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## Publications

Publications (89)

The collapse dynamics and runout of columns of elongated grains in two dimensions are numerically investigated in dry and immersed conditions, by means of an unresolved finite elements/discrete elements model. The elongated grains are modeled as rigid aggregates of disks. The column aspect ratio is systematically varied from 0.125 to 16 in order to...

Estimating connectivity between coral reefs is essential to inform reef conservation and restoration. Given the vastness of coral reef ecosystems, connectivity can only be simulated with biophysical models whose spatial resolution is often coarser than the reef scale. Here, we assess the impact of biophysical models resolution on connectivity estim...

The eXtreme Mesh deformation approach (X-MESH) is a new paradigm to follow sharp interfaces without remeshing and without changing the mesh topology. Even though the mesh does not change its topology, it can follow interfaces that do change their topology (nucleation, coalescence, splitting)and that possibly travel over long distances. To make this...

Estimating connectivity between coral reefs is essential to inform reef conservation and restoration. Given the vastness of coral reef ecosystems, connectivity can only be simulated with biophysical models whose spatial resolution is often coarser than the reef scale. Here, we assess the impact of biophysical models resolution on connectivity estim...

Accurate modeling of moving boundaries and interfaces is a difficulty present in many situations of computational mechanics. We use a new approach, X-Mesh, to simulate with the finite element method the interaction between two immiscible flows while keeping an accurate and sharp description of the interface without remeshing. The surface tension be...

Coral reef environments are biodiversity hotspots that provide many services to coastal communities. They are currently facing an increasing anthropogenic pressure that jeopardises their survival. Numerical ocean models are an important tool to understand the functioning of coral ecosystems and the mechanisms ensuring their resilience. However, sim...

In this paper, we project future changes in the hydrodynamics of Lake Tanganyika under a high emission scenario using the three-dimensional (3D) version of the Second-generation Louvain-la-Neuve Ice-ocean Model (SLIM 3D) forced by a high-resolution regional climate model. We demonstrate the advantages of 3D simulation compared to 1D vertical models...

In the coastal zone, the alternating exposure and submerging of the seabed is an important feature in coastal engineering and marine ecosystems. The wetting and drying of shallow regions challenges the numerical simulation in terms of robustness, efficiency, and the preservation of physical properties. Considering a physically sound representation,...

An ocean filled with liquid water lies beneath the icy surface of several Jovian and Saturnian moons. In such an ocean, the currents are driven by various phenomena such as the tidal forcing, the deformation of the ice shell lying at its top, the temperature gradient resulting from the surface and bottom heat fluxes…The flow induced by the first tw...

Biophysical models simulate dispersal and connectivity in marine environments by combining numerical models that represent water circulation with biological parameters that define the attributes of species. The effects of parameters, such as the number of particles released to simulate the trajectories of individual organisms, is potentially large...

Global warming is killing corals; however, the effects of warming on population connectivity, a process fundamental to reef recovery, are largely unexplored. Using a high-resolution (as high as 200 m), empirically calibrated biophysical model of coral larval dispersal for the southern Great Barrier Reef, we show that the increased larval mortality...

The eXtreme MESH deformation approach is a new method to follow sharp interfaces without remeshing and without changing the mesh topology. Moreover, the interface may change topology (nucleation, coalescence, splitting). The key idea is to allow elements to reach zero measure. This permits interface relaying, annihilation and seeding in a time cont...

The Congo River estuary is characterised by a deep canyon that connects the river to the deep ocean by cutting through the continental shelf. Its estuary is influenced by high river discharge and micro-tidal conditions, with a large depth and limited vertical mixing. This restricts the supply of oxygen from the surface waters to the more saline bot...

This paper is devoted to the investigation of the density sorting of grains using water jigging. Experiments achieved in a laboratory scale water jig for two initial binary bed configurations are studied and compared to numerical results. The vertical composition of the deposit is estimated after different number of water pulses to represent the so...

The drag exerted on an object moving in a granular medium is subject to many studies: in dry grains, it depends on the stress – often due to gravity – inside the grains. For Froude numbers less than 10, the drag is independent of the velocity. In immersed grains, it is proportional to the apparent weight of the grains and it depends on both velocit...

Cubozoan jellyfish are classified as plankton despite the strong swimming and orientation abilities of cubomedusae. How these capabilities could affect cubozoan population structures is poorly understood. Medusae of the cubozoan Copula sivickisi can uniquely attach to surfaces with the sticky pads on their bells. Biophysical modelling was used to i...

There is a concern that the Fly River plume from Papua New Guinea (PNG) may be delivering mine-derived polluted mud along the southern PNG coast into the northern Torres Strait, which is the northernmost extent of the Great Barrier Reef. To quantify this threat, the mud transport dynamics along the southern PNG coast were studied using the SLIM mod...

This paper is devoted to an unresolved model for the simulation of air invasion in immersed granular flows without interface reconstruction between the liquid and the gas. Experiments of air invading a granular bed immersed in ethanol were achieved in a Hele-Shaw cell to observe the gas invasion paths and to calibrate the numerical multiscale model...

The accurate simulation of wetting–drying processes in floodplains and coastal zones is a challenge for hydrodynamic modelling, especially for long time simulations. Indeed, dedicated numerical procedures are generally time-consuming, instabilities can occur at the wet/dry front, rapid transition of wet/dry interface and mass conservation are not a...

Lake Tanganyika is the second oldest (oldest basin of the lake is 9–12 million years old), second deepest (1470 m) lake in the world. It holds 16 % of the world's liquid freshwater. Approximately 100 000 people are directly involved in the fisheries operating from almost 800 sites along its shores. Despite the vital importance of Lake Tanganyika an...

Connectivity between coral reefs is critical to ensure their resilience and persistence against disturbances. It is driven by ocean currents, which often have very complex patterns within reef systems. Only biophysical models that simulate both the fine-scale details of ocean currents and the life-history traits of larvae transported by these curre...

Age can be evaluated at any time and position to understand transport processes taking place in the aquatic environment, including for reactive tracers. In the framework of the Constituent-oriented Age and Residence time Theory (CART), the age of a constituent or an aggregate of constituents, including the water itself, is usually defined as the ti...

The 500 km long Far Northern Great Barrier Reef (FNGBR) is a semi-enclosed sea with little connectivity with the rest of the GBR further South. Its mean circulation is controlled by the prevailing southeasterly (northwestward) wind that generates a wind-driven mean longshore flow that is enabled by an inflow of oceanic water in the South. From an e...

A 3D frame consists of three mutual orthogonal (unit) vectors, defining a local basis. There mainly exist three ways to represent 3D frames: combination of rotations, spherical harmonics and fourth order tensor. We propose here a representation carried out by the special unitary group. The article strongly relies on Du Val (1964). We first describe...

The natural modes of Ontario Lacus surface oscillations, the largest lake in Titan’s southern hemisphere, are simulated and analyzed as they are potentially of broad interest in a variety of dynamical researches. We found that tidal forces are too low in frequency to excite the (barotropic) normal modes. Broadband wind forcing likely spans the reso...

Microplastics are abundant in semi-enclosed seas, presumably because of local trapping. To investigate this trapping effect, we confronted the SLIM plastic oceanography model with field data of the distribution of microplastics in the Bohai Sea, China. Seven source locations were selected to reveal the fate of plastic debris from industrial and dom...

This paper presents an unresolved computational fluid dynamic–discrete element method (CFD–DEM) model for the simulation of flows mixing fluid and grains. The grains trajectories are solved at a fine scale using a discrete element method. It provides the velocities and the trajectories of the grains with an accuracy that is needed to describe micro...

Most coral reef fishes have a pelagic larval stage before recruiting to reefs. The survival of larvae and their subsequent recruitment can drive the dynamics of reef populations. Here we show that the recruitment of the snapper Lutjanus carponotatus to One Tree Island in the Capricorn Bunker Group, in the southern Great Barrier Reef, was highly var...

This paper presents a fast and robust mesh generation procedure that is able to generate meshes of the earth system (ocean and continent) in matters of seconds. Our algorithm takes as input a standard shape-file i.e. geospatial vector data format for geographic information system (GIS) software. The input is initially coarsened in order to automati...

The discontinuous Galerkin (DG) finite element method is well suited for the modelling, with a relatively small number of elements, of three-dimensional flows exhibiting strong velocity or density gradients. Its performance can be highly enhanced by having recourse to r-adaptivity. Here, a vertical adaptive mesh method is developed for DG finite el...

The Columbia River (CR) estuary is characterized by high river discharge and strong tides that generate high velocity flows and sharp density gradients. Its dynamics strongly affects the coastal ocean circulation. Tidal straining in turn modulates the stratification in the estuary. Simulating the hydrodynamics of the CR estuary and plume therefore...

The tidal response of Titan's two largest northern seas, Ligeia Mare and Kraken Mare, is studied by means of a two-dimensional, depth-averaged, shallow water model, SLIM (http://www.climate.be/slim). Kraken Mare is formed of two basins, the northern one being assumed to be linked by a single strait, Trevize Fretum, to Ligeia Mare. The tidal motions...

The discontinuous Galerkin (DG) finite element method is well suited to the modelling, with a relatively small number of elements, of three-dimensional flows exhibiting strong velocity or density gradients. Its performance can be highly enhanced by having recourse to r-adaptivity. Here, a vertical adaptive mesh method is developed for DG finite ele...

In this research note, we propose a new scalable parallelization scheme to generate the Delaunay tetrahedrization of a given set of points. Our first contribution is a very efficient serial implementation. From this base we developed a multi-threaded version of the Delaunay kernel that concurrently insert points into the tetrahedrization. We use th...

This paper presents a method to generate high quality triangular or quadrilateral meshes that uses direction fields and a frontal point insertion strategy. Two types of direction fields are considered: asterisk fields and cross fields. With asterisk fields we generate high quality triangulations, while with cross fields we generate right-angled tri...

Cross fields are auxiliary in the generation of quadrangular meshes. A method to generate cross fields on surface manifolds is presented in this paper. Algebraic topology constraints on quadrangular meshes are first discussed. The duality between quadrangular meshes and cross fields is then outlined, and a generalization to cross fields of the Poin...

This paper deals with the design of perfectly matched layers (PMLs) for transient acoustic wave propagation in generally-shaped convex truncated domains. After reviewing key elements to derive PML equations for such domains, we present two time-dependent formulations for the pressure–velocity system. These formulations are obtained by using a compl...

The intensive use of immersed granular flows has motivated a large amount of work in this field of research. We present here a new numerical model to represent accurately and effciently mixtures of fluid with grains. On one hand, the motion of the grains is solved at the grain scale by a contact dynamics method that consider grains as discrete elem...

This paper presents a fast an robust mesh generation procedure that is able to generate meshes of the earth system (ocean and continent) in matters of seconds. Our algorithm takes as input a standard shape-file i.e. geospatial vector data format for geographic information system (GIS) software. The input is initially coarsened in order to automatic...

Anthropogenic marine debris, mainly of plastic origin, is accumulating in estuarine and coastal environments around the world causing damage to fauna, flora and habitats. Plastics also have the potential to accumulate in the food web, as well as causing economic losses to tourism and sea-going industries. If we are to manage this increasing threat,...

Understanding the transport and fate of suspended sediment exported by rivers is crucial for the management of sensitive marine ecosystems. Sediment transport and fate can vary considerably depending on the geophysical characteristics of the coastal environment. Fine sediment transport was studied in a setting in between “open” (uninterrupted coast...

A method to solve the three-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equations on the sphere is suggested, based on a stereographic projection with a high-order mapping of the elements from the stereographic space to the sphere. The projection is slightly modified, in order to take into account the domain thickness without introducing any approximati...

It is now well-known that a curvilinear discretization of the geometry is most often required to benefit from the computational efficiency of high-order numerical schemes in simulations. In this article, we explain how appropriate curvilinear meshes can be generated. We pay particular attention to the problem of invalid (tangled) mesh parts created...

In this paper, we investigate the 3-D computation of the current distribution in the heterogeneous superconducting media with a discontinuous anisotropic E-J constitutive power law. The resulting 3-D vectorial non-linear diffusion problem satisfied by the electric field is solved in each region of the media with a discontinuous Galerkin method comb...

A discontinuous Galerkin nonhydrostatic atmospheric model is used for two-dimensional and three-dimensional simulations. There is a wide range of timescales to be dealt with. To do so, two different implicit/explicit time discretizations are implemented. A stabilization, based upon a reduced-order discretization of the gravity term, is introduced t...

This paper presents a method to generate valid 2D high order meshes with optimized geometrical accuracy. The high order meshing procedure starts with a straight sided mesh. High order points are initially snapped to the real geometry without taking care of the validity of the high order elements. An optimization procedure that both allow to untangl...

The discretization of a diffusion equation with a strong anisotropy by a discontinuous Galerkin finite element method is investigated. This diffusion term is implemented in the tracer equation of an ocean model, thanks to a symmetric tensor that is composed of diapycnal and isopycnal diffusions. The strong anisotropy comes from the difference of ma...

A semi-implicit approach is proposed for computing the current density in superconductors characterized by nonlinear vectorial power law. A nodal discontinuous Galerkin method is adopted for the spatial discretization of the nonlinear system satisfied by the components of the electric field. Explicit developments are used to construct boundary cond...

Although explicit time integration schemes require small computational efforts per time step, their efficiency is severely restricted by their stability limits. Indeed, the multi-scale nature of some physical processes combined with highly unstructured meshes can lead some elements to impose a severely small stable time step for a global problem. M...

In electromagnetic compatibility, scattering problems are defined in an infinite spatial domain, while numerical techniques such as finite element methods require a computational domain that is bounded. The perfectly matched layer (PML) is widely used to simulate the truncation of the computational domain. However, its performance depends criticall...

This paper presents multirate explicit time-stepping schemes for solving partial differential equations with discontinuous Galerkin elements in the framework of Large-scale marine flows. It addresses the variability of the local stable time steps by gathering the mesh elements in appropriate groups. The real challenge is to develop methods exhibiti...

Indirect methods recombine the elements of triangular meshes to produce quadrilaterals. The resulting quadrilaterals are usually randomly oriented, which is not desirable. However, by aligning the vertices of the initial triangular mesh, precisely oriented quads can be produced. Levy’s algorithm is a non-linear optimization procedure that can align...

SUMMARYA new indirect way of producing all-quad meshes is presented. The method takes advantage of a well-known algorithm of the graph theory, namely the Blossom algorithm, that computes the minimum-cost perfect matching in a graph in polynomial time. The new Blossom-Quad algorithm is compared with standard indirect procedures. Meshes produced by t...

A discontinuous Galerkin method is proposed for computing the current density in superconductors characterized by a constitutive power law between the current density and the electric field. The method is formulated to solve the nonlinear diffusion problem satisfied by the electric field, both in the scalar and 2-D vectorial case. Application examp...

This paper presents a technique that allows to untangle
high-order/curvilinear meshes. The technique makes use of unconstrained
optimization where element Jacobians are constrained to lie in a
prescribed range through moving log-barriers. The untangling procedure
starts from a possibly invalid curvilinear mesh and moves mesh vertices
with the objec...

The discretization of the Gent-McWilliams velocity and isopycnal
diffusion with a discontinuous Galerkin finite element method is
presented. Both processes are implemented in an ocean model thanks to a
tensor related to the mesoscale eddies. The antisymmetric part of this
tensor is computed from the Gent-McWilliams velocity and is subsequently
incl...

The hydrosphere is made up of a number media, such as the oceans, the
shelf seas, the estuaries, the rivers, the land surface and ground water
as well as the sea ice - which, for the sake of simplicity, is
considered herein to be part of the hydrosphere. The processes taking
place in these domains are vastly different in nature and are
characterize...

Indirect methods recombine the elements of triangular meshes to produce quadrilaterals. The resulting quadrilaterals are usually randomly oriented, which is not desirable. However, by aligning the vertices of the initial triangular mesh, precisely oriented quads can be produced. Levy’s algorithm is a non-linear optimization procedure that can align...

The SLIM oceanographic model was used to examine the fate of hatchling flatback turtles (Natator depressus) in the first two weeks of their dispersal starting at Wild Duck Island, a major turtle-nesting site in the central Great Barrier Reef region of Australia. We ran simulations to investigate the effects of spring versus neap tides, hatchling's...

Resolving the shoreline undulation due to tidal excursion is a crucial part of modelling water flow in estuaries and coastal areas. Nevertheless, maintaining positive water column depth and numerical stability has proved out to be a very difficult task that requires special attention. In this paper we propose a novel wetting–drying method in which...