Jonathan M Chase

Jonathan M Chase
German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv) Halle-Jena-Leipzig | iDiv · Biodiversity Synthesis

Ph.D.

About

241
Publications
111,541
Reads
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27,061
Citations
Additional affiliations
September 2014 - present
Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg
Position
  • Professor (Full)
August 2014 - present
German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv) Halle-Jena-Leipzig
Position
  • Professor (Full)
July 2011 - July 2014
Biodiversity Synthesis Laboratory
Position
  • Senior Researcher

Publications

Publications (241)
Article
Full-text available
There is little consensus about how natural (e.g. productivity, disturbance) and anthropogenic (e.g. invasive species, habitat destruction) ecological drivers influence biodiversity. Here, we show that when sampling is standardised by area (species density) or individuals (rarefied species richness), the measured effect sizes depend critically on t...
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Although invasive plant species often reduce diversity, they rarely cause plant extinctions. We surveyed paired invaded and uninvaded plant communities from three biomes. We reconcile the discrepancy in diversity loss from invaders by showing that invaded communities have lower local richness but steeper species accumulation with area than that of...
Article
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Deterministic theories in community ecology suggest that local, niche-based processes, such as environmental filtering, biotic interactions and interspecific trade-offs largely determine patterns of species diversity and composition. In contrast, more stochastic theories emphasize the importance of chance colonization, random extinction and ecologi...
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Net primary productivity is a principal driver of biodiversity; large-scale regions with higher productivity generally have more species. This pattern emerges because β-diversity (compositional variation across local sites) increases with productivity, but the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are unknown. Using data from a long-term experiment...
Article
Ecological thresholds comprise relatively fast changes in ecological conditions, with respect to time or external drivers, and are an attractive concept in both scientific and policy arenas. However, there is considerable debate concerning the existence, underlying mechanisms, and generalizability of ecological thresholds across a range of ecologic...
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Patterns of biodiversity provide insights into the processes that shape biological communities around the world. Variation in species diversity along biogeographical or ecological gradients, such as latitude or precipitation, can be attributed to variation in different components of biodiversity: changes in the total abundance (i.e., more-individua...
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Species abundances and distributions are changing in response to changing climate and other anthropogenic drivers but how this translates into how well species can match their optimal climate conditions as they change is not well understood. Using a continental-scale 30-year time series, we quantified temporal trends in climate matching of North Am...
Preprint
Earth’s biodiversity continues to change rapidly through the Anthropocene ¹ , including widespread reordering of species in space 2,3 and time 4,5 . A common expectation of this reordering is that the species composition of sites is becoming increasingly similar across space, known as biotic homogenization, due to anthropogenic pressures and invasi...
Article
Biodiversity metrics often integrate data on the presence and abundance of multiple species. Yet our understanding of covariation between changes to the numbers of individuals, the evenness of species relative abundances, and the total number of species remains limited. Using individual‐based rarefaction curves, we introduce a conceptual framework...
Preprint
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The same features that generate biodiversity patterns across and within oceanic islands over evolutionary time - interactions between isolation, area, and heterogeneity - also influence their vulnerability to biological invasions. Here, we identify the factors that shape the richness and abundance of woody aliens in forest communities across the Ha...
Preprint
Patterns of biodiversity provide insights into the processes that shape biological communities around the world. Variation in species diversity along biogeographical or ecological gradients, such as latitude or precipitation, can be attributed to variation in different components of biodiversity: changes in the total abundance (i.e. more-individual...
Preprint
Patterns of biodiversity provide insights into the processes that shape biological communities around the world. Variation in species diversity along biogeographical or ecological gradients, such as latitude or precipitation, can be attributed to variation in different components of biodiversity: changes in the total abundance (i.e. more-individual...
Preprint
1. Human impacts have led to dramatic biodiversity change which can be highly scale-dependent across space and time. A primary means to manage these changes is via passive or active ecological restoration. The recovery of biodiversity following the removal of disturbance (passive) is often incomplete. The magnitude of recovery can very much depend...
Article
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Variables describing the abiotic environment (e.g. climate, topography or biogeographic history) have a long tradition of use as predictors of tree species richness patterns. However, these variables may capture variations in richness related to climate, but not those that are related to soil type or forest disturbance. Canopy structure has previou...
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Broad‐scale biodiversity monitoring relies, at least in part, on the efforts of citizen, or community, scientists. To ensure robust inferences from citizen science data, it is important to understand the spatial pattern of sampling effort by citizen scientists and how it deviates from an optimal pattern. Here, we develop a generalized workflow to e...
Preprint
1.Estimates of temporal change of biodiversity, and its components loss and gain, are needed at local and geographical scales. However, we lack them because of data in-completeness, heterogeneity, and lack of temporal replication. Hence, we need a tool to integrate heterogeneous data and to account for their incompleteness.2.We introduce spatiotemp...
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Abstract The Decade on Ecosystem Restoration aims to provide the means and incentives for upscaling restoration efforts worldwide. Although ecosystem restoration is a broad, interdisciplinary concept, effective ecological restoration requires sound ecological knowledge to successfully restore biodiversity and ecosystem services in degraded landscap...
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The abundances and distributions of some species are more closely matched to variations in climate than others. Species traits that might influence how well the distribution and abundance of a species are matched to climatic variation include life history (e.g., body size and dispersal ability), ecology (e.g., habitat specialization and territorial...
Article
In metacommunity ecology, a major focus has been on combining observational and analytical approaches to identify the role of critical assembly processes, such as dispersal limitation and environmental filtering, this work has largely ignored temporal community dynamics. Here, we develop a ‘virtual ecologist’ approach to evaluate assembly processes...
Article
Changes in the abundances of animals, such as with the ongoing concern about insect declines, are often assumed to be general across taxa. However, this assumption is largely untested. Here, we used a database of assemblage-wide long-term insect and arachnid monitoring to compare abundance trends among co-occurring pairs of taxa. We show that 60% o...
Preprint
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Global change drivers such as anthropogenic nutrient inputs simultaneously alter biodiversity, species composition, and ecosystem functions such as above ground biomass. These changes are interconnected by complex feedbacks among extinction, invasion, and shifting relative abundance. Here, we use a novel temporal application of the Price equation t...
Preprint
Disturbances alter the diversity and composition of microbial communities, but whether microbiomes from different environments exhibit similar degrees of resistance or rates of recovery has not been evaluated. Here, we synthesized 86 time series of disturbed mammalian, aquatic, and soil microbiomes to examine how the recovery of microbial richness...
Article
Current analyses of metacommunity data largely focus on global attributes across the entire metacommunity, such as mean alpha, beta, and gamma diversity, as well as the partitioning of compositional variation into single estimates of contributions of space and environmental effects and, more recently, possible contributions of species interactions....
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The effects of altered nutrient supplies and herbivore density on species diversity vary with spatial scale, because coexistence mechanisms are scale dependent. This scale dependence may alter the shape of the species–area relationship (SAR), which can be described by changes in species richness (S) as a power function of the sample area (A): S = c...
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Understanding how species are non‐randomly distributed in space and how the resulting spatial structure responds to ecological, biogeographic, and anthropogenic drivers is a critical piece of the biodiversity puzzle. However, most metrics that quantify the spatial structure of diversity (i.e., community differentiation), such as Whittaker’s β‐diver...
Preprint
Full-text available
Biodiversity metrics often integrate data on the presence and abundance of multiple species. Yet understanding covariation of changes to the numbers of individuals, the evenness of species’ relative abundances, and the total number of species remains limited. Using individual-based rarefaction curves, we introduce a conceptual framework to understa...
Article
Full-text available
Aim The island species–area relationship (ISAR) quantifies how the number of species increases as the area of an island or island-like habitat gets larger and is one of the most general patterns in ecology. However, studies that measure the ISAR often confound variation in sampling methodology and analyses, precluding appropriate syntheses of its u...
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Ecological stability refers to a family of concepts used to describe how systems of interacting species vary through time and respond to disturbances. Because observed ecological stability depends on sampling scales and environmental context, it is notoriously difficult to compare measurements across sites and systems. Here, we apply stochastic dyn...
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While land use intensification is a major driver of biodiversity change in streams, the nature of such changes, and at which scales they occur, have not been synthesized. To synthesize how land use change has altered multiple components of stream biodiversity across scales, we compiled data from 37 studies where comparative data were available for...
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Mitigating and adapting to climate change requires an understanding of the magnitude and nature by which climate change will influence the diversity of plants across the world’s ecosystems. Experiments can causally link precipitation change to plant diversity change, however, these experiments vary in their methods and in the diversity metrics repo...
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The soil environment contains a large, but historically underexplored, reservoir of biodiversity. Sequencing prokaryotic marker genes has become commonplace for the discovery and characterization of soil bacteria and archaea. Increasingly, this approach is also applied to eukaryotic marker genes to characterize the diversity and distribution of soi...
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Insects are the most ubiquitous and diverse group of eukaryotic organisms on Earth, forming a crucial link in terrestrial and freshwater food webs, but have recently made headlines because of observations of dramatic declines in some places. Although there are hundreds of long‐term insect monitoring programs, a global database for long‐term data on...
Article
Interspecific spatial associations (ISA), which include co‐occurrences, segregations, or attractions among two or more species, can provide important insights into the spatial structuring of communities. However, ISA has primarily been examined in the context of understanding interspecific interactions, while other aspects of ISA, including its rel...
Article
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Community and invasion ecology have mostly grown independently. There is substantial overlap in the processes captured by different models in the two fields, and various frameworks have been developed to reduce this redundancy and synthesize information content. Despite broad recognition that community and invasion ecology are interconnected, a pro...
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Jähnig et al. make some useful points regarding the conclusions that can be drawn from our meta‐analysis; however, some issues require clarification. First, we never suggested that there was a globally increasing trend of freshwater insect abundances, but only spoke of an average increasing trend in the available data. We also did not suggest that...
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Desquilbet al. take issue with our data inclusion criteria and make several other dubious claims regarding data processing, analysis, and interpretation. Most of their concerns stem from disagreement on data inclusion criteria and analysis, misunderstanding of our goals, and unrealistic expectations. We maintain that our synthesis provides a state-...
Preprint
The soil environment contains a large, but historically underexplored reservoir of biodiversity. While sequencing of prokaryotic marker genes has become commonplace for the discovery and characterization of soil bacteria and archaea, this approach has been increasingly applied to sequencing eukaryotic marker genes to characterize the diversity of s...
Preprint
Full-text available
Metacommunity ecology has focused on using observational and analytical approaches to disentangle the role of critical assembly processes, such as dispersal limitation and environmental filtering. Many methods have been proposed for this purpose, most notably multivariate analyses of species abundance and its association with variation in spatial a...
Article
Full-text available
Seed dispersal limitation, which can be exacerbated by a number of anthropogenic causes, can result in local communities having fewer species than they might potentially support, representing a potential diversity deficit. The link between processes that shape natural variation in diversity, such as dispersal limitation, and the consequent effects...
Article
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Disentangling the drivers of diversity gradients can be challenging. The Measurement of Biodiversity (MoB) framework decomposes scale‐dependent changes in species diversity into three components of community structure: the species abundance distribution (SAD), the total community abundance, and the within‐species spatial aggregation. Here we extend...
Preprint
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Understanding how and why complex communities can be stable has preoccupied ecologists for over a century. Data show that real communities tend to exhibit characteristic motifs and topologies. Despite a large body of theory investigating both ecological (niche partitioning) and evolutionary (speciation and extinction) mechanisms, a general explanat...
Article
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The metacommunity concept has the potential to integrate local and regional dynamics within a general community ecology framework. To this end, the concept must move beyond the discrete archetypes that have largely defined it (e.g. neutral vs. species sorting) and better incorporate local scale species interactions and coexistence mechanisms. Here,...
Article
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Estimates of biodiversity change are essential for the management and conservation of ecosystems. Accurate estimates rely on selecting representative sites, but monitoring often focuses on sites of special interest. How such site-selection biases influence estimates of biodiversity change is largely unknown. Site-selection bias potentially occurs a...
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Although habitat loss is the predominant factor leading to biodiversity loss in the Anthropocene1,2, exactly how this loss manifests—and at which scales—remains a central debate3,4,5,6. The ‘passive sampling’ hypothesis suggests that species are lost in proportion to their abundance and distribution in the natural habitat7,8, whereas the ‘ecosystem...
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Aim Biodiversity and ecosystem productivity vary across the globe, and considerable effort has been made to describe their relationships. Biodiversity and ecosystem functioning research has traditionally focused on how experimentally controlled species richness affects net primary productivity (S → NPP) at small spatial grains. In contrast, the inf...
Preprint
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Metacommunity ecology has become an important subdiscipline of ecology, but it is increasingly evident that its foundational theoretical and analytical frameworks do not adequately incorporate a realistic continuum of environmental and biotic process at play. We propose an approach that develops stronger links between theoretical and statistical fr...
Article
Full-text available
The island species–area relationship (ISAR) describes how the number of species increases with increasing size of an island (or island‐like habitat), and is of fundamental importance in island biogeography and conservation. Here, we use a framework based on individual‐based rarefaction to infer whether ISARs result from passive sampling, or whether...
Article
Full-text available
Metacommunity ecology combines local (e.g., environmental filtering and biotic interactions) and regional (e.g., dispersal and heterogeneity) processes to understand patterns of species abundance, occurrence, composition, and diversity across scales of space and time. As such, it has a great potential to generalize and synthesize our understanding...
Article
Local drivers of decline matter Recent studies have reported alarming declines in insect populations, but questions persist about the breadth and pattern of such declines. van Klink et al. compiled data from 166 long-term surveys across 1676 globally distributed sites and confirmed declines in terrestrial insects, albeit at lower rates than some ot...
Preprint
Full-text available
Biodiversity is non-randomly distributed in space and understanding how spatial structure of species diversity responds to ecological, biogeographic and anthropogenic drivers is one of the major quests of modern ecology. However, metrics of community differentiation such as Whittaker’s beta-diversity fail to unambiguously capture species turnover w...
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An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.
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Conspecific negative density dependence (CNDD) has been highlighted as a main driver of biodiversity maintenance. However, while there is general consensus on the scale‐dependent and interacting nature of ecological processes, there is limited knowledge about the relative importance of CNDD across spatial scales and on its interaction with other pr...
Preprint
Full-text available
The metacommunity concept has the potential to integrate local and regional dynamics within a general community ecology framework. To this end, the concept must move beyond the discrete archetypes that have largely defined it (e.g. neutral vs. species sorting) and better incorporate local scale species interactions and coexistence mechanisms. Here,...
Article
What will plant communities of the future look like in the face of climate change? Answering this question is critical if we are to understand novel ecosystems, and their potential services. De Boeck and colleagues (2019) suggest that our conclusions (Korell et al. 2019) were too “gloomy” when we indicated that the majority of climate manipulations...
Article
Experiments that alter local climate and measure community‐ and ecosystem‐level responses are an important tool for understanding how future ecosystems will respond to climate change. Here, we synthesized data from 76 studies that manipulated climate and measured plant community responses, and find that most climate change experiments do not corres...
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Full-text available
The use of functional information in the form of species traits plays an important role in explaining biodiversity patterns and responses to environmental changes. Although relationships between species composition, their traits, and the environment have been extensively studied on a case-by-case basis, results are variable, and it remains unclear...
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Protected areas are central to biodiversity conservation. For marine fish, marine protected areas (MPAs) often harbour more individuals, especially of species targeted by fisheries. But precise pathways of biodiversity change remain unclear. For example, how local‐scale responses combine to affect regional biodiversity, important for managing spati...
Preprint
Interspecific spatial associations (ISA), which include co-occurrences, segregations, or attractions among two or more species, have been an under-represented topic in biodiversity science and in large-scale assessments of biodiversity change in the anthropocene. Also, ISA has not been perceived as a facet of biodiversity on par with beta diversity...
Preprint
Full-text available
The Island Species-Area relationship (ISAR) describes how the number of species increases with increasing size of an island (or island-like habitat), and is of fundamental importance in island biogeography and conservation. Here, we use a framework based on individual-based rarefactions to infer whether ISARs result from random sampling, or whether...