Jonathan Sandor

Jonathan Sandor
Iowa State University | ISU

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70
Publications
21,118
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2,168
Citations
Citations since 2017
13 Research Items
695 Citations
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2017201820192020202120222023020406080100120140
2017201820192020202120222023020406080100120140
2017201820192020202120222023020406080100120140

Publications

Publications (70)
Chapter
Civilization is tied to soil through our reliance on agriculture and building materials. As early civilizations developed new agricultural strategies, their knowledge of soil also expanded. Major innovations included irrigation, terracing, use of plows, contour tillage, soil classification, and maintaining soil fertility through intercropping, crop...
Article
Full-text available
Maize has sustained the Zuni and other peoples of the arid American Southwest for more than four millennia. In Zuni dryland agriculture, fields on alluvial fans and other valley-edge landforms are managed to receive supplemental water and nutrients by retaining storm runoff and associated sediment and organic material transported from adjoining upl...
Chapter
Soils form the dynamic foundation for terrestrial life on Earth. In contrast to the slow rate of natural soil formation in diverse landscape settings, soil change by humans is often more rapid and far-reaching. Land use changes soil properties and processes both directly and indirectly through agriculture, urbanization, industry, mining, war, and c...
Article
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The Atacama Desert is among the driest places on Earth, yet ancient agricultural systems are present in the region. Here, we present a study of terraced agricultural soils in the high‐altitude eastern margin of the Atacama Desert in northern Chile, mainly dating to the Late Intermediate Period (ca. 950–1400 AD) and Inka period (ca. 1400–1536 AD). T...
Article
Full-text available
Spatially and temporally unpredictable rainfall patterns presented food production challenges to small-scale agricultural communities, requiring multiple risk-mitigating strategies to increase food security. Although site-based investigations of the relationship between climate and agricultural production offer insights into how individual communit...
Chapter
Civilization is tied to soil through our reliance on agriculture. As early civilizations rapidly developed new agricultural strategies, their knowledge of soil and soil management expanded as well. Major innovations that appeared over the first few thousand years of agricultural production included irrigation, terracing, plows, contour tillage, and...
Article
Full-text available
Soils form the foundation for agriculture and are changed by farming through active management and unintentionally. Soil change from agriculture ranges from wholesale transformation to ephemeral and subtle modification. The archaeological record of early agricultural systems holds information about soil change on centurial to millennial scales, wit...
Article
Full-text available
Maize has sustained the Zuni and other people in the arid American Southwest for many generations. In the traditional Zuni dryland agricultural system, fields are carefully placed on valley-edge landforms to tap into watershed hydrologic and ecosystem processes. In these geomorphic positions, field soils are managed to receive supplemental water an...
Chapter
Full-text available
The geoarchaeological record holds key information about past land use and its impact on soils and environment. Among agents of anthropogenic soil change, agriculture’s impact on soil is immense in magnitude, spatial extent, and duration. Agriculture has profoundly altered soil properties, processes, and formation pathways world-wide since its ince...
Presentation
Full-text available
It is importance to study long-term anthropogenic soil change because soil is a critical resource that is basically non-renewable. We are in a time of accelerated human soil-landscape change. Data from ancient agricultural sites provide truly long-term perspectives on anthropogenic soil change.
Article
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Irragric anthrosols form as a result of prolonged deposition of fine sediments from irrigation water. Ancient irragric soils centuries to millennia old occur in several world regions, especially in arid environments of Asia and the Americas. This article presents evidence for an ancient irragric anthrosol in the North American Southwest, along the...
Chapter
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Jo n at H a n Sa n d o r a n d JE f f r E y a. Ho m b u r g We know more about the movement of celestial bodies than about the soil underfoot. —Leonardo da Vinci There are known knowns. These are things we know that we know. There are known unknowns. That is to say, there are things that we know we don't know. But there are also unknown unknowns. T...
Poster
Full-text available
A number of statistical differences were identified, but there is no indication that agriculture caused soil quality to decline. Soil degradation does not explain the ultimate decline of the Casas Grandes cultural system. Soil differences were greatest between fields, likely due to geologic differences in the parent material. The chief’s fields hav...
Poster
Full-text available
Among agents of anthropogenic soil change, agriculture‟s impact on soil is immense in magnitude, spatial extent, and duration. Agriculture has profoundly altered soil properties, processes, and formation pathways world-wide since its inception about 10 millennia ago. Much knowledge about recent agricultural soil change at scales of years to a centu...
Article
Full-text available
Soil studies of ancient agricultural fields contribute to research on long-term human–environmental relationships and land use sustainability. This kind of research is especially applicable in desert landscapes of the American Southwest because: (1) soil formation is slow enough that cultivation effects persist for centuries to millennia; (2) many...
Presentation
Full-text available
A number of statistical differences were identified between cultivated and uncultivated soils, but there is no indication that agriculture caused soil quality to decline. Soil degradation does not explain the ultimate decline of the Casas Grandes cultural system. Soil differences were greatest between fields, likely due to geologic differences in t...
Presentation
Full-text available
This paper reviews what is known about prehistoric agricultural fields of the American Southwest and then goes on to outline research questions that need to be addressed in the future.
Presentation
Full-text available
Soil studies of ancient agricultural fields contribute to research on long-term human–environmental relationships and land use sustainability. This kind of research is especially applicable in desert landscapes of the American Southwest because: (1) soil formation is slow enough that cultivation effects persist for centuries to millennia; (2) many...
Article
Full-text available
Linked biochemical and fluvial processes in discontinuous ephemeral streams may support sustained productivity of soils farmed by southwestern Native Americans for > 3000 yr. Ephemeral stream channels transport forest floor litter and soil materials from upland hillslopes to alluvial fans. Improved understanding of how ephemeral streams transport a...
Article
Full-text available
Research on soil fertility is presented in the context of runoff agriculture, a venerable farming system that has been used for millennia in arid to semiarid regions, where water is a major limiting resource for crop production. The agroecology of runoff farming was studied with the Zuni to evaluate nutrient and hydrologic processes, management, ma...
Article
Full-text available
Farmers of the Zuni Indian Reservation in New Mexico rely on materials transported from upper watersheds to maintain productivity of some of the oldest agricultural fields in North America. This study determined runoff and sediment production from hillslopes as functions of slope position, soil cover, and rainfall characteristics. Runoff was collec...
Article
Full-text available
The understanding, prediction, and modeling efficacy of soil organic carbon (SOC) distribution across fields and larger regions requires a large number of samples that are costly to analyze. The objective of this study was to evaluate soil color measurements to predict SOC for agriculture and prairie land uses. Munsell soil color book (B) and chrom...
Presentation
Full-text available
There is no evidence of soil degradation in cultivated contexts. Ancient cultivation practices improved overall soil fertility (e.g., reduced pH, increased nutrient availability, and elevated organic C, total N, and available P levels). Rock mulch improved soil hydraulic properties: increased infiltration and moisture retention rates. Soil fertilit...
Article
Full-text available
Farmers in the Zuni area of the semiarid American Southwest have successfully cultivated maize and other crops for over three millennia without using artificial fertilizers. Zuni agricultural fields are among the oldest, more or less continuously cultivated areas in the United States. Traditional Zuni agriculture is based on runoff farming, a syste...
Poster
Full-text available
This study of Zuni runoff farming demonstrated the crucial role of watersheds in supplying nutrients to fields. Long-term sustainability of runoff farming is indicated by the lack of soil nutrient differences between unpaired fields. Elevated productivity, N and P levels, and mycorrhizal infection rates indicate the long-term adaptibility of Zuni b...
Article
Full-text available
ing variable rate technologies. To accomplish this, quan- titative soil color parameter-SOC predictive equations The quantification of soil organic C (SOC) concentrations is be- will need to be developed, most likely for specific soil- coming increasingly more desirable because of environmental and economic concerns regarding the reactivity of SOC...
Presentation
Full-text available
Research on soil fertility is presented in the context of runoff agriculture, a venerable farming system that has been used for millennia in arid to semiarid regions, where water is a major limiting resource for crop production. The agroecology of runoff farming was studied with the Zuni to evaluate nutrient and hydrologic processes, management, ma...
Article
Full-text available
Zuni farmers of western New Mexico demonstrate knowledge about soil and hydrological processes that link upland watersheds to alluvium-derived soils that have crucial cultural, ecological, and hydrological functions. To define how hillslopes contribute to productivity of soils derived from alluvium, we studied soil-vegetation-landform parameters in...
Article
Full-text available
Traditional cultures hold valuable knowledge about sustainable management of land resources. A study of a Native American runoff agroecosystem is presented to illustrate this knowledge and its relevance to current work on soil quality, land resource conservation and sustainable agriculture. Runoff agriculture is a venerable agricultural system adap...
Article
Full-text available
For more than 2,000 years, the Zuni and their ancestors have cultivated maize in semiarid New Mexico, relying on natural slope processes to channel water and nutrients to their crops. Runoff generated by localized thunderstorms spreads across fields located on alluvial fans. This study documents soil properties, production practices, and maize yiel...
Poster
Full-text available
Western harvester ants (Pogonomyrmex occidentalis) and other earth-dwelling ants play a significant role in pedogenesis (Carlson 1991; Culver 1983; Czervinski 1971; Green 1998; Levan 1983; Lockaby 1985; Mandel 1982; Salem 1968; Wali 1975; Wiken 1976). Their principle role involves pedoturbation by translocating soil to the surface during mound cons...
Article
Ancient agricultural societies farming the same soils for centuries offer alternative knowledge for combating desertification. The resulting agriculture is sustainable as well as culturally and environmentally appropriate. This paper describes an approach to enabling one such system at the Zuni Indian Reservation, New Mexico. The approach links agr...
Poster
Full-text available
This poster presents research on a soil study of ancient rock-mulch agricultural systems in the Horseshoe Basin of central Arizona.
Article
Indigenous cultures throughout the world have substantial, systematic knowledge of soils gained during many generations of land use; however, little of this knowledge has been scientifically documented. Recent literature indicates thai knowledge among traditional cultures could add to scientific understanding of soils and be useful in international...
Article
Soil development, particularly in relation to relative age of geomorphic surfaces, was studied in a high-altitude valley on the semi-arid western side of the Andes in southern Peru. Seven major fluvial surfaces in the Colca Valley were recognized, including floodplains, stream terraces, and fans associated with the Rio Colca and its tributaries. So...
Article
Agricultural terraces in the Colca Valley, Peru, present an opportunity to study soils that have been cultivated for at least 15 centuries. Relative to nearby uncultivated Mollisols, agricultural A horizons are commonly 0.3 to 1.3 m thicker, contain buried organic-matter-enriched horizons, and are lower in bulk density. They also have more organic...
Article
Long-term productivity and conservation of soils is critical for sustaining agricultural ecosystems. Long-term sites can provide important information about the effects of soil management practices on soil properties but there are relatively few such sites available worldwide. The Colca Valley of Peru provided a unique opportunity to study the effe...
Article
Concern is expressed at the apparent ineffectiveness of many of the agricultural development projects in which the majority of farmers are rural smallholders. In some cases it is suggested that the transfer of technology and information has often had negative consequences rather than the anticipated benefits. The authors suggest that too little att...
Article
For agriculture to be sustainable, it must maintain productivity and environmental conservation for many generations. Long-term field studies are essential to the development of sustainable agricultural systems because they are a primary source of scientific knowledge about agronomic conditions during long periods of farming. In addition to knowled...
Article
Soils at some prehistoric agricultural sites in New Mexico were investigated to study agricultural adaptation in a semi‐arid mountainous region, evaluate soil productivity, and determine long‐term effects of agriculture on the physical environment. The sites, farmed during the Mimbres Classic period (about AD 1000 to 1150), occur within certain geo...
Article
To investigate the contribution of organic matter to the cation exchange capacity (CEC) and the specific surface area (SSA) of organomineral complexes in soils, we studied A horizons of four soils (two Hapludalfs and two Argiudolls) in central Iowa. The effect of mineralogy on CEC and SSA was held nearly constant by sampling soils developed in the...
Article
A greenhouse study was conducted to evaluate the fertility of some prehistorically terraced soils in New Mexico that were cultivated sometime between 1000 and 1150 A.D. and then abandoned. The impetus for this study was a finding that these soils still show the effects of cultivation nearly 900 yr after farming ceased. Soil changes, inferred by com...
Article
Twelve paired pedons were sampled to investigate the effects of vegetation and approximately 120 yr of cultivation on Iowa soils. The study focused on organic matter in unfractionated and fractionated soil materials. Climate, parent material, time, and slope were held as constant as possible. Prairie-derived mollic epipedons had higher organic C an...
Article
Soils and landscapes used for runoff terrace agriculture sometime between 1000 to 1150 AD in a semiarid area of New Mexico were studied in order to infer criteria for site selection, and to determine possible long-term effects of the land use. Terracing involved construction of small rock dams across hillslopes and drainageways with subsequent sedi...
Article
Soil changes initiated by prehistoric cultivation in a semiarid region of southwest New Mexico are still evident about 900 yr after cultivation ceased. Bulk density increases and reductions in organic C and total N were inferred by comparing cultivated soils with nearby, similarly developed uncultivated soils. -from Authors
Article
In this third paper examining long-term effects of prehistoric cultivation on some New Mexico Mollisols about 900 yr after abandonment, data on total P, inorganic P fractions, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, and pH are presented. Cultivation-induced soil changes, involving losses of total and moderately available P and total Cu but gains in total Mn, were inferred...
Article
Full-text available
Insights into soil care through human history can be gained by studying agricultural terraces because of the storehouse of information they hold and their widespread use in time and space among many cultures. The stepped topography created by terracing is a characteristic feature of many of the world's cultivated sloping landscapes. Terracing const...
Article
Thesis (Ph. D. in Soil Science)--University of California, Berkeley, Dec. 1983. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 278-304).

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