Jonathan Lenoir

Jonathan Lenoir
Université de Picardie Jules Verne | UPJV · EDYSAN - Ecologie et dynamique des systèmes anthropisés

PhD

About

365
Publications
159,255
Reads
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15,541
Citations
Introduction
I’m a biostatistician broadly interested in the ecological dynamics associated with spatial and temporal climate changes, with particular emphasis on the biotic responses to contemporary climate change. My research interests range from broad-scale patterns of biodiversity and long-term changes in species distribution to finer-scale and shorter-term changes in community composition.
Additional affiliations
October 2017 - present
Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS)
Position
  • Chargé de Recherche 1ère Classe (CR1)
October 2011 - September 2017
Université de Picardie Jules Verne
Position
  • Professor
November 2008 - September 2011
Aarhus University
Position
  • Fellow
Description
  • Postdoctoral Rrsearch under Jens-Christian Svenning's supervision
Education
October 2005 - November 2008
AgroParisTech-ENGREF
Field of study
  • Forest Sciences
September 2002 - September 2005
ENGREF
Field of study
  • Forest Engineering

Publications

Publications (365)
Article
Abstract Aim Previous research on how climatic niches vary across species ranges has focused on a limited number of species, mostly invasive, and has not, to date, been very conclusive. Here we assess the degree of niche conservatism between distant populations of native alpine plant species that have been separated for thousands of years. Locatio...
Article
The role of competition for light among plants has long been recognised at local scales, but its importance for plant species distributions at larger spatial scales has generally been ignored. Tree cover modifies the local abiotic conditions below the canopy, notably by reducing light availability, and thus, also the performance of species that are...
Article
Full-text available
Poleward and upward shifts are the most frequent types of range shifts that have been reported in response to contemporary climate change. However, the number of reports documenting other types of range shifts – such as in east-west directions across longitudes or, even more unexpectedly, towards tropical latitudes and lower elevations – is increas...
Article
Aim Phylogenetic diversity patterns are increasingly being used to better understand the role of ecological and evolutionary processes in community assembly. Here, we quantify how these patterns are influenced by scale choices in terms of spatial and environmental extent and organismic scales. LocationEuropean Alps. Methods We applied 42 sampling...
Article
The maintenance, restoration or construction of corridors are among the most important conservation strategies worldwide in the face of global changes such as habitat fragmentation and climate change, although their effectiveness still remains an open question. Metacommunity ecology provides a useful framework to answer this question but so far rel...
Article
Forest fragmentation increases the proportion of edge area and this, in turn, induces changes in forest structure, species composition and microclimate. These factors are also strongly determined by the forest management regime. Although the interactive effects of edges and density on forest plant communities have been extensively studied, little i...
Article
Full-text available
The amount of forest edges is increasing globally due to forest fragmentation and land‐use changes. However, edge effects on the soil seed bank of temperate forests are still poorly understood. Here, we assessed edge effects at contrasting spatial scales across Europe and quantified the extent to which edges can preserve the seeds of forest special...
Preprint
Full-text available
Ungulate herbivore populations are increasing across Europe with important implications for forest plant communities. Concurrently, atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition continues to eutrophy forests, threatening many rare plant species. These pressures may critically interact to shape biodiversity as in grassland and tundra systems, yet any potentia...
Article
Significance International concern about the consequences of human-induced global environmental changes has prompted a renewed focus on reducing ecological effects of biological invasions, climate change, and nutrient pollution. Our results show that the combined effects of nonnative species invasions and abiotic global environmental changes are of...
Article
Full-text available
Context Plant populations in agricultural landscapes are mostly fragmented and their functional connectivity often depends on seed and pollen dispersal by animals. However, little is known about how the interactions of seed and pollen dispersers with the agricultural matrix translate into gene flow among plant populations. Objectives We aimed to i...
Article
Full-text available
When evaluating forests in terms of their biodiversity, distinctiveness and naturalness, the affinity of the constituent species to forests is a crucial parameter. Here we ask to what extent are vascular plant species associated with forests, and does species’ affinity to forests vary between European regions? Temperate and boreal forest biome of N...
Article
Quercus spp. are one of the most important tree genera in temperate deciduous forests in terms of biodiversity, economic and cultural perspectives. However, natural regeneration of oaks, depending on specific environmental conditions, is still not sufficiently understood. Oak regeneration dynamics are impacted by climate change, but these climate i...
Article
Classification of European bog vegetation (Oxycocco‐Sphagnetea class); identification of diagnostic species for the class and vegetation subgroups (orders and alliances) development of an expert system for automatic classification of vegetation plots; and production of distribution maps of the Oxycocco‐Sphagnetea class and its alliances. Europe A d...
Article
Full-text available
Species turnover is ubiquitous. However, it remains unknown whether certain types of species are consistently gained or lost across different habitats. Here, we analysed the trajectories of 1827 plant species over time intervals of up to 78years at 141sites across mountain summits, forests, and lowland grasslands in Europe. We found, albeit with...
Article
Full-text available
Climate change and other global change drivers threaten plant diversity in mountains worldwide. A widely documented response to such environmental modifications is for plant species to change their elevational ranges. Range shifts are often idiosyncratic and difficult to generalize, partly due to variation in sampling methods. There is thus a need...
Article
Full-text available
Species distribution models (SDMs) are widely used to hindcast or forecast suitable habitat conditions during climate change. Although distant populations of a given species may show local adaptations to diverging environmental conditions, traditional SDMs disregard intraspecific variation. Yet, incorporating genetic information into SDMs could imp...
Article
To understand time‐lag dynamics in the response of biodiversity to contemporary environmental changes (e.g. macroclimate warming and atmospheric pollution), we need to consider former anthropogenic forcing factors such as past land uses and management practices that can have both compounding and confounding effects. This is especially true in Europ...
Article
Full-text available
Aims The rapid increase in the number of species that have naturalized beyond their native range is among the most apparent features of the Anthropocene. How alien species will respond to other processes of future global changes is an emerging concern and remains poorly misunderstood. We therefore ask whether naturalized species will respond to cli...
Article
Forest canopies buffer macroclimatic temperature fluctuations. However, we do not know if and how the capacity of canopies to buffer understorey temperature will change with accelerating climate change. Here we map the difference (offset) between temperatures inside and outside forests in the recent past and project these into the future in boreal,...
Article
Ecological research heavily relies on coarse-­gridded climate data based on standardized temperature measurements recorded at 2 m height in open landscapes. However, many organisms experience environmental conditions that differ substantially from those captured by these macroclimatic (i.e. free air) temperature grids. In forests, the tree canopy f...
Article
Full-text available
Context Evidence for effects of habitat loss and fragmentation on the viability of temperate forest herb populations in agricultural landscapes is so far based on population genetic studies of single species in single landscapes. However, forest herbs differ in their life histories, and landscapes have different environments, structures and histori...
Article
Forests harbour large spatiotemporal heterogeneity in canopy structure. This variation drives the microclimate and light availability at the forest floor. So far, we do not know how light availability and sub‐canopy temperature interactively mediate the impact of macroclimate warming on understorey communities. We therefore assessed the functional...
Article
Full-text available
Assessing biodiversity status and trends in plant communities is critical for understanding, quantifying and predicting the effects of global change on ecosystems. Vegetation plots record the occurrence or abundance of all plant species co‐occurring within delimited local areas. This allows species absences to be inferred, information seldom provid...
Article
Woody species’ requirements and environmental sensitivity change from seedlings to adults, a process referred to as ontogenetic shift. Such shifts can be increased by climate change. To assess the changes in the difference of temperature experienced by seedlings and adults in the context of climate change, it is essential to have reliable climatic...
Article
Full-text available
Ecological theory is built on trade-offs, where trait differences among species evolved as adaptations to different environments. Trade-offs are often assumed to be bidirectional, where opposite ends of a gradient in trait values confer advantages in different environments. However, unidirectional benefits could be widespread if extreme trait value...
Article
Context Evidence for effects of habitat loss and fragmentation on the viability of temperate forest herb populations in agricultural landscapes is so far based on population genetic studies of single species in single landscapes. However, forest herbs differ in their life histories, and landscapes have different environments , structures and histor...
Article
Full-text available
Aim The number of naturalized (i.e. established) alien species has increased rapidly over recent centuries. Given the differences in environmental tolerances among species, little is known about what factors determine the extent to which the observed size of the naturalized range of a species and hence the extent to which the observed richness of n...
Data
Figure S1: Global principal component analysis (PCA) of the world environmental conditions. The PCA is based on the matrix of all terrestrial grid cells (n = 8,384,404, spatial grain = 2.5 arcmin) by 30 environmental variables. The PCA space represents the full environmental space of all terrestrial habitats on Earth, irrespective of whether a grid...
Code
This demo illustrates how to import and manipulate sPlotOpen data to create some basic graphics or tables together with a reference list.
Article
Full-text available
When colonizing new areas, alien plant species success can depend strongly on local environmental conditions. Microclimatic barriers might be the reason why some alien plant species thrive in urban areas, while others prefer rural environments. We tested the hypothesis that the climate in the native range is a good predictor of the urbanity of alie...
Article
Understanding drivers of success for alien species can inform on potential future invasions. Recent conceptual advances highlight that species may achieve invasiveness via performance along at least three distinct dimensions: 1) local abundance, 2) geographic range size, and 3) habitat breadth in naturalized distributions. Associations among these...
Article
Full-text available
Aim Here, we aim to: (a) investigate the local effect of environmental and anthropogenic factors on alien plant invasion in sub-Antarctic islands; and (b) explore whether and how functional traits affect alien species dependence on anthropogenic factors in these environments. Location Possession Island, Crozet archipelago (French sub-Antarctic isl...
Preprint
Full-text available
Climate change and other global change drivers threaten plant diversity in mountains worldwide. A widely documented response to such environmental modifications is for plant species to change their elevational ranges. Range shifts are often idiosyncratic and difficult to generalize, partly due to variation in sampling methods. There is thus a need...
Article
Aims Biodiversity is traditionally studied mostly at the species level, but biogeographical and macroecological studies at higher taxonomic levels can provide valuable insights into the evolutionary processes at large spatial scales. Our aim was to assess the representation of vascular plant families within different vegetation formations across Eu...
Preprint
Full-text available
Urban forests (i.e. all vegetation present in urban areas), provide environmental and socio-economic benefits to more than half of the global population. Projected climate change threatens these benefits to society. Here, we assess vulnerability to climate change of 16,006 plant species present in the urban forests of 1,010 cities within 93 countri...
Preprint
Urban forests (i.e. all vegetation present in urban areas), provide environmental and socio-economic benefits to more than half of the global population. Projected climate change threatens these benefits to society. Here, we assess vulnerability to climate change of 16,006 plant species present in the urban forests of 1,010 cities within 93 countri...
Article
Aim Climate warming reshuffles biological assemblages towards less cold‐adapted but more warm‐adapted species, a process coined thermophilization. However, the velocity at which this process is happening generally lags behind the velocity of climate change, generating a climatic debt the temporal dynamics of which remain misunderstood. Relying on h...
Article
Full-text available
Many organisms live in environments in which temperatures differ substantially from those measured by standard weather stations. The last decade has witnessed a paradigm shift in efforts to quantify these differences and to understand their ecological, functional and evolutionary implications. This renewed interest in microclimate ecology has been...
Article
Full-text available
Aim Plant functional traits summarize the main variability in plant form and function across taxa and biomes. We assess whether geographic range size, climatic niche size, and local abundance of plants can be predicted by sets of traits (trait syndromes) or are driven by single traits. Location Eurasia Methods Species distribution maps were extrac...
Article
Full-text available
Aim This work explores whether the commonly observed positive range size–niche breadth relationship exists for Fagus, one of the most dominant and widespread broad‐leaved deciduous tree genera in temperate forests of the Northern Hemisphere. Additionally, we ask whether the 10 extant Fagus species’ niche breadths and climatic tolerances are under p...
Article
Full-text available
Mountain areas are biodiversity hotspots and provide a multitude of ecosystem services of irreplaceable socio‐economic value. In the European Alps, air temperature has increased at a rate of about 0.36°C decade−1 since 1970, leading to glacier retreat and significant snowpack reduction. Due to these rapid environmental changes, this mountainous reg...
Article
1. Forest biodiversity worldwide is affected by climate change, habitat loss and fragmentation, and today 20 % of the forest area is located within 100 m of a forest edge. Still, forest edges harbour a substantial amount of terrestrial biodiversity, especially in the understorey. The functional and phylogenetic diversity of forest edges have never...
Article
Questions The human‐related spread of alien plants has serious environmental and socioeconomic impacts. Therefore, it is important to know which habitats are most threatened by invasion and why. We studied a wide range of European grasslands to assess: (a) which alien species are the most successful invaders in grasslands; (b) how invasion levels d...
Article
Full-text available
Aim Alpine ecosystems differ in area, macroenvironment and biogeographical history across the Earth, but the relationship between these factors and plant species richness is still unexplored. Here, we assess the global patterns of plant species richness in alpine ecosystems and their association with environmental, geographical and historical facto...
Article
Full-text available
Elevational range shifts of mountain species in response to climate change have profound impact on mountain biodiversity. However, current evidence indicates great controversies in the direction and magnitude of elevational range shifts across species and regions. Here, using historical and recent occurrence records of 83 plant species in a subtrop...
Article
Full-text available
Issue Climate change, and its impacts on ecological, agricultural and other societal systems, is most often studied by relying on temperature data derived from countrywide weather‐station networks. Yet, these data do not capture microclimates, those arising from soil, vegetation and topography, at spatial scales relevant to the majority of organism...
Preprint
Full-text available
Research in environmental science relies heavily on global climatic grids derived from estimates of air temperature at around 2 meter above ground1-3. These climatic grids however fail to reflect conditions near and below the soil surface, where critical ecosystem functions such as soil carbon storage are controlled and most biodiversity resides4-8...
Article
Full-text available
Aim: This work explores whether the commonly observed positive range size–niche breadth relationship exists for Fagus, one of the most dominant and widespread broad-leaved deciduous tree genera in temperate forests of the Northern Hemisphere. Additionally, we ask whether the 10 extant Fagus species’ niche breadths and climatic tolerances are under...
Article
Questions European woodlands harbor at least 386 alien plant species but the factors driving local invasions remain unknown. By using a large vegetation‐plot database, we asked how local richness and abundance of alien species vary by regions, elevation, climate, soil properties, human disturbance, and habitat types. Location Western, Central and S...
Article
In the light of unprecedented change in global biodiversity, real-time and accurate ecosystem and biodiversity assessments are becoming increasingly essential. Nevertheless, estimation of biodiversity using ecological field data can be difficult for several reasons. For instance, for very large areas, it is challenging to collect data that provide...
Article
Aim The majority of work done to gather information on the Earth's biodiversity has been carried out using in‐situ data, with known issues related to epistemology (e.g., species determination and taxonomy), spatial uncertainty, logistics (time and costs), among others. An alternative way to gather information about spatial ecosystem variability is...
Article
Full-text available
Forest microclimates contrast strongly with the climate outside forests. To fully understand and better predict how forests' biodiversity and functions relate to climate and climate change, microclimates need to be integrated into ecological research. Despite the potentially broad impact of microclimates on the response of forest ecosystems to glob...
Article
Questions What are the functional trade‐offs of vascular plant species in global alpine ecosystems? How is functional variation related to vegetation zones, climatic groups and biogeographic realms? What is the relative contribution of macroclimate and evolutionary history in shaping the functional variation of alpine plant communities? Location G...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract 1. Ecosystem heterogeneity has been widely recognized as a key ecological feature, influencing several ecological functions, since it is strictly related to several ecological functions like diversity patterns and change, metapopulation dynamics, population connectivity, or gene flow. 2. In this paper, we present a new R package - rasterd...
Preprint
Ecosystem heterogeneity has been widely recognized as a key ecological feature, influencing several ecological functions, since it is strictly related to several ecological functions like diversity patterns and change, metapopulation dynamics, population connectivity, or gene flow. In this paper, we present a new R package - rasterdiv - to calculat...
Preprint
The direction and magnitude of long-term changes in local plant species richness are highly variable among studies, while species turnover is ubiquitous. However, it is unknown whether the nature of species turnover is idiosyncratic or whether certain types of species are consistently gained or lost across different habitats. To address this questi...