Jonathan Ives

Jonathan Ives
University of Bristol | UB · Centre for Ethics in Medicine

BA, M.Phil, PhD, PGCert LTHE

About

121
Publications
22,022
Reads
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2,371
Citations
Introduction
I am a Professor of Empirical Bioethics at the University of Bristol, working in the Centre for Ethics in Medicine. I work in Bioethics, with particular research interests in Clinical Ethics, Ethics and Health AI, Research ethics, Fatherhood and families, and Methods in Bioethics research. I teach medical ethics/Bioethics on a range of undergraduate and postgraduate courses.
Education
June 2008 - November 2011
University of Birmingham
Field of study
  • Higher Education
October 2004 - July 2007
University of Birmingham
Field of study
  • Medical Ethics and Law
October 2003 - July 2004
University of Birmingham
Field of study
  • Philosophy

Publications

Publications (121)
Article
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This article discusses men's transition to first time fatherhood, with a focus on the way they recognise various in-tension moral demands and negotiate an appropriate role for themselves. The findings are taken from a longitudinal study, drawing on elements of grounded theory, comprising a series of face-to-face and telephone interviews with 11 men...
Article
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In this paper we argue that there are few morally acceptable justifications for a man to seek a paternity test. The relationship between material responsibility and the burdens generated by the creation of a needy child, means it is not unreasonable for a man to establish that he is responsible for the creation of a child before accepting this fina...
Article
In the UK, putative fathers are encouraged to be involved in antenatal and maternal health care, in the belief that involving men as early as possible lays the foundation for better, more involved fatherhood. Integrating men into maternity care can, however, have hitherto unexplored ethical complexities. We begin by providing three ethical justific...
Article
In recent years there has been a wealth of literature arguing the need for empirical and interdisciplinary approaches to bioethics, based on the premise that an empirically informed ethical analysis is more grounded, contextually sensitive and therefore more relevant to clinical practice than an 'abstract' philosophical analysis. Bioethics has (arg...
Article
In this paper we set forth what we believe to be a relatively controversial argument, claiming that 'bioethics' needs to undergo a fundamental change in the way it is practised. This change, we argue, requires philosophical bioethicists to adopt reflexive practices when applying their analyses in public forums, acknowledging openly that bioethics i...
Article
Background Ubiquitous, smart technology has the potential to assist humans in numerous ways, including with health and social care. COVID-19 has notably hastened the move to remotely delivering many health services. A variety of stakeholders are involved in the process of developing technology. Where stakeholders are research participants, this pos...
Preprint
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Systematic reviews (SR) are very well elaborated and established for synthesizing statistical information, for example of clinical studies, for determining whether a clinical intervention is effective. SRs are also becoming more and more popular in bioethics. However, the established approach of conducting and reporting a SR cannot be transferred t...
Article
Background Auditory Verbal Hallucinations (AVH) are a hallmark of psychosis, but affect many other clinical populations. Patients’ understanding and self-management of AVH may differ between diagnostic groups, change over time, and influence clinical outcomes. This study aimed to explore patients’ understanding and self-management of AVH in a young...
Article
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Aims and objectives: To explore moral distress empirically and conceptually, to understand the factors that mitigate and exacerbate moral distress and construct a model that represents how moral distress relates to its constituent parts and related concepts. Background: There is ongoing debate about how to understand and respond to moral distres...
Article
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Our article aims to provide a comprehensive portrayal of how seven Asian jurisdictions have sought to address the challenge of genetic discrimination (GD) by presenting an analysis of the relevant legislation, policies, and practices. Based on our findings, policy discussion and action on preventing or mitigating GD have been narrowly framed in ter...
Article
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Background During the arrival of the COVID-19 pandemic, various professional ethical guidance was issued to (and for) health and social care professionals in England and Wales. Guidance can help to inform and support such professionals and their patients, clients and service users, but a plethora of guidance risked information overload, confusion,...
Article
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Aims Auditory Verbal Hallucinations (AVH) are a hallmark of psychosis, but affect many other clinical populations. Patients’ understanding and self-management of AVH may differ between diagnostic groups, change over time, and influence clinical outcomes. We aimed to explore patients’ understanding and self-management of AVH in a young adult clinica...
Article
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Introduction: The post-2005 rise in clinical trials and clinical research conducted in India was accompanied by frequent reports of unethical practices, leading to a series of regulatory changes. We conducted a systematic scoping review to obtain an overview of empirical research pertaining to the ethics of clinical trials/research in India. Method...
Article
When providing care, nephrologists are subject to various ethical duties. Beyond the Hippocratic notion of doing no harm, nephrologists also have duties to respect their patients’ autonomy and dignity, to meet their patients’ care goals in the least invasive way, to act impartially, and, ultimately, to do what is (clinically) beneficial for their p...
Article
Lack of vaccine confidence can contribute to drops in vaccination coverage and subsequent outbreaks of diseases like measles and polio. Low trust in vaccines is attributed to a combination of factors, including lack of understanding, vaccine scares, flawed policies, social media and mistrust of vaccine manufacturers, scientists and decision-makers....
Article
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Background Chronic kidney disease is a significant cause of global deaths. Those who progress to end-stage kidney disease often commence dialysis as a life-extending treatment. For cognitively impaired patients, the decision as to whether they commence dialysis will fall to someone else. This scoping review was conducted to map existing literature...
Article
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This paper adds to an increasing body of social science literature, which engages with the research practice of "co-production." It aims to make a distinctive contribution by suggesting that what is produced under this process should be given greater attention. Previous literature has focused on the "co" (cooperative) element: debating whether and...
Preprint
BACKGROUND Ubiquitous , smart technology has the potential to assist humans in numerous ways, including with health and social care. COVID-19 has notably hastened the move to remotely delivering many health services. A variety of stakeholders are involved in the process of developing technology. Where stakeholders are research participants, this po...
Article
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Introduction General Practitioners (GPs) and allied healthcare professionals working in primary care are regularly required to make decisions with, for and on behalf of patients who lack capacity. In England and Wales, these decisions are made for incapacitated adult patients under the Mental Capacity Act 2005, which primarily requires that decisio...
Article
Objective To explore the phenomenology of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) in a clinical sample of young people who have a ‘non-psychotic’ diagnosis. Methods Ten participants aged 17–31 years with presentation of emotionally unstable personality disorder or post-traumatic stress disorder and frequent AVHs were recruited and participated in a...
Article
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There has been increasing debate in recent years about the conceptualization of moral distress. Broadly speaking, two groups of scholars have emerged: those who agree with Jameton’s ‘narrow definition’ that focuses on constraint and those who argue that Jameton’s definition is insufficient and needs to be broadened. Using feminist empirical bioethi...
Chapter
Whilst debate continues regarding how to define moral distress (MD), one constant has been the belief that healthcare professionals often experience MD during end-of-life (EoL) care. In this chapter, we will discuss the concept of MD in the context of EoL care, drawing on a recent case that has attracted global attention and empirical data drawn fr...
Article
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Pandemic carries ethical challenges for surgeons
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Improving surgical interventions is key to improving outcomes. Ensuring the safe and transparent translation of such improvements is essential. Evaluation and governance initiatives, including the IDEAL framework and the Macquarie Surgical Innovation Identification Tool have begun to address this. Yet without a definition of innovation that allows...
Article
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Background: There is growing interest in the use and incorporation of empirical data in bioethics research. Much of the recent focus has been on specific "empirical bioethics" methodologies, which attempt to integrate the empirical and the normative. Researchers in the field are, however, beginning to explore broader questions, including around ac...
Article
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Introduction Worldwide, 10%–20% of children and adolescents experience mental health conditions. However, most such disorders remain undiagnosed until adolescence or adulthood. Little is known about the factors that influence mental health in children and adolescents, especially in low and middle-income countries (LMIC), where environmental threats...
Article
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Background The phenomenon of ‘moral distress’ has continued to be a popular topic for nursing research. However, much of the scholarship has lacked conceptual clarity, and there is debate about what it means to experience moral distress. Moral distress remains an obscure concept to many clinical nurses, especially those outside of North America, an...
Article
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Austerity, by its very nature, imposes constraints by limiting the options for action available to us because certain courses of action are too costly or insufficiently cost effective. In the context of healthcare, the constraints imposed by austerity come in various forms; ranging from the availability of certain treatments being reduced or withdr...
Article
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This paper responds to the commentaries from Stacy Carter and Alan Cribb. We pick up on two main themes in our response. First, we reflect on how the process of setting standards for empirical bioethics research entails drawing boundaries around what research counts as empirical bioethics research, and we discuss whether the standards agreed in the...
Preprint
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Background Genomic research allows new discoveries to alleviate human suffering but in turn raises significant ethical issues. In this context, public acceptance and engagement is a major determinant of optimization of genomic research. Therefore, understanding public perspectives related to genomic research is imperative, as it provides a foundati...
Article
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Background: This paper reports the process and outcome of a consensus finding project, which began with a meeting at the Brocher Foundation in May 2015. The project sought to generate and reach consensus on standards of practice for Empirical Bioethics research. The project involved 16 academics from 5 different European Countries, with a range of...
Chapter
This chapter offers a reflection on some of the interconnected philosophical, ethical and methodological challenges that have arisen in the research on fatherhood and in response to scholarly engagements with fatherhood research. The case for research funding may be easier to make if the proposed research addresses a clear area of need and/or addre...
Article
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This paper argues that the convention of allocating donated gametes on a ‘first come, first served’ basis should be replaced with an allocation system that takes into account more morally relevant criteria than waiting time. This conclusion was developed using an empirical bioethics methodology, which involved a study of the views of 18 staff membe...
Article
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Aims: The aim of this narrative synthesis was to explore the necessary and sufficient conditions required to define moral distress. Background: Moral distress is said to occur when one has made a moral judgement but is unable to act upon it. However, problems with this narrow conception have led to multiple redefinitions in the empirical and con...
Article
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In 2014, the editorial board of BMC Medical Ethics came together to devise sections for the journal that would (a) give structure to the journal (b) help ensure that authors' research is matched to the most appropriate editors and (c) help readers to find the research most relevant to them. The editorial board decided to take a practical approach t...
Article
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Research exploring parents’ experiences of having offspring with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) currently underrepresents fathers. This study aimed to develop an understanding of the experience of fathers, with a view to facilitating improved support. Eight fathers participated in semi-structured interviews exploring their experiences of fathering...
Article
Background: Withdrawal of treatment is a common practice in intensive care units when treatment is considered futile. Compassion is an important aspect of care; however, it has not been explored much within the context of treatment withdrawal in intensive care units. Objectives: The aim was to examine how concepts of compassion are framed, utili...
Book
Bioethics has long been accepted as an interdisciplinary field. The recent 'empirical turn' in bioethics is however, creating challenges that move beyond those of simple interdisciplinary collaboration, as researchers grapple with the methodological, empirical and meta-ethical challenges of combining the normative and the empirical, as well as navi...
Article
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Objectives Patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) collected in clinical trials should be administered in a standardised way across sites and routinely screened for avoidable missing data in order to maximise data quality/minimise risk of bias. Recent qualitative findings, however, have raised concerns about the consistency of PROM administration...
Article
Background An empirical bioethics analysis exploring what palliative inpatients understand as compassion was planned within an Intercalated BMedSc degree. Limited time was available, so to achieve deadlines, a co-developmental approach was employed maximising clinical/research expertise from hospice and university. Aim To study compassion by formi...
Article
Background As agency and capacity decline towards the end of life, compassion becomes an increasingly important and apposite feature of healthcare. Whilst more compassionate healthcare is being called for, especially in end of life contexts, there is relatively little understanding of what compassion actually is, or how it can be enacted. Aim To c...
Article
In “A Conceptual Model for the Translation of Bioethics Research and Scholarship,” Debra Mathews et al. aim to “begin an important discussion” about how to measure success in bioethics, and in doing so they set out a typology of bioethics research and scholarship with the arguably correct assumption that we cannot evaluate success in bioethics with...
Article
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Background In dimensional understanding of psychosis, auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) are unitary phenomena present on a continuum from non-clinical voice hearing to severe mental illness. There is mixed evidence for this approach and a relative absence of research into subjective experience of AVH in early psychosis. Aims To conduct primary...
Article
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Background: Assessment of patient-reported outcomes (PROs) provides valuable information to inform patient-centered care, but may also reveal 'PRO alerts': psychological distress or physical symptoms that may require an immediate response. Ad-hoc management of PRO alerts in clinical trials may result in suboptimal patient care or potentially bias...
Article
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Objective: Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) are core features of psychotic illness and remain significant in predicting poor outcome and risk. There has been a wide range of approaches to understanding these experiences. Method: A systematic literature review summarizing different methods of investigation and their results; phenomenology, d...
Chapter
In this chapter, we seek to offer a fresh perspective on whether or not doctors should be “licensed to kill”. As that phrase indicates, we metaphorically refer to the adventures of fictional spy James Bond, although we hope, in doing so, that readers will not think that we are belittling the serious topic with which the chapter is concerned. Having...
Article
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Conditional and directed deceased organ donations occur when donors (or often their next of kin) attempt to influence the allocation of their donated organs. This can include asking that the organs are given to or withheld from certain types of people, or that they are given to specified individuals. Donations of these types have raised ethical con...
Article
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This editorial begins, perhaps unusually, with a personal anecdote from Ives, one of the editors of this special edition, which sets the scene for the edition and, to some extent, explains why the debates presented in these pages are needed:When I was first starting out as a Ph.D. student in 2004, I submitted a paper to a philosophy journal that di...
Article
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Background Despite the increased prevalence of bioethics research that seeks to use empirical data to answer normative research questions, there is no consensus as to what an appropriate methodology for this would be. This review aims to search the literature, present and critically discuss published Empirical Bioethics methodologies. Methods MedL...
Article
Introduction Evidence suggests that the subjective experience of AVHs cannot be explained by any of the existing cognitive models,[1] highlighting the obvious need to properly investigate the actual, lived experience of AVHs, and derive models/theories that fit the complexity of this. Objectives Via phenomenological interviews and ethnographic dia...
Article
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The Interdisciplinary and Empirical Ethics Network was established in 2012 with funding from the Wellcome Trust in order to facilitate critical and constructive discussion around the nature of the disciplinary diversity within bioethics and to consider the ongoing development of bioethics as an evolving field of interdisciplinary study. In April 20...
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Evidence suggests there are inconsistencies in patient-reported outcome (PRO) assessment and reporting in clinical trials, which may limit the use of these data to inform patient care. For trials with a PRO endpoint, routine inclusion of key PRO information in the protocol may help improve trial conduct and the reporting and appraisal of PRO result...
Article
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Qualitative evidence suggests patient-reported outcome (PRO) information is frequently absent from clinical trial protocols, potentially leading to inconsistent PRO data collection and risking bias. Direct evidence regarding PRO trial protocol content is lacking. The aim of this study was to systematically evaluate the PRO-specific content of UK Na...
Article
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This article presents qualitative data collected during a project funded by the Economic and Social Research Council exploring 11 men’s experience of first-time fatherhood. It draws specifically on data from interviews conducted after the birth of their child, to present three different ways that men attempt to construct ‘fairness’ in their fatheri...
Article
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Background: Patient-reported outcomes (PROs), such as health-related quality of life (HRQL) are increasingly used to evaluate treatment effectiveness in clinical trials, are valued by patients, and may inform important decisions in the clinical setting. It is of concern, therefore, that preliminary evidence, gained from group discussions at UK-wid...
Article
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The use of charged-particle radiation therapy (CPRT) is an increasingly important development in the treatment of cancer. One of the most pressing controversies about the use of this technology is whether randomised controlled trials are required before this form of treatment can be considered to be the treatment of choice for a wide range of indic...
Article
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Bioethics is an interdisciplinary field that accommodates a broad range of perspectives and disciplines. This inherent diversity sets a number of challenges for both teachers and students of bioethics, notably in respect to the appropriate aims and methods of bioethics education, standards and criteria for evaluating performance and disciplinary id...