Jonathan Sholl

Jonathan Sholl
University of Bordeaux · CNRS UMR 5164 Immunoconcept

Doctor of Philosophy

About

22
Publications
2,675
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105
Citations
Introduction
I am a philosopher of health and the life sciences. I am currently researching the naturalization of health and disease concepts via systems biology (robustness, resilience, allostasis, hormesis) and am developing a philosophy of nutrition science. I am also interested in philosophy of cancer, theories of aging and immunology, and the links between cancer and the microbiota.

Publications

Publications (22)
Article
Full-text available
While philosophers of science have marginally discussed concepts such as ‘nutrient’, ‘naturalness’, ‘food’, or the ‘molecularization’ of nutrition, they have yet to seriously engage with the nutrition sciences. In this paper, I offer one way to begin this engagement by investigating conceptual challenges facing the burgeoning field of nutritional e...
Article
The unexpected roles of the microbiota in cancer challenge explanations of carcinogenesis that focus on tumor-intrinsic properties. Most tumors contain bacteria and viruses, and the host’s proximal and distal microbiota influence both cancer incidence and therapeutic responsiveness. Continuing the history of cancer-microbe research, these findings...
Article
While aging research and policy aim to promote ‘health’ at all ages, there remains no convincing explanation of what this ‘health’ is. In this paper, I investigate whether we can find, implicit within the sciences of aging, a way to know what health is and how to measure it, i.e. a theory of health. To answer this, I start from scientific descripti...
Article
Full-text available
There is a broad consensus in nutritional-microbiota research that high-fat (HF) diets are harmful to human health, at least in part through their modulation of the gut microbiota. However, various studies also support the inherent flexibility of the human gut and our microbiota's ability to adapt to a variety of food sources, suggesting a more nua...
Article
Full-text available
We situate the well-trodden debate about defining health and disease within the project of a metaphysics of science and its aim to work with and contribute to science. We make use of Guay and Pradeu’s ‘metaphysical box’ to reframe this debate, showing what is at stake in recent attempts to move beyond it, revealing unforeseen points of agreement an...
Book
This edited volume aims to better understand the multifaceted phenomenon we call health. Going beyond simple views of health as the absence of disease or as complete well-being, this book unites scientists and philosophers. The contributions clarify the links between health and adaptation, robustness, resilience, or dynamic homeostasis, and discus...
Book
Full-text available
Medicine exists “as the art of life” because individuals have come to identify certain states as being in need of correction “in relation to the dynamic polarity of life.” Written in wartime by French philosopher Georges Canguilhem (1904-1995), The Normal and the Pathological offers a powerful and unparalleled critique of biological and medical tho...
Chapter
In this concluding chapter, we gather the various contributions of this volume and attempt to extract some of the many key insights and challenges raised when it comes to the project of explaining health across the sciences. These insights were distilled down into a selection of the central concepts and issues defended or discussed by the authors,...
Chapter
Philosophers of medicine have long debated the possibility of a/the definition of health, but they have yet to fully reflect on the intriguing observation that there is still no theory of health within the medical sciences similar to general theories in other sciences. In this chapter, I provide some reasons for why this lack persists and why philo...
Article
Full-text available
Debates in fields studying the biological aspects of aging and longevity, such as biogerontology, are often split between ‘anti-aging’ approaches aimed largely at treating diseases and those focusing more on maintaining, promoting, and even enhancing health. However, it is far from clear what this ‘health’ is that would be maintained, promoted, or...
Chapter
Understanding the phenomenon of health is crucial for ageing research since there is often an implicit view on what constitutes health and how to measure it. We provide some reflections on how we might better understand and measure health, discuss the basic biological principles of survival, ageing, age-related diseases and eventual death, and end...
Article
How evolution has shaped our minds to medicalize bodily and behavioral deviance https://areomagazine.com/2019/02/20/aesthetic-norms-germs-and-the-medicalization-of-ugliness/
Article
Full-text available
Medicalization has become one of those issues which appears both ubiquitous and unquestionably problematic as it seems to signal at once a social and existential threat. This perception of medicalization, however, is nothing new. Since the first main writings in the 1960s and 70s, it has consistently been used to describe inappropriate or abusive i...
Chapter
One of the key criticisms of understanding health in terms of adaptation to one's environment is that medical judgments should be able to apply across environments. If we say that a condition is pathological 'for person X in environment E', then we quickly run into problems of desirability and social values. However, many key concepts in biology en...
Article
Full-text available
Several philosophers have recently argued that phenomenology is well-suited to help understand the concepts of health, disease, and illness. The general claim is that by better analysing how illness appears to or is experienced by ill individuals-incorporating the first-person perspective-some limitations of what is seen as the currently dominant t...
Chapter
In this chapter, we flesh out some aspects of what can be called the normalization view, which involves the attempt to provide a definition of normality that can then be used as a standard to determine which deviations are diseases. This view, finding its roots in the nineteenth century attempts to bring statistics into biology and medicine, has be...
Article
This essay explores the relation between repetition and thought in Bergson and Deleuze. In Bergson, this relation is seen in the method of intuition by which thought is made to think in time and in the ‘rhythms’ at work in how intuition is a contact with time or life, urging conceptual precision. This framework is used to clarify Deleuze's thought...

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Projects

Project (1)
Project
Clarifying the concept of physiological robustness based on recent physiology and biology, and then determining how much of this can be used to understand and explain health and health biomarkers.