Jonathan Sinclair

Jonathan Sinclair
University of Central Lancashire | UCLAN · Research Centre for Applied Sport, Physical Activity and Performance

DSc PhD, FBASES, PFHEA CStat

About

359
Publications
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2,806
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Publications

Publications (359)
Article
Full-text available
This two-experiment study aimed to examine the effects of different habitual foot placement angles and also the effects of manipulating the foot placement angle on the kinetics, three-dimensional kinematics and muscle forces of the squat. In experiment 1, seventy lifters completed squats at 70% of their one repetition maximum using a self-preferred...
Article
This two-experiment study aimed to explore habitual and manipulated stance widths on squat biomechanics. In experiment one, 70 lifters completed back squats at 70%, 1 repetition maximum (1RM), and were split into groups (NARROW < 1.06 * greater trochanter width (GTW), MID 1.06–1.18 * GTW and WIDE > 1.37 * GTW) according to their self-selected stanc...
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Background Age-induced sarcopenia negatively affects walking stability and increases the risk of falls, which is the leading cause of accidental death in the elderly. Objective This study aimed to analyze and contrast body composition and gait characteristics in those with sarcopenia in relation to healthy controls to shed some light on the preven...
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Background Peripheral artery disease affects over 236 million people globally and the classic symptom is intermittent claudication (IC) which is associated with reduction in physical activity. The evidence that supervised exercise programmes (SEPs) improve pain-free and maximal walking distance is irrefutable. However, adherence rates are low with...
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PURPOSE: This study aimed to explore the efficacy of U.S. Montmorency tart cherry in treating recreationally active individuals with patellofemoral pain. METHODS: Twenty-four recreationally active participants with patellofemoral pain were randomly separated into either placebo (males N = 8, females N = 4, age = 43.30 ± 7.86 yrs, mass = 72.10 ± 17....
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Purpose This two-experiment study aimed to examine (1) the accuracy and reliability of repetitions-in-reserve and (2) using a randomized trial, the efficacy of repetition-in-reserve compared to traditional percentage-based training during a 4-week pre-season strength training block in elite rugby league players. Methods In experiment 1, participan...
Article
The current study aimed to investigate the influence of tart cherry and blueberry juices on cardiometabolic and other health indices following a 20-day supplementation period. Forty-five adults were randomly assigned to receive tart cherry, blueberry, or a placebo; of which they drank 60 mL per day for 20-days. The primary outcome; systolic blood p...
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Biofortification of wheat is potentially a sustainable strategy to improve zinc intake; however, evidence of its effectiveness is needed. A household-based, double-blind, cluster-randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted in rural Pakistan. The primary objective was to examine the effects of consuming zinc-biofortified wheat flour on the zinc...
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The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is renowned for its high incidence of type-2 diabetes mellitus, with a prevalence rate of around 33%, which is expected to increase to 45.8% by 2030. Engagement in regular physical activity has been shown to significantly attenuate non-communicable diseases including type-2 diabetes. However, the overall rate of physical...
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Background Fencing is a highly asymmetrical combat sport, that imposes high mechanical demands over repeated exposures on the musculoskeletal structures, a primary cause of injuries in fencers. However, there are limited epidemiological studies on the structural injuries of the foot and ankle in fencers. This study aimed to investigate foot and ank...
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Purpose: To gain insight into the behaviours, perceptions and beliefs of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients nutritional and supplementary practices and also to explore perceptions and behaviours in relation to anti-inflammatory supplementation with specific emphasis on Montmorency tart cherries. Methods: 80 IBD patients completed a 16-item c...
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A new variety of zinc biofortified wheat (Zincol-2016) was released in Pakistan in 2016. The primary aim of this study was to examine the effects of consuming Zincol-2016 wheat flour on biochemical and functional markers of zinc status in a population with widespread zinc deficiency. An individually-randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled cros...
Article
The current study aimed using a two-experiment musculoskeletal simulation-based approach, measuring ACL biomechanics, knee joint kinematics and lower extremity joint loading to examine the effects of both a prophylactic knee sleeve on 1. a sport specific change of direction movement in female footballers and 2. a single leg landing in male football...
Article
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Patellofemoral pain (PFP) is a common atraumatic knee pathology in runners, with a complex multifactorial aetiology influenced by sex differences. This retrospective case–control study therefore aimed to evaluate lower limb kinetics and kinematics in symptomatic and control male and female runners using musculoskeletal simulation. Lower extremity b...
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The COVID-19 pandemic has placed unprecedented demand on modern healthcare resources. As such, there has been much research and debate on how to best manage patients with COVID-19. Previous studies have shown the benefits of neuromuscular blockade and prone positioning in the management of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS),1 as seen in COV...
Article
In equestrian sports the novice rider learns first to follow the movements of the horse's back and then how to influence the horse's performance. One of the rider's challenges is to overcome inherent horse/rider asymmetry patterns when riding in straight lines, mirroring the movements on the left and right sides when turning. This study compares th...
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This survey sought to establish current use, knowledge and perceptions of cold-water immersion (CWI) when used for recovery. 111 athletes, coaches and support practitioners completed the anonymous online survey, answering questions about their current CWI protocols, perceptions of benefits associated with CWI and knowledge of controlling mechanisms...
Article
The aim of this experiment was to provide insight into the immediate influence of both semi-custom insoles and knee sleeves in recreational male runners/athletes suffering from patellofemoral pain and also to explore the association between the extent of patellofemoral pain and psychological wellbeing. Experiment 1 examined 17 male recreational run...
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Cardiometabolic disease is recognized as the predominant cause of global mortality and healthcare expenditure. Whilst pharmaceutical interventions are effective in the short term, their long-term efficacy remain equivocal and their associated side-effects are concerning. Owing to their high levels of anthocyanins, Montmorency tart cherries and blue...
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INTRODUCTION: The aim of the current investigation was to examine the effects of both lateral orthoses and toe-in/ toe-out foot progression angles on lower extremity joint loading during walking using a musculoskeletal simulation approach. METHODS: The current investigation examined 15 healthy males, walking in six different conditions (neutral, la...
Article
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The aim of the current study was to examine the efficacy of resisted sled-based training compared to traditional unresisted sprint training in terms of mediating improvements in speed, agility and power during an 8-week period of in-season training in elite rugby league players. Participants were randomly separated into either resisted sled or trad...
Article
Background Current guidelines for intermittent claudication advocate exercise at moderate to maximal claudication pain. However, adherence rates to supervised exercise programmes (SEP) remain poor and claudication pain is a contributing factor. Limited evidence suggests that moderate or pain-free exercise may be just as beneficial and may be better...
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As a first step in achieving an evidence-based classification system for the sport of Para Dressage, there is a clear need to define elite dressage performance. Previous studies have attempted to quantify performance with able-bodied riders using scientific methods; however, definitive measures have yet to be established for the horse and/or the ri...
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PURPOSE: Firstly, to provide insight into the differences in ankle kinetics, kinematics and lateral ligament strain between males and females during functional sports movements. In addition, this study explores the prophylactic efficacy of different footwear and bracing modalities. METHODS: Experiment 1 examined male and female athletes performing...
Article
Show jumping horses must execute fences of varying height and width, but the effect of this on jumping kinematics during the airborne phase have not been described. The aim of this study was to describe differences within- and between-horses in CM trajectory, trunk orientation and average trunk angular velocity in a group of elite horses executing...
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The use of whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) as a recovery intervention is prevalent amongst elite soccer players. However, there is a distinct lack of data available around chronic WBC use and post-match recovery markers in elite soccer. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of different levels of WBC exposure on subjective and objective...
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The current study aimed to use a musculoskeletal simulation approach to examine running biomechanics in minimal, maximal and traditional running shoes using a concurrent SPM and Bayesian approach. Thirteen male participants ran over a force platform at 4.0m/s in minimal maximal and traditional running shoes. Lower extremity joint loading and muscle...
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Selection and training practices for jumping horses have not yet been validated using objective performance analyses. This study aimed to quantify the differences and relationships between movement and muscle activation strategies in horses with varying jump technique to identify objective jumping performance indicators. Surface electromyography (s...
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OBJECTIVE To investigate the effects of novel legwear designed to limit metacarpophalangeal joint (MCPJ) extension and redirect loading forces from the flexor apparatus through analyses of 2-D kinematic and kinetic data. ANIMALS 6 adult horses without musculoskeletal disease. PROCEDURES Horses were subjected to 4 treatments: control (no legwear), i...
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PurposeIliotibial band syndrome (ITBS) is a common chronic pathology mediated via excessive Iliotibial band (ITB) strain. The purpose using a three-experiment approach is to provide insight into the differences in strain between different athletic movements, the incidence of ITBS in females, the efficacy of different prophylactic modalities for ITB...
Article
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Introduction: Micronutrient deficiencies, commonly referred to as ‘hidden hunger’, affect more than two billion people worldwide, with zinc and iron-deficiency frequently reported. The aim of this study is to examine the impact of consuming zinc biofortified flour (Zincol-2016) on biochemical and functional measures of status in adolescent girls an...
Article
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PurposeThe aim of the current investigation was to examine the influence of second-generation (2G) and indoor surfaces on knee joint kinetics, kinematics, frictional and muscle force parameters during 45° and 180° change of direction movements using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) and Bayesian analyses.Methods Twenty male participants performe...
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Purpose The aim of the current investigation was to comparatively examine the effects of knee wraps/sleeves on kinetics, three-dimensional kinematics and muscle forces during the barbell back squat. Methods Fifteen male lifters completed squats at 70% of their 1 repetition maximum, in four different conditions (nothing, competition knee wrap, trai...
Article
The current study aimed to explore the effects of different footwear on kinetics, kinematics and muscle forces during the barbell back squat in both male and female lifters using Bayesian modelling. Twelve male and twelve female lifters completed squats at 70% of their 1 repetition maximum, in four different footwear conditions (Adidas weightliftin...
Article
Full-text available
As a first step in achieving an evidence-based classification system for the sport of Para Dressage, there is a clear need to define elite dressage performance. Previous studies have attempted to quantify performance with able-bodied riders using scientific methods; however, definitive measures have yet to be established for the horse and/or the ri...
Article
Purpose This study examined sex differences in tibiofemoral compartment loading during sport specific movements. Materials and methods Fifteen males and fifteen females completed run and cut motions using an approach velocity of 4.0 m.s⁻¹. Kinematics were obtained using a motion capture system and kinetics using a force platform. Tibiofemoral comp...
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Purpose The aim of the current research was to investigate the effects of a patellar tendon strap on knee joint kinetics and kinematics during a vertical jump task using a statistical parametric mapping (SPM) and Bayesian approach. Methods Twenty-eight (14 male and 14 female) participants performed a vertical jump task under two conditions (patell...
Article
The current investigation examined running biomechanics in minimal and conventional footwear in two groups of runners who either ran habitually in minimal footwear (habitual minimal footwear users) or habitually in conventional footwear (non-habitual minimal footwear users). We studied ten male non-habitual minimal footwear users and ten male habit...
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Purpose: The current investigation aimed to examine the effects of different orthotic conditions on the biomechanical mechanisms linked to the aetiology of chronic pathologies using musculoskeletal simulation. Methods: 16 male and 20 females ran over an embedded force plate at 4.0 m/s, in five different conditions (medial, lateral, no-orthoses,...
Conference Paper
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Equestrian sport is a unique Olympic discipline as human and animal athletes work in unison to navigate various challenges in competition. Stress during competition can affect both horse and rider, with a possible impact on health, welfare and performance. The crosscountry (CC) phase of eventing competition poses the highest risk of injury and fata...
Article
Low-frequency noise attenuation and normalisation are fundamental signal processing (SP) methods for surface electromyography (sEMG), but are absent, or not consistently applied, in equine biomechanics. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of different band-pass filtering and normalisation conventions on sensitivity for identifying d...
Article
Selection and training methods for showjumping horses are largely anecdotal, and performance analysis has been proposed as a method for scientifically improving competitive outcomes. To employ performance analysis in showjumping, an understanding of the tacit and explicit knowledge and practices of equestrians is required to identify relevant perfo...
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Purpose The aim of the current investigation was to investigate the effects of a prophylactic knee brace on knee joint kinetics and kinematics during single- and double-limb deceleration tasks. Methods Twenty female university first team-level netballers performed single- and double-limb deceleration tasks under two conditions (prophylactic knee b...
Article
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Purpose This study examined the effects of different high-heeled footwear heights on lower extremity compressive joint loading and triceps-surae muscle–tendon kinematics during walking, using a musculoskeletal simulation-based approach, in both experienced and in-experienced high heel users. Methods The current investigation examined 12 experience...
Article
The aim of this study was to examine the effects of existing minimalist footwear, new sock-style minimalist footwear and conventional running footwear on lower extremity biomechanics, using a musculoskeletal simulation and statistical parametric mapping (SPM) approach. Thirteen male participants ran over an embedded force plate at 4.0 m/s, in (1) e...
Article
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Purpose Female athletes experience anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries at a much greater rate than males, yet the mechanisms responsible for this are not well-understood. The current investigation aimed using a musculoskeletal simulation-based approach, to examine sex differences in ACL loading parameters during cut and hop movements. Method...
Article
The aim of the current investigation was to examine the effects of orthoses with a 5° medial and lateral wedge on knee and ankle joint kinetics in female runners. Twelve healthy female runners ran at 3.5 m/s over a force platform in three conditions (medial, lateral and no-orthotic). Lower extremity kinematics were measured using an 8-camera motion...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Application Understanding muscular adaptations could inform objective lameness-detection for early diagnosis/ treatment, ultimately serving to detect sub-clinical issues in supposed healthy horses and to reduce pain/ incapacity in lame horses. Introduction The prevalence and impact of lameness on equine welfare has led to extensive research, which...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Introduction: Lameness is the most prevalent cause of occupational disability in horses, but limited information is available about adaptive muscle activity that facilitates movement during lameness. Forelimb (FL) lameness is known to provoke a secondary compensatory hindlimb (HL) lameness and it is hypothesised that this is reflected in HL muscle...
Article
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PurposeThe aim of the current investigation was to utilize a musculoskeletal simulation-based approach, to examine the effects of barefoot and shod running on lower extremity joint loading during the stance phase. Methods Twelve male runners, ran over an embedded force plate at 4.0 m/s, in both barefoot and shod conditions. Kinematics of the lower...
Article
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Purpose The aim of the current investigation was to utilize a musculoskeletal simulation approach to examine the effects of prophylactic knee bracing on patellofemoral joint loading during the pedal cycle. Methods Twenty-four (12 male and 12 female) healthy recreational cyclists rode a stationary cycle ergometer at fixed cadences of 70, 80 and 90...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Low-frequency noise attenuation and normalisation are fundamental signal processing (SP) methods for surface electromyography (sEMG), but are absent, or not consistently applied, to equine sEMG and their influences on outcome measures are unknown. During canter, leading hindlimb (LdH) experiences greater vertical loading than trailing hindlimb (TrH...
Article
Bentley, I, Sinclair, JK, Atkins, SJ, Metcalfe, J, and Edmundson, CJ. Effect of velocity-based loading on acceleration kinetics and kinematics during sled towing. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-Sled towing (ST) provides an external load in the form of a sled towed using a shoulder or waist harness and cord behind the athlete. Loading stra...
Article
High-pass filtering (HPF) is a fundamental signal processing method for the attenuation of low-frequency noise contamination, namely baseline noise and movement artefact noise, in human surface electromyography (sEMG) research. Despite this, HPF is largely overlooked in equine sEMG research, with many studies not applying, or failing to describe, t...
Article
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Asymmetry in forelimb dorsal hoof wall angles, termed unevenness, is associated with forelimb gait asymmetries, but compensatory mechanisms and out of plane ground reaction forces (GRFs) due to unevenness have yet to be documented. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the effects of fore hoof unevenness on contralateral fore and hind...
Data
Additional data exploring hoof shape, centre of pressure (COP) and vector variables. (XLSX)