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Jonathan W. Gould

Jonathan W. Gould

Ph.D., ABPP [Forensic]

About

40
Publications
36,647
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1,019
Citations
Citations since 2017
0 Research Items
194 Citations
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Publications

Publications (40)
Data
Parental gatekeeping refers to parents’ attitudes and actions that serve to affect the quality of the other parent's relationship and involvement with the child. It captures a common statutory best interest factor that often becomes the center of child custody disputes, especially in relocation cases. Gatekeeping research is reviewed for its releva...
Chapter
The purpose of this chapter is to provide an overview of changes in law and mental health addressing child custody assessment. We provide a historical perspective on the development of legal factors that have influenced thinking about the best interests of the child standard. We discuss changes to professional practice guidelines developed for use...
Chapter
Full-text available
In this chapter, we discuss the development of the current ethics code in psychology, emphasizing those elements that are of particular concern to forensic psychological practitioners. We also describe changes in emphasis and content that have occurred over the past two ethics code revisions. Attention is also given to the revised Specialty Guideli...
Article
Full-text available
While the roles of trial consultant and testifying expert witness share many functions, the field of forensic psychology has evolved and it appears that, among those who offer these services regularly, there is a developing consensus that keeping these roles distinct is beneficial for the forensic practitioner, for attorneys advocating for clients,...
Article
Full-text available
This study explored psychologists' procedures for administering, scoring, and interpreting the MMPI-2 and MCMI-III in forensic cases. A national sample of 137 forensic psychologists responded to an online survey that focused on their use of the MMPI-2 and MCMI-III. The survey results reaffirmed some troubling practices found in a past study with ch...
Article
When a child custody evaluation is ordered from the bench, it is common practice for a judge to include a request for psychological evaluation of the parents and their minor children. Occasionally, a judge will provide a list of questions to be assessed. It is often left to the examiner to draw inferences from the court order and pleadings about th...
Article
Full-text available
An Internet survey was conducted to examine the views of mental health and legal professionals about parental alienation (PA) in child custody cases. Findings from 448 respondents revealed much awareness about the PA concept and controversies, along with the need for further research in the field. In general, respondents were cautious and conservat...
Article
Forensic psychologists in general, and child custody evaluators, in particular, who submit reports to courts in disputed custodial placement and access cases should respect the requirement of Federal Rule of Evidence 702 that expert testimony be “based upon sufficient facts or data,” be “the product of reliable principles and methods,” and be offer...
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Full-text available
Responding to Daniel Pickar's article entitled “Counter-transference Bias in the Child Custody Evaluator” (this issue), the authors opine that attaching new labels to familiar dynamics fails to contribute to an understanding of interpersonal dynamics with which all participants in the custody evaluation process are already familiar. The position is...
Article
The position is taken that forensic psychologists submitting reports to courts in disputed custodial placement and access cases should respect the requirement of Federal Rule of Evidence 702 that expert testimony be “based upon sufficient facts or data,” be “the product of reliable principles and methods,” and be offered by a witness who has “appli...
Article
Allegations of domestic violence are among the most difficult to assess when they are posed during a child custody evaluation. We discuss the social and political context within which such evaluations occur. We describe both historical and current conceptualizations of and research concerning domestic violence. We end by discussing a variety of fac...
Article
Full-text available
A primary responsibility of child custody evaluators is to investigate areas of concern relevant to the issues before the court and areas of concern raised by attorneys and their clients. In this commentary, we discuss the need for evaluators to discuss factors that are identified as areas of concern by the parties or the court. In the case of a pa...
Article
The psycho-legal dilemmas posed by child custody relocation cases are discussed in terms of the four decisional alternatives facing the court and evaluator. Different legal contexts for relocation are reviewed in terms of their implications for the custody evaluation. Complexities involved in the evaluator's function of making predictions for the c...
Article
Full-text available
A survey of psychologists (N = 89) was conducted examine issues regarding test selection, usage rates, and Daubert admissibility in child custody evaluations. Findings revealed that respondents used selection criteria commonly cited in the forensic literature. They viewed the major purposes of testing as ruling out psychopathology and assessing per...
Article
Full-text available
This commentary is meant as a clarification of a discussion in the Journal of Child Custody, Volume 2, Issue 4 on MMPI-2 readability found in an article by Bow, Flens, and Gould, “An Analysis of Administration, Scoring, and Interpretation of the MMPI-2 and MCMI-II/III in Child Custody Evaluations.” This commentary explores whether an MMPI-2 test ta...
Article
Full-text available
A survey of experienced psychologists was conducted to analyze the procedures used in administering, scoring, and interpreting the MMPI-2 and MCMI-II/III in child custody evaluations. Findings revealed some major concerns, such as over-reliance on computer-generated interpretive reports, lack of knowledge about base rate cut-offs for interpreting t...
Data
A survey of experienced psychologists was conducted to analyze the procedures used in administering, scoring, and interpreting the MMPI-2 and MCMI-II/III in child custody evaluations. Findings re-vealed some major concerns, such as over-reliance on computer-gen-erated interpretive reports, lack of knowledge about base rate cut-offs for interpreting...
Article
Offering commentary on “Empirical and Ethical Problems with Custody Recommendations: A Call for Clinical Humility and Judicial Vigilance,” we express our agreement with Tippins and Wittmann. We opine that professional activity stimulates inquiry and it is through inquiry that our knowledge base will be expanded and our skills will be improved. In t...
Article
Part 1 of this two-part series proposed the use of an interdisciplinary model in the development of psycholegal questions that guide child custody evaluations. It was argued that defining the scope and focus of an evaluation at the time that a court order is entered provides a more structured and clearly defined set of questions to be researched an...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this article is to provide a protocol within which to frame a critique or critical review of a colleague's custody evaluation. While we think that the structure and logic of the following protocol may be applied to other forensic evaluations, our focus here is on the specific forensic specialty area of child custody and parenting acc...
Article
Understanding the relationship between psychological ethics and scientifically informed methodology is critical to a competently crafted child custody advisory report. This paper offers a working definition of the forensic model and integrates elements of the 2002 American Psychological Association's Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of...
Article
Full-text available
The emotional and psychological risks to children of high conflict divorce have led to the increased involvement of mental health professionals in child custody cases. Numerous service models (Greenberg & Gould, 2001; Johnston, 2000; Johnston & Roseby, 1997) have been developed to assist divorcing families in minimizing family conflict and supporti...
Article
The ultimate purpose of a child custody evaluation is to assist children and their families to restructure their family lives after divorce. A competent forensic work product is defined, in part, by the eval-uator'S use of current state of the art forensic methods and procedures applied to child custody evaluations (Gould, 1998). In this paper, a d...
Article
It has previously been argued that a competent forensic work product is defined, in part, by the evaluator's use of conventional forensic methods and procedures applied to child custody evaluations (Gould, 1998) and that the more judges and other legal professionals understand about forensic methods and procedures, the better they are able to criti...
Conference Paper
It has previously been argued that a competent forensic work product is defined, in part, by the evaluator's use of conventional forensic methods and procedures applied to child custody evaluations (Gould, 1998) and that the more judges and other legal professionals understand about forensic methods and procedures, the better they are able to criti...
Article
As the debate continues on ways of thinking about access between separated and never-married parents and their very young children, the authors suggest a way that child custody evaluators can integrate this discussion into their evaluations. They conclude that evaluators must pay attention to family dynamics and all of the research when making spec...
Article
Full-text available
Ongoing or impending litigation may have a substantial impact on treatment, affecting parents' and children's interactions with the therapist and the structure and content of treatment. Psychologists must be prepared to think forensically as well as clinically and have the requisite expertise to support children's needs, accomplish interventions, a...
Article
Ongoing or impending litigation may have a substantial impact on treatment, affecting parents' and children's interactions with the therapist and the structure and content of treatment. Psychologists must be prepared to think forensically as well as clinically and have the requisite expertise to support children's needs, accomplish interventions, a...
Article
Judges are seeing an increase in the number of forensic reports in the area of child custody. This increase in forensic mental health involvement suggests that judges need to better understand the application of current forensic mental health methodology to assist them in determining a competent forensic work product. Recent literature has argued t...
Article
Should a child custody evaluation be a clinical tool informed by forensic methods and procedures or a forensic tool informed by clinical experience? The authors conclude that an evaluation requires a delicate blend of scientific thinking, clinical understanding, through observations, appropriate use of psychological tests, and self-report measures...
Article
This article proposes a model for the interdisciplinary collaboration of judges, attorneys, and evaluators, prior to the writing of a court order for child custody evaluation, in the formulation of specific psycholegal questions that guide the examination. These questions accurately reflect the concerns of the court, the attorneys, and the parties...
Article
Full-text available
Administered the standard and short forms of the inventory to 163 participants in a methadone maintenance program. The internal consistency reliability was .85 for the standard and .83 for the short form. The correlation between the standard and short forms was .93. Both forms also correlated significantly with the Self-Rating Depression Scale and...
Article
The issue of post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) began to surface in the American consciousness after Viet Nam when soldiers began exhibiting symptoms of nightmares and the recur-rence of reliving traumatic events. PTSD is a psychiatric disorder that has been included in the DSM-IV-TR. 1 It is a disorder that may occur as the result of experienci...
Article
Full-text available
The authors of child custody evaluation texts have provided little information about how to interview children and how to place the child's experience of living with each parent at the center of the advisory report. Some literature has addressed psy-chological assessment of children relying on traditional clinical assessment tools such as projectiv...

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