Jonathan Alexander Black

Jonathan Alexander Black
The University of Sheffield | Sheffield · Department of Civil and Structural Engineering

The University of Sheffield

About

91
Publications
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Introduction
Jonathan Alexander Black currently works at the Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, The University of Sheffield. Jonathan is a Senior Lecturer in Geotechnical Engineering and Director for the Centre of Energy & Infrastructure Ground Research (CEIGR), home to a 4m diameter 50gT Geotechnical Beam Centrifuge. He specialises in physical modelling and investigates foundations for offshore energy systems (i.e. monopiles), assessing infrastructure resilience to climate change and soil-structure interaction problems. Other areas of interest include image based measurement (DIC/PIV) and a novel technique of Transparent Soil modelling.

Publications

Publications (91)
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Globalmente, el 70% de los residuos (≈1,4×10 9 toneladas) son depositados en alguna forma de vertedero (Kaza, et al., 2018). Los vertederos son una gran fuente de contaminación y enfermedad, directamente relacionados con la degradación de la tierra y la contaminación del agua. Para evitar estos problemas, se instalan barreras alrededor de los resid...
Article
Full-text available
All discretized numerical models contain modelling errors - this reality is amplified when reduced-order models are used. The ability to accurately approximate modelling errors informs statistics on model confidence and improves quantitative results from frameworks using numerical models in prediction, tomography, and signal processing. Further to...
Preprint
Full-text available
All discretized numerical models contain modelling errors - this reality is amplified when reduced-order models are used. The ability to accurately approximate modelling errors informs statistics on model confidence and improves quantitative results from frameworks using numerical models in prediction, tomography, and signal processing. Further to...
Article
Full-text available
Engineered synthetic liners on their own cannot protect the environment and human health against landfill leachate pollution. Despite their initial impermeability, they are susceptible to failure during and after installation and have no attenuation properties. Conversely, natural clay liners can attenuate leachate pollutants by sorption, redox tra...
Preprint
Full-text available
A new approach in landfill liner design which combines hydraulic containment of leachate with contaminant attenuation to improve the performance of these environmental control systems at landfills is described. The idea is to re-use readily available industrial waste residues (construction and biomass waste) as additives for natural clay liners, wh...
Article
A new approach in landfill liner design which combines hydraulic containment of leachate with contaminant attenuation to improve the performance of these environmental control systems at landfills is described. The idea is to re-use readily available industrial waste residues (construction and biomass waste) as additives for natural clay liners, wh...
Preprint
Full-text available
Engineered synthetic liners on their own are not the ideal solution to protect land, water and living beings against landfill leachate pollution. Despite their impermeability, engineered liners are susceptible to fail during installation and after a few years of landfill operation, and have no attenuation properties. Conversely, natural clay liners...
Conference Paper
Daily precipitation in Japan is currently increasing. River levees are constructed by compacting various natural materials. Internal erosion can be induced by suffusion, in which fines within the soil skeleton are transported to the toe of levee or outside the levee in an accordance with seepage flow. There are very few studies that refer to the ef...
Conference Paper
The large diameter monopile is a commonly used foundation concept for offshore wind turbines. The advantages of geometrical simplicity and reliable performance make it often the most attractive solution. Despite the concept’s high popularity, optimisation of the current design models can still be made. To address fundamental understanding of modell...
Chapter
This paper describes preliminary tests from a ‘transparent soil permeameter’ that has been developed to study the mechanisms that occur during internal erosion in filter materials for embankment dams. The laboratory-based experiments utilise an optical approach where glass particles are used in place of soil, and optically matched oil is used in pl...
Conference Paper
Earth embankment structures are vital to protect against flooding and their failure can result in significant loss of life and infrastructure damage. The increasing frequency of flood events requires defences to be able to withstand multiple flood loading scenarios where excess pore water pressures within the embankment can lead to local instabilit...
Conference Paper
The significant amounts of image data that can be generated during physical model tests can provide a useful alternative and direct route to determining the stress-strain response characteristics of the soil used in the model without recourse to e.g. sampling and triaxial testing. Using optimisation, it is possible to find the stress-strain curve s...
Conference Paper
A series of centrifuge experiments examining the effect of scour hole formation on the lateral ultimate limit state (ULS) behaviour of monopiles is presented. Model foundation tests were performed at 100 gravities (100g) of a prototype pile 5 m in diameter with a pre-scour hole embedment of L/D = 5. The testing schedule saw four separate scour case...
Presentation
Full-text available
Characterisation of industrial wastes for their valorisation as additives in clays for high-attenuation containment barriers. 86-87 pp.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Geogrid materials are frequently adopted as reinforcement to improve soil properties and geotechnical structural performance. One particular challenge facing engineers when designing soil reinforcement re-lates to the interface friction that is generated between soil and geogrid material. This aspect is not fully understood and current understandin...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The significant amount of image data that can be generated during physical model tests can provide a useful alternative and direct route to determining the stress-strain response characteristics of the soil used in the model without recourse to e.g. sampling and triaxial testing. This paper builds on previous work that has shown how using external...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A summary overview of 5 years working with a small-scale educational centrifuge at the University of Sheffield is presented. Various geotechnical design problems have been successfully performed throughout this period, including slope stability, bearing capacity failure and tunnelling. The opportunity to experimentally explore the theoretical conte...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Centrifuge model tests of buried flexible pipes in dry sand subjected to surface traffic loads are presented. Model pipe tests were performed at 25 gravities (25g) of a prototype pipe 355 mm in diameter. Pipe behaviour was observed for different burial depths of 0.5, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.5 m; and load eccentricities of 1 and 2 pipe diameters. Results sh...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A series of centrifuge cyclic monopile lateral loading experiments in dry sand are presented. Model foundation tests were performed at 100 gravities (100g) of a prototype pile 5 m in diameter with an embedment depth of L/D = 5. Observations indicate that permanent rotational failure criteria (θ at mudline equal to 0.25 •) may not be reached for loa...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Monopile supports are to this day the preferred foundation solution for offshore wind turbines. There is still an empirical gap, however, between the in-situ conditions for these monopiles and the test conditions the current design methods are based on.This relates to both pile geometry and load conditions.The gap introduces uncertainties and in or...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper outlines the design and development of a rainfall simulator for the centrifuge for the purpose of evaluating infrastructure resilience in changing climate conditions. Pressure losses in the water supply system are evaluated and related to nozzle pressure and flow rate at both 1 g and elevated gravity up to 100 g. Coriolis effects are inv...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper discusses the development and implementation of an educational module, which incorporates a state-of-the-art teaching centrifuge into open-house demonstrations and the undergraduate educational pedagogy. The students' activities within the developed module are centred on building a model consisting of a mechanically stabilized earth (MSE...
Article
Full-text available
A series of preliminary design charts were developed to predict the bearing capacity of fully and partially penetrated deep mixing (DM) of soft soil. The charts were produced by a new numerical analysis tool based on discontinuity layout optimisation (DLO) in which a previously proposed homogenisation method was used to define the improvement area....
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Visualization of internal geotechnical processes in physical modelling is possible through the use of transparent soils. These materials rely on optical clarity hence a systematic impartial user-independent assessment framework for visual quantification is necessary. The visual quantification of transparent soil models have been traditionally done...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Transparent soils combined with non-invasive imaging techniques allow internal visualization of geotechnical processes. Oil-based transparent silica has been traditionally used for measurements of deformation patterns, soil structure interaction (SSI), flow pattern, and permeability. New water based environmentally friendly transparent material, Ge...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Centrifuge model tests were performed to evaluate the structural response of offshore wind turbine monopile foundations in sand subjected to lateral loading. Model monopile foundation tests were performed at 100 gravities (100g) of a prototype pile 5 m in diameter (D). Three embedment depths (L) of 20 m, 30 m and 40 m (L/D = 4, 6 and 8) were evalua...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Energy foundations can reduce carbon footprint and lead to energy savings. Understanding the process of heat migration in soil is therefore of great interest in the field of geotechnical engineering. However, limited literature exists on the thermo-dynamic interaction and structural performance of an energy foundation and the surrounding soil. Lab...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In order to fully understand scientific test data it is crucial that we first understand the background centrifuge operational environment and its variation with time and centrifugal acceleration. For example, changes in am-bient air temperature or relative humidity in the centrifuge chamber during operation can have a significant impact on the eva...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper details the modification of a commercial data acquisition system for use in a geotechnical centrifuge. As with many ‘off-the-shelf’ components put into service within the harsh high stress centrifuge environment, they are not originally conceived to operate under these extreme conditions and thus it is not uncommon for high failure rates...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A bespoke 0.068m3 (18.5 gallon) sand hopper is employed at the newly established 50gTon centrifuge facility at the University of Sheffield. The sand hopper employs a series of mesh inserts of different diameters which control the flow rate and thus the relative density of the model. A series of calibration tests on equivalent Fraction E and Fractio...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A 1d consolidation frame has been designed and manufactured at the Centre for Energy and Infrastructure Ground Research (CEIGR), University of Sheffield. The consolidation frame allows static consolidation of soil beds. This system comprises of a 25 ton rated press that can accommodate a range of centrifuge payload strong box configurations. The co...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Centrifuge model tests were performed to evaluate the response of offshore wind turbine monopile foundations, in both loose and dense sand deposits, subjected to lateral loading at serviceability limit state (SLS). Model monopile experiments were performed at 100 gravities (100g) of a prototype pile of diameter 5 m embedded to a depth of 30 m (L/D...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Soil surface greenfield settlement induced by tunnelling is examined using a small scale centrifuge facility. Ground disturbance is simulated using classical model tunnel volume loss techniques. The development of the miniature tunnel and associated control systems is described. The experimental data is compared to predictions using the Gaussian se...
Article
Full-text available
Precast, driven pile groups represent a robust and cost-effective piling solution for many civil engineering and infrastructure projects. When appropriately applied, these foundations can offer a number of benefits over existing methods currently used in bridge abutment design (e.g. large diameter cast in situ concrete piles). This article outlines...
Article
Precast, driven pile groups represent a robust and cost-effective piling solution for many civil engineering and infrastructure projects. When appropriately applied, these foundations can offer a number of benefits over existing methods currently used in bridge abutment design (e.g. large diameter cast in situ concrete piles). This article outlines...
Article
Full-text available
This article reports on a series of small-scale, plane strain, 1 g physical model tests designed to investigate the bearing capacity and failure mechanics of end-bearing soil-cement columns formed via Deep Mixing (DM). Pre-formed soil-cement columns, 24 mm in diameter and 200 mm in length, were installed in a soft clay bed using a replacement metho...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The development of transparent synthetic soil has enabled non-intrusive measurement of internal soil displacement and detection of pre-failure strains using laser aided imaging and Particle Image Velocimetry. The work described in this paper applies this novel methodology to evaluate the deformation and failure behaviour of stone column foundations...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Limited information exists about the thermo-dynamic interactions of geothermal structures and soil owing to practical constraints of placing measurement sensors in proximity to foundations. An alternative experimental method is explored using transparent soil to enable internal visualisation of heat flow in soil. Advocating the loss of optical clar...
Article
Full-text available
Transparent synthetic soils have been developed as a soil surrogate to enable internal visualization of geotechnical processes in physical models. Transparency of the soil dictates the overarching success of the technique; however, despite this fundamental requirement, no quantitative framework has yet been established to appraise the visual qualit...
Article
Full-text available
Transparent synthetic soils have been developed as a soil surrogate to enable internal visualization of geotechnical processes in physical models. While significant developments have been made to enhance the methodology and capabilities of transparent soil modelling, the technique is not yet exploited to its fullest potential. Tests are typically c...
Article
Full-text available
Managing energy resources is fast becoming a crucial issue of the 21st century, with ground-based heat exchange energy structures targeted as a viable means of reducing carbon emissions associated with regulating building temperatures. Limited information exists about the thermo-dynamic interactions of geothermal structures and soil owing to the pr...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In practice foundations are rarely simply founded on a homogenous soil beds hence there are uncertainties surrounding the mode of failure that will prevail and the bearing capacity factor that should be adopted in design. A series of centrifuge model tests on surface strip footing test on a two layered soil bed having firm clay overlying soft clay...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents a comparison of the failure behaviour of the Deep Mixing (DM) method under models of rigid and flexible foundations. A series of physical model tests at 1g were performed in this study consisting of unreinforced and fully and partially penetrated soil–cement columns. For the improvement case, the columns of 23.5 mm diameter and...
Article
Full-text available
The commonly used British Standard constant head triaxial permeability test for testing of fine-grained soils is relatively time consuming. A reduction in the required time for soil permeability testing would provide potential cost savings to the construction industry, particularly in the construction quality assurance of landfill clay liners. The...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Buried pipe infrastructure is of critical importance for the provision of fresh water supply and disposal of waste water. Pipe performance is sensitive to initial ground burial conditions and subsequent changes during serviceable life. Voids are frequently reported as a possible factor that accelerates deterioration of the pipe condition leading to...
Article
Helical screw piles are a popular solution for relatively low-capacity, removable or recyclable foundations supporting road and rail signage or similar light structures. When specifying a helical screw pile, a designer must choose the active length and the helical plate spacing ratio, which are governed by the number, spacing and size of the indivi...
Article
Full-text available
A series of small-scale tests was undertaken to verify if granular anchors could be used as a slope stabilisation technique. The nature of the material used and the resulting loading configuration are described here. The work confirms that the inclusion of anchors within a slope mass, irrespective of their number or orientation, significantly enhan...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The development of a small scale beam centrifuge for educational instruction is described. The centrifuge is 1.0 m in diameter and is capable of rotating a 20 kg payload measuring 160 mm × 125 mm × 80 mm at 100 g. The centrifuge is equipped with a 4-way electrical slip ring, dual port hydraulic rotating fluid union, onboard PC and data acquisition,...
Conference Paper
This paper describes tests undertaken to explore the influence of a driving shoe and surface body ribs on the installation resistance during press-in installation of a tubular pile. The research utilises non-intrusive physical modelling capabilities of transparent soil and laser aided Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) to evaluate soil-pile interacti...
Conference Paper
The University of Sheffield is establishing a 50 g-ton 2m radius beam centrifuge that can accelerate a 500 kg payload to 100 g. The centrifuge is central to a larger project that will see the establishment of the Centre for Energy and Infrastructure Ground Research. The specification and construction of the centrifuge are described and a brief summ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The University of Sheffield is establishing a 50 g-ton 2 m radius beam centrifuge that can accelerate a 500 kg payload to 100 g. The centrifuge is central to a larger project that will see the establishment of the Centre for Energy and Infrastructure Ground Research. The specification and construction of the centrifuge are described and a brief sum...
Article
Over recent years non-intrusive modelling techniques have been developed to investigate soil-structure interaction problems of increasingly complex geometry. This paper concerns the development of a small-scale, 1 g, modelling technique using a transparent analogue for soil with particle image velocimetry for internal displacement measurement. Larg...
Conference Paper
This paper describes a series of centrifuge tests that were undertaken to explore the influence of a driving shoe and surface body ribs on the soil displacement behavior during installation of press-in tubular piles. The research utilizes non-intrusive physical modelling capabilities using transparent synthetic soil in conjunction with laser aided...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Geotechnical Engineering is a core discipline within Civil Engineering that supports the infrastructure development which underpin modern society. The simulation of realistic geotechnical design at UG level is often restricted to routine calculation based methods reinforced by simple element laboratory tests which fail to provide a holistic learnin...
Technical Report
Full-text available
To enhance educational capabilities, the Geotechnical Engineering Group established the vision for a bespoke state-of-the-art facility 'SILTS-Soil Interaction Learning & Teaching Suite' that would provide an interface to bridge the gap between geotechnical theory and design practice.
Article
Full-text available
Vibrated stone columns are frequently used as a method of reinforcing soft ground as they provide increased bearing capacity and reduce foundation settlements. Their performance in relation to bearing capacity is well documented, but there is also a need for enhanced understanding of their settlement characteristics, particularly in relation to sma...
Article
Full-text available
Index properties such as the liquid limit and plastic limit are widely used to evaluate certain geotechnical parameters of fine-grained soils. Measurement of the liquid limit is a mechanical process, and the possibility of errors occurring during measurement is not significant. However, this is not the case for plastic limit testing, despite the fa...
Article
Full-text available
Discussion on the paper: A new method of measuring plastic limit of fine materials. Sivakumar, V. et al. (2009). Geotechnique 59, No. 10, 813–823 [doi: 10.1680/geot.2009.59.10.813]
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Geotechnical applications such as new rapid pile testing methods and push-in pile installation techniques have highlighted the need for a better understanding of rate effects in sandy clay material. In the case of press-in piles a correlation between driving force and in-situ soil strength could help to confirm or modify design assumptions. In orde...