Jonathan Jackson

Jonathan Jackson
The London School of Economics and Political Science | LSE · Department of Methodology

PhD London School of Economics

About

280
Publications
200,056
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12,397
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Additional affiliations
August 2003 - present
The London School of Economics and Political Science
Position
  • Professor of Research Methodology

Publications

Publications (280)
Preprint
Full-text available
In this paper we examine consensual and coercive police-citizen relations in São Paulo, Brazil. According to procedural justice theory, legitimacy operates as part of a virtuous circle, whereby normatively appropriate police behavior encourages public self-regulation and pro-active cooperation, which then reduces the need for coercive forms of soci...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives To test whether normative and non-normative forms of obligation to obey the police are empirically distinct and to assess whether they exhibit different dynamics in terms of the downstream effects of police-citizen contact.Methods Analysing data from the Scottish Community Engagement Trial of procedurally just policing, we use natural ef...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives Test whether cooperation with the police can be modelled as a place-based norm that varies in strength from one neighborhood to the next. Estimate whether perceived police legitimacy predicts an individual’s willingness to cooperate in weak-norm neighborhoods, but not in strong-norm neighborhoods where most people are either willing or u...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Drawing on recent work in policing and organizational psychology, we examined factors related to openness to organizational change and to adopting evidence-based interview techniques among law enforcement investigators. Hypotheses: We hypothesized that a procedurally fair organizational climate would predict outcomes tied to organizat...
Article
Full-text available
This paper expands previous conceptualizations of appropriate police behavior beyond procedural justice. The focus of the current study is on the notion of bounded authority-that is, acting within the limits of one's rightful authority. According to work on legal socialization, U.S. citizens come to acquire three dimensions of values that determine...
Article
Law-and-order politics has long been a topic of scholarly work. The leveraging of fear of crime for political capital has been of particular concern. In the 2018 election in the Australian state of Victoria, crime and law-and-order became prominent political issues, particularly through racialized discourse about ‘African gangs’. That election prov...
Article
In the spring and summer of 2020, police in the United States killed Breonna Taylor, George Floyd and other unarmed people of color. In one of the largest social movements in the nation’s history, thousands engaged in public protests and called to defund or abolish the police. Debate about police racism and the need for reform intensified, with pub...
Article
Full-text available
Police departments regularly conduct public opinion surveys to measure attitudes towards the police. The results of these surveys can be used to shape and evaluate policing policy and practice. Yet the extant evidence base is hampered when people use different methods and when there is no common data standard. In this paper we present a set of 13 c...
Article
Full-text available
The excellent target article raises much food for thought. In this commentary we first discuss what is included in their proposed category of ‘positive evaluations and responses to police assertions of power to attempt social influence’. We then consider some of the implications of the concentric diagram for our understanding of police authority an...
Preprint
In the spring and summer of 2020, police in the U.S. killed Breonna Taylor, George Floyd and other unarmed people of colors. Thousands across the country engaged in public protests and called to defund or abolish the police, constituting one of the largest social movements in the nation’s history. Public views on the Black Lives Matter movement are...
Article
Full-text available
We examine consensual and coercive police–citizen relations in São Paulo, Brazil. According to procedural justice theory, popular legitimacy operates as part of a virtuous circle, whereby normatively appropriate police behavior encourages people to self‐regulate, which then reduces the need for coercive forms of social control. But can consensual a...
Preprint
We examine the role that exposure to neighborhood and police violence plays in the legal socialization of adolescents aged 11 to 14 years living in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. In a context of idiosyncratic and violent policing, where the state's ability to control crime is low, we assess the extent to which being exposed to neighborhood crime an...
Article
Objective: We conducted an exploratory study testing procedural justice theory with a novel population. We assessed the extent to which police procedural justice, effectiveness, legitimacy, and perceived risk of sanction predict compliance with the law among people experiencing homelessness. Hypotheses: We did not develop formal a priori hypothe...
Article
Full-text available
We review the concepts of legitimacy, trust, and legal cynicism in the context the debate about police legitimacy, discuss the extent to which these concepts relate to each other, and offer some early, speculative thoughts on a how relational model of legitimacy can extend beyond procedural justice concerns. Relying upon procedural justice theory,...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives Test the asymmetry thesis of police-citizen contact that police trustworthiness and legitimacy are affected more by negative than by positive experiences of interactions with legal agents by analyzing changes in attitudes towards the police after an encounter with the police. Test whether prior attitudes moderate the impact of contact on...
Article
Full-text available
While scholarly attention to date has focused almost entirely on individual-level drivers of vaccine confidence, we show that macro-level factors play an important role in understanding individual propensity to be confident about vaccination. We analyse data from the 2018 Wellcome Global Monitor survey covering over 120,000 respondents in 126 count...
Preprint
This chapter, for consideration at the Research Handbook in Law & Psychology edited by Rebecca Hollander-Blumoff, has three interlinked themes. First, key to legitimation are relational norms that carry identity-related messages about status, equality and respect. Second, relational concerns extend beyond status, value and standing, to include agen...
Preprint
Drawing on work into procedural justice and legal socialisation, we test the empirical link between experiences of stop and search and the extent to which male adolescents hold negative gendered beliefs regarding sexuality and intimate partner relations. We reason that procedurally unfair stop/searches can signal to young people that it is ‘ok’ to...
Preprint
We review the concepts of legitimacy, trust, and legal cynicism in the context the debate about police legitimacy, discuss the extent to which these concepts relate to each other, and offer some early, speculative thoughts on a how relational model of legitimacy can extend beyond procedural justice concerns. Relying upon procedural justice theory,...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives Test whether (1) people view a policing decision made by an algorithm as more or less trustworthy than when an officer makes the same decision; (2) people who are presented with a specific instance of algorithmic policing have greater or lesser support for the general use of algorithmic policing in general; and (3) people use trust as a...
Chapter
Full-text available
In this entry we concentrate on empirical legitimacy. Taking the perspective of those subject to (and beneficiaries of) police power, we first discuss the conceptual definition of legitimacy as a component of the relationship between police and public. On what basis can it be claimed that people believe that the police have the right to power and t...
Preprint
Objectives: Test whether: (1) people view a policing decision made by an algorithm as more or less trustworthy than when an officer makes the same decision; (2) people who are presented with a specific instance of algorithmic policing have greater or lesser support for the general use of algorithmic policing in general; and (3) people use trust as...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper we explore pre-conscious aesthetic and sensorial aspects of affect in fear of crime. Drawing on data from focus groups undertaken in inner Sydney, Australia, we link the sensory and aesthetic preconditions of fear of crime to its affective, behavioural and cognitive elements. We argue that fear is grounded in the structural, personal...
Preprint
In this paper we explore some pre-conscious aesthetic and sensorial aspects of affect in fear of crime. Drawing on data from focus groups undertaken in inner Sydney, Australia, we link the sensory and aesthetic preconditions of fear of crime to its affective, behavioural and cognitive elements. We argue that fear is grounded in the structural, pers...
Preprint
The political economy of crime and insecurity has long been a topic of scholarly work. The leveraging of fear of crime for political capital has been of particular concern. Australia provides an interesting case study in the dynamics of such politics, and this article focuses on the state of Victoria, where prior to the 2018 state election crime be...
Article
Full-text available
Police departments regularly conduct public opinion surveys to measure attitudes towards the police. The results of these surveys can be used to shape and evaluate policing policy and practice. Yet the extant evidence base is hampered when people use different methods and when there is no common data standard. In this paper we present a set of 13 c...
Article
Full-text available
How do social norms and legal requirements combine to shape collective behaviour? A multi-wave ten-city panel study set during the first UK lockdown finds that compliance was a powerful in-group signalling device, driven by the expressive and coordinating power of formal and informal rules. COVID-19 pandemic laws allowed the Government to operate a...
Preprint
Full-text available
Objectives. Bring people’s perceptions of systemic racism into procedural justice theory. Test an expanded model of police legitimacy that includes people’s perceptions of the under-policing and over-policing of Black communities. Methods. A cross-sectional survey based on a quota sample of 1,500 US residents designed to resemble the general popula...
Preprint
Women perceive themselves as more vulnerable to crime than men, and report greater sensitivity to risk in their environmental context. This heightened sense of vulnerability is associated with women’s perceptions of control over victimisation. Yet, the specific features of neighbourhoods that foster perceptions of control are not well understood. D...
Article
Full-text available
Social identity is a core aspect of procedural justice theory, which predicts that fair treatment at the hands of power holders such as police expresses, communicates and generates feelings of inclusion, status and belonging within salient social categories. In turn, a sense of shared group membership with power-holders, with police officers as pow...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Drawing on work into the dynamics of authority-subordinate relationships, we examined whether police procedural justice, legitimacy and deterrence predict compliance with the law among people experiencing homelessness. Hypotheses: We hypothesized that people living on the streets of London will be less attuned to the relational and value...
Preprint
Objective: Drawing on work into the dynamics of authority-subordinate relationships, we examined whether police procedural justice, legitimacy and deterrence predict compliance with the law among people experiencing homelessness. Hypotheses: We hypothesized that people living on the streets of London will be less attuned to the relational and value...
Preprint
Social identity is a core aspect of procedural justice theory, which predicts that fair treatment at the hands of power holders such as police expresses, communicates and generates feelings of inclusion, status and belonging within salient social categories. In turn, a sense of shared group membership with power-holders, with police officers as pow...
Article
Full-text available
Worry about COVID-19 is a central topic of research into the social and economic consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic. In this paper, we present a new way of measuring worry about catching COVID-19 that distinguishes between worry as a negative experience that damages people’s quality of life (dysfunctional) and worry as an adaptive experience tha...
Preprint
Objectives Why do some people view excessive police violence as acceptable? We reason that excessive police violence not only seeks to control crime, but also to punish criminal offenders. We propose the concept of police violence for punishment and explore its associations with different forms of punishment and punishment motivations. We reason th...
Preprint
Full-text available
Worry about COVID-19 is a central topic of research into the social and economic consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic. Worry can be a negative and debilitating experience that damages mental health and discourages healthy re-engagement with the world, but it can also be a problem-solving activity, directing people’s attention to problems, and enco...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter begins with an empirical analysis of attitudes towards the law, which, in turn, inspires a philosophical re-examination of the moral status of the rule of law. In Section 2, we empirically analyse relevant survey data from the US. Although the survey, and the completion of our study, preceded the recent anti-police brutality protests s...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: Test whether cooperation with the police can be modelled as a place-based norm that varies in strength from one neighborhood to the next. Estimate whether perceived police legitimacy predicts an individual’s willingness to cooperate in weak-norm neighborhoods, but not in strong-norm neighborhoods where most people are either willing or...
Article
Facial recognition technology is just one of a suite of new digital tools police and other security providers around the world are adopting in an effort to function more safely and efficiently. This paper reports results from a major new London-based study exploring public responses to Live Facial Recognition (LFR): a technology that enables police...
Preprint
Full-text available
Objectives Drawing on recent work in policing and organizational psychology, we examined factors related to openness to organizational change and to adopting evidence-based interview techniques among law enforcement investigators.HypothesesWe hypothesized that a procedurally fair organizational climate would predict support for organizational chang...
Article
Full-text available
This article presents the quantitative findings from a mixed-method study of perceptions of crime in inner Sydney. A survey was deployed via Computer-Assisted Telephone Interview on a randomly selected sample of the inner Sydney population (n = 409). We find that less than half of the participants worry about crime but that a sizable minority (13%)...
Preprint
Police departments regularly conduct public opinion surveys to measure attitudes towards the police. The results of these surveys can be used to shape and evaluate policing policy and practice. Yet, the extant evidence base in Canada is hampered by the lack of measurement equivalence and a common data standard. In this paper we present a set of 13...
Preprint
Full-text available
This chapter begins with an empirical analysis of attitudes towards the law, which, in turn, inspires a philosophical re-examination of, and a distinctive approach to, the moral status of the rule of law. In Section 2, we empirically analyse nationally representative survey data from the US about law-related attitudes and legal compliance. Consiste...
Preprint
Full-text available
Facial recognition technology is just one of a suite of new digital tools police and other security providers around the world are adopting in an effort to function more safely and efficiently. This paper reports results from a major new London-based study exploring public responses to Live Facial Recognition (LFR): a technology that enables police...
Preprint
This article presents the quantitative findings from a mixed-method study of perceptions of crime in inner Sydney. A survey was deployed via Computer Assisted Telephone Interview (CATI) on a randomly selected sample of the inner-Sydney population (n=409). We find that less than half of the participants worry about crime but that a sizable minority...
Preprint
Full-text available
Given that there is currently no common approach used across Canada to measure public attitudes towards the police, the objective of this study was to develop an empirically-informed small subset of items that can be used by Canadian police services for this purpose. We recommend a standardized, comprehensive and validated set of 12 ‘core’ survey i...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Given that there is currently no common approach used across Canada to measure public attitudes towards the police, the objective of this study was to develop an empirically-informed small subset of items that can be used by Canadian police services for this purpose. We recommend a standardized, comprehensive and validated set of 12 ‘core’ survey i...
Book
We consider three new directions of research into police–citizen authority relations: (a) the subjectivity of fairness perception, (b) the mechanisms linking procedural justice to legitimacy, and (c) statistical methods to estimate causal mechanisms. First, police fairness may be a subjective experience and perception motivated by a range of indivi...
Preprint
Full-text available
Objectives: Test whether cooperation with the police can be modelled as a placed-based norm that varies in strength from one neighborhood to the next. Estimate whether police legitimacy predicts willingness to cooperate in weak-norm neighborhoods, but not in strong-norm neighborhoods, where most people are willing to cooperate (or not to cooperate)...
Article
Full-text available
In a fascinating study into the nature of police legitimacy in Southern China, Sun et al. (2018) present evidence that what researchers have previously been treated as possible sources of legitimacy—public perceptions of police conduct defined along the lines of procedural justice, distributive justice, effectiveness and lawfulness—are in fact cons...
Chapter
Full-text available
We describe a procedure for assessing the validity of survey questions. Response probes are administered that ask respondents to say in their own words what came to mind when answering the question. The verbatim responses are coded to a frame that captures the conceptual content of the responses and are then included as predictors in a regression m...
Article
Full-text available
Čini se da gubitak povjerenja čini srž problema s našim političkim institucijama, sa sektaškim i vjerskim sukobima te s nizom financijskih kriza s kojima se Europa suočava. Uzroci tog gubika povjerenja središnji su za aktualnu političku i društvenu raspravu. Stoga ne čudi da su kriminolozi također postali zainteresirani za pitanja povjerenja u pra...
Article
Full-text available
Monissa Euroopan maissa on havaittu, että kansalaisten luottamus yhteiskunnan keskeisiä instituutioita kohtaan on vähentynyt. Esimerkiksi poliittista päätöksentekoa ja poliittista järjestelmää kohtaan tunnettu epäluottamus on lisääntynyt. On arveltu, että heikentynyt luottamus on ollut yhtenä osatekijänä monissa taloudellisissa, poliittisissa ja jo...
Preprint
Full-text available
Are trust and legitimacy hard to win and easy to lose? In this paper, we revisit the relationship between police-citizen encounters and attitudes towards the police and test the asymmetry thesis using panel data. Despite some evidence from cross-sectional studies indicating that attitudes ‘arrive on foot’ but ‘leave on horseback’, we suggest otherw...
Preprint
Full-text available
Are trust and legitimacy hard to win and easy to lose? In this paper, we revisit the relationship between police-citizen encounters and attitudes towards the police and test the asymmetry thesis using panel data. Despite some evidence from cross-sectional studies indicating that attitudes 'arrive on foot' but 'leave on horseback', we suggest otherw...
Preprint
Full-text available
This chapter sets off with an empirical analysis of attitudes towards the law, which, in turn, inspires a philosophical re-examination of, and a distinctive approach to, the moral status of the Rule of Law. In Section 2, we empirically analyse nationally representative survey data from the US about law-related attitudes and legal compliance. Consis...
Chapter
Full-text available
We consider three new directions of research into police-citizen authority relations: (a) the subjectivity of fairness perception, (b) the mechanisms linking procedural justice to legitimacy, and (c) statistical methods to estimate causal mechanisms. First, police fairness may be a subjective experience and perception motivated by a range of indivi...
Preprint
Full-text available
Critiques the empirical strategy of Sun et al.’s (2018) study of the nature of police legitimacy in Southern China, and analyses data from 30 countries to illustrate that sensitivity to cultural context requires using a methodology that does not a priori impose the preconditions of legitimacy.
Article
Full-text available
How People Judge Policing is an original and gripping book with a plethora of excellent examples showing how procedural justice is understood, voiced and evaluated by ordinary citizens and the police alike. It urges its readers to use novel methods both to generate new hypotheses and to answer existing research questions, which is why we recommend...
Preprint
Full-text available
Our study capitalizes on data structure (we surveyed just over 1,000 people living in just under 100 localities defined according to an unusually small spatial scale) and recent advances in statistical modelling of both the cluster-level mean and variance. Our findings suggest that (a) the norm to cooperate with the police in the fight against crim...
Book
This chapter begins with an empirical analysis of attitudes towards the law, which, in turn, inspires a philosophical re-examination of, and a distinctive approach to, the moral status of the rule of law. In Section 2, we empirically analyse nationally representative survey data from the US about law-related attitudes and legal compliance. Consiste...