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The Neurovisceral Integration Model proposes that the reciprocity between the autonomic and central nervous systems facilitates an individual’s ability to respond appropriately to environmental demands by proper vagal withdrawal and recovery. Neuroimaging studies have shown the prefrontal cortex to be significantly associated with Heart Rate Variab...
High levels of trait anxiety (TA) as measured by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) have consistently been shown to be associated with low cardiac vagal control. While the current literature illustrates that TA is associated with reduced autonomic regulation; dynamic measures of vagal activity as assessed by vagal withdrawal and recovery in r...
The sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems control the physiological expression of stress in mammals. These branches work in conjunction to regulate heart rate pattern. Porges (1995) has hypothesized that the vagus nerve evolved within the parasympathetic nervous system as a cardiac brake that creates a rhythmic acceleration and decelerati...