agricultural weeds, as an...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Under extreme dry weather conditions the cell grazing system allows pasture to recover from defoliation, maintaining herbage mass at desirable levels and preventing removal of animals from pasture.
Article
Full-text available
Weedy plants pose a major threat to food security, biodiversity, ecosystem services and consequently to human health and wellbeing. However, many currently used weed management approaches are increasingly unsustainable. To address this knowledge and practice gap, in June 2014, 35 weed and invasion ecologists, weed scientists, evolutionary biologist...
Data
The database includes a list of 1577 weed plant taxa found in cultivated fields of France and UK, along with basic ecological and biogeographical information. The database is a CSV file in which the columns are separated with comma, and the decimal sign is ".". It can be imported in R with the command "tax.discoweed <- read.csv("tax.discoweed_18Dec...
Presentation
The ecology of weeds is of growing interest in scientific research since their dynamics, the ecological services they support (e.g. pollination) and their potential impact on crop yields are still poorly known. However, the definition of a weed species remains contentious and lacks clear biological and ecological basis, beyond the fact that weeds a...
Article
Full-text available
Legume-based leys (perennial sod crops) are an important component of fertility management in organic rotations in many parts of Europe. Despite their importance, however, relatively little is known about how these leys affect weed communities or how the specific composition of leys may contribute to weed management. To determine whether the choice...
Article
Deep burrowing earthworms are important ecosystem service providers but their populations are reduced by arable cultivations. We need to both better understand the impact of changes in crop management on earthworms and implement practices to enhance their in-field populations. Two current trends in arable cropping are the increased use of non-inver...
Article
The Rothamsted Estate in Hertfordshire, United Kingdom, is home to the longest running ecological and agricultural experiments in the world that have generated unique data sets on the assembly and functioning of ecosystems that stretch back more than 170 years. In addition, the Rothamsted Sample Archive contains over 300,000 samples of dried soil,...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Crop diversity, comprising variation at the genetic, species and ecosystem level, provides important ecosystem services. Multiple benefits may result from increasing crop diversity in the field, including greater crop productivity and yield stability and improved regulation of pests and diseases. However, increasing crop diversity also entails cost...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Agro-ecosystems have suffered steep declines in biodiversity and ecosystem function since the 1960s as a result of the green revolution and agricultural intensification. The introduction of inorganic fertilisers and chemical crop protection products has facilitated the continuous cropping of a limited number of the most profitable crops resulting i...
Article
With the increasing pressure on crop production from the evolution of herbicide resistance, farmers are increasingly adopting Integrated Weed Management (IWM) strategies to augment their weed control. These include measures to increase the competitiveness of the crop canopy such as increased sowing rate and the use of more competitive cultivars. Wh...
Article
Full-text available
There is growing interest in the role that natural capital plays in underpinning ecosystem services. Yet, there remain differences and inconsistencies in the conceptualisation of capital and ecosystem services and the role that humans play in their delivery. Using worked examples in a stocks and flows systems approach, we show that both natural cap...
Article
The negative effect of increasing atmospheric nitrogen (N) pollution on grassland biodiversity is now incontrovertible. However, the recent introduction of cleaner technologies in the UK has led to reductions in the emissions of nitrogen oxides, with concomitant decreases in N deposition. The degree to which grassland biodiversity can be expected t...
Article
Full-text available
Weeds tend to aggregate in patches within fields, and there is evidence that this is partly owing to variation in soil properties. Because the processes driving soil heterogeneity operate at various scales, the strength of the relations between soil properties and weed density would also be expected to be scale-dependent. Quantifying these effects...
Article
Full-text available
Competitive crop cultivars offer a potentially cheap option to include in integrated weed management strategies (IWM). Although cultivars with high competitive potential have been identified amongst cereal crops, competitiveness has not traditionally been considered a priority for breeding or farmer cultivar choice. The challenge of managing herbic...
Article
The sustainable delivery of multiple ecosystem services requires the management of functionally diverse biological communities. In an agricultural context, where conflicting services often need to be reconciled on the same parcel of land, growing species mixtures may improve multi-functionality when compared to monocultures. In this case, the optim...
Article
Full-text available
Unlabelled: Spatial scaling is a critical issue in ecology, but how anthropogenic activities like fertilization affect spatial scaling is poorly understood, especially for microbial communities. Here, we determined the effects of long-term fertilization on the spatial scaling of microbial functional diversity and its relationships to plant diversi...
Article
Full-text available
Agri-environment scheme habitats can support declining pollinators, but optimum approaches for deployment remain uncertain. The impact of three management treatments (project-, farm-managed and organic farming) alongside habitat type, quantity of uncropped land removed from production and spatial configuration (strips or blocks) on wild bees, butte...
Article
Full-text available
Cover crops are sown to provide a number of ecosystem services including nutrient management, mitigation of diffuse pollution, improving soil structure and organic matter content, weed suppression, nitrogen fixation and provision of resources for biodiversity. Although the decision to sow a cover crop may be driven by a desire to achieve just one o...
Article
Full-text available
A functional approach to predicting shifts in weed floras in response to management or environmental change requires the combination of data on weed traits with analytical frameworks that capture the filtering effect of selection pressures on traits. A weed traits database (WTDB) was designed, populated and analysed, initially using data for 19 com...
Article
Full-text available
The success of crop protection products in reducing the impact of pests, weeds and diseases, along with increasing fertiliser use and a reduction in the diversity of crops being grown has led to undesired negative consequences for farmland biodiversity. The specific drivers of these declines in farmland wildlife have been extensively studied, espec...
Article
Understanding how plant species with similar resource requirements co-exist has been a long-standing ecological question with several theoretical explanations. One potential mechanism is the storage effect hypothesis. According to this hypothesis, species co-exist because they differ in when they are most actively using resource and, therefore, res...
Article
Full-text available
Ambrosia artemisiifolia is an invasive weed in Europe with highly allergenic pollen. Populations are currently well established and cause significant health problems in the French Rhône valley, Austria, Hungary and Croatia but transient or casual introduced populations are also found in more Northern and Eastern European countries. A process-based...
Article
The impact of habitat management (project-managed, farmer-managed or organic), quantity (proportion of uncropped land) and spatial configuration of habitats (arranged as strips or blocks) on the density and biomass of invertebrate functional groups was studied at the farm (100-ha block) and plot scale. At the farm scale, invertebrate abundance and...
Article
Full-text available
Conyza canadensis is a surface-germinating ruderal facultative winter annual with recruitment that is highly susceptible to changes in microsite conditions. A key adaptive characteristic for a facultative winter annual species, like C. canadensis, is germination response to temperature. The objective of this study was to determine the germination r...
Article
Full-text available
A novel conceptual framework is presented that proposes to apply trait-based approaches to predicting the impact of environmental change on ecosystem service delivery by multi-trophic systems. Development of the framework was based on an extension of the response–effect trait approach to capture functional relationships that drive trophic interacti...
Book
Full-text available
As costs for mineral fertilisers rise, legume-based leys are recognised as a potential alternative nitrogen source for crops. Here we demonstrate that including species-rich legume-based leys in rotations helps to maximise synergies between agricultural productivity and other ecosystem services. By using functionally diverse plant species mixtures,...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Farm-scale studies investigated the impact of uncropped land on farmland biodiversity. Seven treatments were established across 28 sites, each c. 100 ha, in which the proportion of uncropped land, its management (project-managed, farmer-managed or organic) and spatial configuration (strips or blocks) was manipulated. Plants, invertebrates, birds an...
Article
1.The loss of farmland biodiversity threatens the sustainability of ecosystem services delivered within agricultural landscapes. The functional trait approach has been successfully used in grassland systems to quantify trade-offs and synergies between services delivered directly by plant communities. Many of the services delivered by arable landsca...
Article
Full-text available
1. The response of bird abundance to the proportional availability of un-cropped land (i.e. land that could be cultivated, such as fallows, grass–flower or wild bird areas) is under-studied but of considerable significance for managing declining populations on farmland in western Europe. 2. In this study, bird abundance was examined at a scale con...
Article
Predicting the impact of climate change on the damage niche of an agricultural weed at a local scale requires a process-based modelling approach that integrates local environmental conditions and the differential responses of the crop and weed to change. A simulation model of the growth and population dynamics of winter wheat and a competing weed,...
Article
Full-text available
The impact of crop management and agricultural land use on the threat status of plants adapted to arable habitats was analysed using data from Red Lists of vascular plants assessed by national experts from 29 European countries. There was a positive relationship between national wheat yields and the numbers of rare, threatened or recently extinct a...
Article
Full-text available
1. There is an urgent need to accurately model how environmental change affects the wide-scale functioning of ecosystems, but advances are hindered by a lack of knowledge of how trophic levels are linked across space. It is unclear which theoretical approach to take to improve modelling of such interactions, but evidence is gathering that linking s...
Article
Full-text available
The ability of different legume cover crops to suppress annual weeds during the early establishment phase was compared using a simulation model of inter-plant competition and field observations. Height, partitioning parameters, extinction coefficients, crop density and time of emergence were recorded for 11 species sown in monocultures. A naturally...
Article
Full-text available
Managing ecosystems to ensure the provision of multiple ecosystem services is a key challenge for applied ecology. Functional traits are receiving increasing attention as the main ecological attributes by which different organisms and biological communities influence ecosystem services through their effects on underlying ecosystem processes. Here w...
Article
The intensification of crop management in the U.K. over the past 60 years has resulted in the decline of the populations of a number of annual plant species adapted to arable habitats. In contrast, other species continue to be common as arable weeds. A community assembly approach was taken to explain these recent changes in the weed flora using dat...
Article
Summary1. The development of sustainable, multi-functional agricultural systems involves reconciling the needs of agricultural production with the objectives for environmental protection, including biodiversity conservation. However, the definition of sustainability remains ambiguous and it has proven difficult to identify suitable indicators for m...
Article
Full-text available
The Broadbalk experiment was started in 1843 to investigate the relative importance of different plant nutrients (N, P, K, Na, Mg) on grain yield of winter wheat. Weeds were controlled initially by hand hoeing and fallowing, but since 1964, herbicides have been applied to the whole experiment with the exception of the 18 plots on Section 8. Approxi...
Article
Experiments were conducted in controlled environments and in the field on winter-hardy Triticum aestivum and three weed species commonly found in cereal fields in the United Kingdom to examine whether overwinter shoot growth of individual plants could be described by accumulated thermal time calculated using base temperatures derived from growth ca...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Recent syntheses demonstrate that functional composition more often controls ecosystem functioning than does species diversity. Functional trait approaches thus provide a framework to identify biotic mechanisms relevant to ecosystem service delivery. Many ecosystem functions rely on interactions between primary producers and other trophic levels (c...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Summary Arable weeds were recorded in spring (after herbicide treatment) on three fields on 28 farms in East Anglia and Wessex in 2007 and 2008, as part of a more extensive project investigating farmland biodiversity (LINK project Farm4Bio). A total of 99 species were recorded, including one Biodiversity Action Plan priority species (Scandix pecten...
Article
An environmental risk assessment of a new agricultural management practice depends upon the provision of empirical evidence of cause and effect. This will invariably be derived from comparative experiments testing the null hypothesis that a change in management will have no effect on an assessment endpoint (the metric on which policy decisions will...
Article
Summary Climate change could potentially impact the weed species communities found in the UK arable landscape and their ecosystem functions. A new three year project is introduced that will combine detailed mechanistic models of weed germination, competition and seedbank dynamics with a regional stochastic weather generator. The integrated model wi...
Article
The conservation of biodiversity within cropped fields, through tolerating low weed populations, would complement un-cropped wildlife refuges and increase the functional diversity of the farmed landscape. These benefits need to be balanced with the risk of lost crop production from weed competition. A simulation model of weed growth and competition...
Article
Full-text available
As a result of the recent intensification of crop production, the abundance and diversity of UK arable weeds adapted to cultivated land have declined, with an associated reduction in farmland birds. A number of questions need to be addressed when considering how these declines can be reversed. Firstly, can the delivery of crop production and biodiv...
Article
Weeds have an important role in maintaining farmland biodiversity. This needs to be balanced with their potential negative impact on crop yield and quality. Mechanistic models of crop–weed competition are an important tool in striking this balance. A range of common UK annual weeds were screened for the eco-physiological traits required by the mode...
Article
Information on the response of assimilation rate to environmental factors is lacking for many less competitive weed species that need to be considered in the context of increasing farm biodiversity. A pot experiment was sown to parameterize gross assimilation rate at light saturation and initial light use efficiency for 14 common UK annual weeds an...
Article
An empirical model of yield loss from assessments of relative weed green area (weed green area/weed+crop green area) was fitted to data from a series of competition trials of winter wheat and black-grass (Alopecurus myosuroides Huds.). Because of the different growth rates of the crop and the weed, relative weed green area increased with time. Cons...
Article
Experiments were conducted in controlled environments and in the field on winter-hardy Triticum aestivum and three weed species commonly found in cereal fields in the United Kingdom to examine whether overwinter shoot growth of individual plants could be described by accumulated thermal time calculated using base temperatures derived from growth ca...

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Cited By

Projects

Projects (5)
Project
Producing a robust model of Carabid beetle communities in agricultural land, to guide management for optimum ecosystem service delivery (primarily pest control)
Project
• To understand the role of biological entities in the delivery of ecosystem services including food production across scales; this will allow the development of adaptive management strategies (farming interventions) to enable SI. • To exploit the world-leading expertise in soil biology, physics and chemistry at Rothamsted to explore the genotype x environment x management (GxExM) interactions where nutrient acquisition begins in the rhizosphere, on farm and within the landscape. • To develop new metrics of sustainability to determine the potential impact of novel interventions and to inform assessment of real-world farming scenarios. • To develop rich data sets for model development and application, sense checking and scaling up to the landscape using a network of commercial farms in instrumented test landscapes.