Jonathan A Fox

Jonathan A Fox
American University Washington D.C. | AU · School of International Service

PhD

About

163
Publications
36,512
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
5,961
Citations
Introduction
Jonathan Fox studies relationships between participation, transparency and accountability. He teaches development studies at the School of International Service at American University, where he directs the Accountability Research Center, an action-research incubator. For more info & regular bulletins, see: http://accountabilityresearch.org/ For background & past research, see www.jonathan-fox.org
Additional affiliations
August 2013 - present
American University Washington D.C.
Position
  • Professor (Full)
August 1996 - June 2014
University of California, Santa Cruz
Position
  • Professor Emeritus
July 1996 - June 2014
University of California, Santa Cruz
Position
  • Professor
Description
  • Department Chair, 2000-2003, 2010-2012, Promoted from Associate to Full Professor in 2001

Publications

Publications (163)
Article
Full-text available
India’s National Rural Employment Guarantee became a lifeline for migrant labor arbitrarily expelled from cities and left stranded and broke due to COVID-19 lockdowns. One of the largest employment safety net program in the world, it comes with a mandate for state governments to carry out “social audits,” a procedure empowering its beneficiaries to...
Research
Full-text available
This working paper is a review of keywords that communicate ideas associated with accountability. Words used to describe ideas about accountability often have different meanings, to different actors, in different contexts—and in different languages. This paper addresses the multiple, ambiguous meanings of accountability with the ‘keywords’ approach...
Article
Full-text available
This study compares Mexico's rural population and cross-border out-migration trends between 2000 and 2010 censuses. In spite of widespread predictions of post-NAFTA depopulation, the size of Mexico's rural population has remained steady. This study documents the significant absolute size and geographic concentration of Mexico's persistent rural pop...
Article
Full-text available
Conventional international development project approaches to enable participation of the excluded often fall short of building countervailing power, which is key for accountability. This study analyzes possible exceptions to identify causal pathways, as well as long-term effects beyond projects. The methodology combines the identification of positi...
Article
Full-text available
As the pandemic reveals how multiple intersecting inequalities affect public health, the work of rural activists defending their communities' rights to health, land, and gender, ethnic and environmental justice demonstrate how intersectional analysis can be put into practice. In the interviews that follow, Guatemalan Maya Tz'utujil activists Paulin...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Development donors invest significantly in governance reform, including in contexts characterised by conflict and fragility. However, there is relatively little comparative study of their change strategies, and little understanding of what works and why. This paper explores the strategies of six recent DFID-funded programmes in Mozambique, Myanmar,...
Chapter
Full-text available
Migrant collective action is often grounded in transnational communities and shared collective identities. These social foundations constitute the basis of migrant civil society, which emerges in locally grounded public spaces that extend across national borders and expresses migrants’ capacity for self-representation in the public sphere. Simply p...
Article
Full-text available
As evidências empíricas de impactos tangíveis de iniciativas de controle social são ambíguas. Esta meta-análise reinterpreta as avaliações por meio de uma nova lente: a distinção entre abordagens táticas e estratégicas para a promoção da voz cidadã para melhorar a performance do setor público. Experimentos de campo estudam intervenções táticas e li...
Article
Full-text available
Community health workers (CHWs) are frequently put forward as a remedy for lack of health system capacity, including challenges associated with health service coverage and with low community engagement in the health system, and expected to enhance or embody health system accountability. During a ‘think in’, held in June of 2017, a diverse group of...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Perempuan Kepala Keluarga (Women-Headed Family Empowerment, known as PEKKA) is an Indonesian organization whose work is rooted in a vision of women’s collective power and participation for social change. Since 2001, PEKKA has addressed entrenched social exclusion through popular education, intensive leadership development, and social accountability...
Book
Full-text available
Going Vertical is a result of action-research collaboration between Government Watch (G-Watch) and the Accountability Research Center (ARC) on multi-level citizen action for accountability. This book investigates how one strategic approach to citizen accountability - vertical integration - enabled seven reform initiatives in the Philippines to gain...
Article
Full-text available
Terminology in the accountability field is ambiguous, encompassing both top-down, technocratic control initiatives and bottom‑up efforts to challenge the abuse of power and promote equity. The main proposition is that communicating accountability strategies should rely on conceptual and cross-cultural translation rather than awkward attempts at dir...
Book
This book is comprised of one study and three field evaluations of civic tech initiatives in developing countries. The study reviews evidence on the use of twenty-three information and communication technology (ICT) platforms designed to amplify citizen voices to improve service delivery. Focusing on empirical studies of initiatives in the global s...
Book
Full-text available
The research investigated how one strategic approach to citizen accountability - vertical integration – enabled seven reform initiatives in the Philippines to gain meaningful results.
Working Paper
Full-text available
Institute for Development Studies/Making All Voices Count
Article
Full-text available
This paper reviews evidence on the use of 23 information and communication technology (ICT) platforms to project citizen voice to improve public service delivery. This meta-analysis focuses on empirical studies of initiatives in the global South, highlighting both citizen uptake (‘yelp’) and the degree to which public service providers respond to e...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This report assesses the evidence of the effectiveness of five global multi-stakeholder initiatives that promote governance reform: Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative, Open Government Partnership, Open Contracting Partnership, Construction Sector Transparency Initiative and the Global Initiative for Fiscal Transparency
Article
Full-text available
Empirical evidence of tangible impacts of social accountability initiatives is mixed. This meta-analysis reinterprets evaluations through a new lens: the distinction between tactical and strategic approaches to the promotion of citizen voice to contribute to improved public sector performance. Field experiments study bounded, tactical interventions...
Article
Full-text available
Transnational multi-stakeholder initiatives (MSIs) – voluntary partnerships between governments, civil society, and the private sector – are an increasingly prevalent strategy for promoting government responsiveness and accountability to citizens. While most transnational MSIs involve using voluntary standards to encourage socially and environmenta...
Article
Full-text available
For four decades, The Journal of Peasant Studies (JPS) has served as a principal arena for the formation and dissemination of cutting-edge research and theory. It is globally renowned as a key site for documenting and analyzing variegated trajectories of agrarian change across space and time. Over the years, authors have taken new angles as they re...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Policy discussion of social accountability initiatives has increasingly focused on questions about their tangible development impacts. The empirical evidence is mixed. This meta-analysis rethinks some of the most influential evaluations through a new lens: the distinction between tactical and strategic approaches to the promotion of citizen voice t...
Article
Full-text available
Voter turnout is understood in two different ways. The easiest to measure is turnout as a share of already-registered voters. For understanding who is represented in our electorate, the more accurate indicator is voter turnout as a share of eligible voters. The following graph demonstrates the historical turnout trends for California’s electorate,...
Chapter
Full-text available
“ What counts” as clientelism? For those who observe and experience clientelism, they know it when they see it. That approach is not enough for those who seek to analyze the political dynamics and impact of clientelism. Past approaches to the study of clientelism, often informed by anthropology and sociology, focused on microlevel, imbalanced, exch...
Article
Full-text available
To what degree do transparency reforms actually make information public? This study documents patterns of agency responses to citizen requests for information. This empirical study draws on both official and independent assessments during the first years of implementation of Mexico's 2003 open government reform. The data show substantial progress o...
Chapter
Full-text available
The experience of Mexico's 2002 transparency reform sheds light on the challenge of translating the promise of legal reform into more open government in practice. An innovative new agency that serves as an interface between citizens and the executive branch of government has demonstrated an uneven but significant capacity to encourage institutional...
Article
Full-text available
This empirical study draws on both official and independent assessments during the first years of implementation of Mexico's 2003 open government reform. The data show substantial progress overall, combined with significant variation across federal agencies and a growing trend towards official denials of the existence of requested information. The...
Article
Full-text available
Resumen Este ensayo elabora diez propuestas sobre el carácter de la sociedad civil migrante y sus relaciones con estados y otros actores sociales y políticos. El concepto de la sociedad civil migrante se refiere a espacios públicos e organizaciones conducidos por migrantes. Las propuestas tocan las diversas identidades colectivas, relaciones con su...
Chapter
Full-text available
Coalitions are partnerships among distinct actors that coordinate action in pursuit of shared goals. But what distinguishes them from other kinds of partnerships? The term is widely used to describe joint ventures in a wide range of arenas, most notably in international geopolitics or political party competition and governance. The literature on co...
Article
Full-text available
This chapter discusses the migrant civil society of Mexico and attempts to contribute to a rethinking of the relationship between rural out-migration and collective action. It is determined that migration to the cities in Mexico and to the United States has long been a pathway to escape the landlessness and the weakening of smallholder agriculture....
Article
Full-text available
In Mexico's southern state of Guerrero, rural social and civic movements are increasingly claiming their right to information as a tool to hold the state publicly accountable, as part of their ongoing issue-specific social, economic, and civic struggles. This study reviews the historical, social and political landscape that grounds campaigns for ru...
Article
Full-text available
The spring, 2006 wave of immigrant rights mobilizations represents a watershed in the history of civic engagement in the US. Never before had so many foreign born literally 'come out' for the right to be included in the US. Indeed, in many cities, never before had so many taken to the streets for any cause. Practitioners involved in the policy deba...
Article
Full-text available
Coalitions are partnerships among distinct actors that coordinate action in pursuit of shared goals. But what distinguishes them from other kinds of partnerships? The term is widely used to describe joint ventures in a wide range of arenas, most notably in international geopolitics or political party competition and governance. The literature on co...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter discusses the relationship and interconnections among changing the livelihoods of farmers, initiatives for sustainable coffee, and the production of shade-grown coffee. It examines the advantages and opportunities for farmers and producers engaged in coffee certification and diversification programs. The role of Fair Trade and organic...
Article
Full-text available
Reviews - PeruzzottiEnrique and SmulovitzCatalina (eds.), Enforcing the Rule of Law: Social Accountability in the New Latin American Democracies (Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press, 2006), pp. xiv+362, $29.95, pb. - Volume 40 Issue 2 - JONATHAN FOX
Article
Full-text available
The interaction between migration, development and rural democratization is not well understood. Exit is usually understood as an alternative to voice, but the Mexican experience with cross-border social and civic action led by hometown associations suggests that exit can also be followed by voice. This article explores migrant impacts on hometown...
Data
Full-text available
Longer, original version in Spanish of 2007 article in Development in Practice
Article
Full-text available
How can the seeds of accountability ever grow in authoritarian environments? Embedding accountability into the state is an inherently uneven, partial, and contested process. Campaigns for public accountability often win limited concessions at best, but they can leave cracks in the system that serve as handholds for subsequent efforts to open up the...
Article
Full-text available
The concepts of transparency and accountability are closely linked: transparency is supposed to generate accountability. This article questions this widely held assumption. Transparency mobilises the power of shame, yet the shameless may not be vulnerable to public exposure. Truth often fails to lead to justice. After exploring different definition...
Article
Full-text available
Rural local government inMexicois contestedterrain, sometimes representing the state to society, sometimes representing society to the state. In Mexico’s federal system, the municipality is widely considered to be the ‘most local’ level of government, but authoritarian centralization is often reproduced within municipalities, subordinating sm...
Article
Full-text available
Mexico's recent experience with evaluations of social programs has gained worldwide recognition, based on the prominent assessments of the impacts of Mexico's flagship social program, Progresa (now Oportunidades). The Fox Administration built on this momentum by requiring that all federal programs subject to rules of operation be evaluated by exter...
Article
Fully online (also in Spanish) @ http://fundar.org.mx/mexicos-right-know-reforms-civil-society-perspectives/#.VIBOX8n1at8
Article
Full-text available
Qué tanta diferencia hace la transparencia? Entre quienes están comprometidos con la democracia y el buen gobierno, muchos guardan altas expectativas con respecto a las posibilidades que encierra el derecho a saber. Pero, éste no es un arma todopoderosa. La transparencia, por sí misma, no puede sustituir las imperfecciones del estado de derecho ni...
Article
Full-text available
One of each eight adult Mexicans resides in the United States. The rural-rural component of this migrationary process explains a growing ruralization of the Mexican population in the United States. It could be surmised that the migrants have opted to exit rather than use their voice; nevertheless many of them are exercising their voice from what mi...
Article
Full-text available
The Mexican migrant population in the US increasingly reflects the ethnic diversity of Mexican society. To recognize Mexican migration as a multi-ethnic process raises broader conceptual puzzles about race, ethnicity, and national identity. This essay draws from recent empirical research and participant-observation to explore implications of the in...
Data
This database was compiled as part of the project Mexican Migrant Civic Engagement in the United States.
Article
Full-text available
La influencia de la sociedad civil sobre la rendición de cuentas pública se reconoce ampliamente. Sin embargo, los patrones específicos y los mecanismos causales de su impacto no han sido suficientemente determinados. Este artículo presenta algunas de las elecciones conceptuales explícitas, ineludibles para definir la rendición de cuentas, distingu...
Article
Full-text available
Dr. Martin Diskin was a very engaged and vital member of the Latin American Studies Association community for some 30 or more years. Martin also gave us [at Oxfam America] 18 years of his life . . . . He shaped over this period our commitment to human rights. He guided our grant-making in Latin America through several generations of institutional l...
Article
Full-text available
RESUMEN Según los demógrafos, uno de cada ocho adultos mexicanos está en los Estados Unidos. En los términos de Hirschman uno podría suponer que han optado por la "salida" en lugar de la "voz". Sin embargo, muchos están ejerciendo su "voz" desde el otro lado de la frontera a través de lo que se puede llamar una "sociedad civil migrante" –un espacio...
Article
Full-text available
Migration and development are clearly linked. However, specifying the nature of those linkages is not at all easy because some "disconnects" are apparent. First, most practitioners and analysts working on issues of migration and development still have remarkably little to do with each other. Second, framing migration and development issues through...
Article
Full-text available
What "counts" as transnational citizenship? Like the related notions of global or transnational civil society, the term's appeal to internationalists is greater than its conceptual precision. However, a wide range of empirical trends do raise questions about the nation-state-based approach to the concept of citizenship. In an effort to avoid concep...
Article
Full-text available
Aprendizajes