Jonathan D Bakker

Jonathan D Bakker
University of Washington Seattle | UW · School of Environmental and Forest Sciences

Ph.D.

About

153
Publications
61,285
Reads
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7,237
Citations
Introduction
My research interests include restoration ecology, ecosystem management, vegetation dynamics, community ecology, and applied multivariate statistics.
Additional affiliations
March 2013 - February 2014
Smithsonian Institution
Position
  • Fellow
September 2006 - present
University of Washington Seattle
Position
  • Professor
August 2001 - August 2006
Northern Arizona University
Position
  • Researcher
Education
August 2001 - December 2005
Northern Arizona University
Field of study
  • Ecosystem Science (Forestry)
August 2001 - May 2003
Northern Arizona University
Field of study
  • Applied Statistics
May 1994 - May 1996
University of Regina
Field of study
  • Plant Ecology (Biology)

Publications

Publications (153)
Article
Understanding how natural disasters affect soil quality and how it recovers is essential to improve soil management. We studied the effects of the 2010 Nanping landslides (China) on soil quality. We conducted an observational study using three levels of disturbance (‘destroyed’, ‘recovering’, and ‘undisturbed’). The ‘destroyed’ areas were sampled i...
Preprint
Full-text available
Eutrophication impacts plant diversity such as species richness, functional trait diversity and composition of grassland communities globally, but whether and how these changes affect the functional stability of grasslands under increasing climate extremes is unknown. We quantify the direct and diversity-mediated effects of nutrient addition on fun...
Article
Root hemiparasitic plants both compete with and extract resources from host plants. By reducing the abundance of dominant plants and releasing subordinates from competitive exclusion, they can have an outsized impact on plant communities. Most research on the ecological role of hemiparasites is manipulative and focuses on a small number of hemipara...
Article
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Ecological models predict that the effects of mammalian herbivore exclusion on plant diversity depend on resource availability and plant exposure to ungulate grazing over evolutionary time. Using an experiment replicated in 57 grasslands on six continents, with contrasting evolutionary history of grazing, we tested how resources (mean annual precip...
Article
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Global changes will modify future nutrient availability with implications for grassland biogeochemistry. Soil organic matter (SOM) is central to grasslands for both provision of nutrients and climate mitigation through carbon (C) storage. While we know that C and nitrogen (N) in SOM can be influenced by greater nutrient availability, we lack unders...
Data
Metadata for: Moore, M. M., J. S. Jenness, D. C. Laughlin, R. T. Strahan, J. D. Bakker, H. E. Dowling, and J. D. Springer. 2022. Cover and density of southwestern ponderosa pine understory plants in permanent chart quadrats (2002-2020). Ecology 103(5): e3661. https://doi.org/10.1002/ ecy.3661
Article
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Purpose Soil diaspore banks of bryophytes are poorly known in tundra grasslands, yet can be important for the maintenance of local bryophyte assemblages. We examined the effects of fertilization and grazing exclusion on above-ground bryophyte assemblages and soil diaspore banks in a tundra grassland. Methods We collected soil diaspore samples and...
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Nutrient enrichment can simultaneously increase and destabilise plant biomass production, with co-limitation by multiple nutrients potentially intensifying these effects. Here, we test how factorial additions of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium with essential nutrients (K+) affect the stability (mean/standard deviation) of aboveground bio...
Article
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This dataset consists of 101 permanent 1 m x 1 m (1‐m2) quadrats located within southwestern ponderosa pine ecosystems near Flagstaff, Arizona, USA. Individual plants in these quadrats were identified and mapped annually for 19 years (2002–2020). The original chart quadrats were established between 1912 and 1927 to determine the effects of domestic...
Article
Nutrients and herbivores are well-known drivers of grassland diversity and stability in local communities. However, whether they interact to impact the stability of aboveground biomass and whether these effects depend on spatial scales remain unknown. It is also unclear whether nutrients and herbivores impact stability via different facets of plant...
Preprint
Full-text available
Global change drivers such as anthropogenic nutrient inputs simultaneously alter biodiversity, species composition, and ecosystem functions such as above ground biomass. These changes are interconnected by complex feedbacks among extinction, invasion, and shifting relative abundance. Here, we use a novel temporal application of the Price equation t...
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Abstract Biotic and abiotic factors interact with dominant plants—the locally most frequent or with the largest coverage—and nondominant plants differently, partially because dominant plants modify the environment where nondominant plants grow. For instance, if dominant plants compete strongly, they will deplete most resources, forcing nondominant...
Article
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The effects of altered nutrient supplies and herbivore density on species diversity vary with spatial scale, because coexistence mechanisms are scale dependent. This scale dependence may alter the shape of the species–area relationship (SAR), which can be described by changes in species richness (S) as a power function of the sample area (A): S = c...
Article
Significance Predicting the effects of anthropogenic nutrient enrichment on plant communities is critical for managing implications for biodiversity and ecosystem services. Plant functional types that fix atmospheric nitrogen (e.g., legumes) may be at particular risk of nutrient-driven global decline, yet global-scale evidence is lacking. Using an...
Article
Spatial rarity is often used to predict extinction risk, but rarity can also occur temporally. Perhaps more relevant in the context of global change is whether a species is core to a community (persistent) or transient (intermittently present), with transient species often susceptible to human activities that reduce niche space. Using 5‐12 years of...
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Large dam removals effectively restore geomorphic and hydrologic processes, but little is known about subsequent vegetation recovery and the role of active restoration. We studied whether planting and seeding affected vegetation recovery in a dewatered reservoir, and whether effects differed on landforms composed of fine or coarse textured sediment...
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Selective grazing of livestock creates lightly and heavily grazed vegetation patches, which together contribute to the whole community in grazed grasslands. The intermediate disturbance hypothesis (IDH) predicts moderate grazing intensity can increase species diversity. However, grazing patchiness complicates predicted responses to grazing intensit...
Preprint
Full-text available
Nutrients and herbivores have independent effects on the temporal stability of aboveground biomass in grasslands; however, their joint effects may not be additive and may also depend on spatial scales. In an experiment adding nutrients and excluding herbivores in 34 globally distributed grasslands, we found that nutrients and herbivores mainly had...
Article
Spatial heterogeneity in vegetation may derive from variation in animal movement patterns, but these patterns have been difficult to study at the fine spatial and temporal resolutions necessary to relate them to small-scale vegetation patterns. Here, we demonstrated the utility of Ultra-WideBand (UWB) technology to examine animal movement patterns....
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A Correction to this paper has been published: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-20997-9.
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Adoption of novel host plants by herbivorous insects can require new adaptations and may entail loss of adaptation to ancestral hosts. We examined relationships between an endangered subspecies of the butterfly Euphydryas editha (Taylor’s checkerspot) and three host plant species. Two of the hosts ( Castilleja hispida, Castilleja levisecta ) were u...
Article
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Eutrophication is a widespread environmental change that usually reduces the stabilizing effect of plant diversity on productivity in local communities. Whether this effect is scale dependent remains to be elucidated. Here, we determine the relationship between plant diversity and temporal stability of productivity for 243 plant communities from 42...
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The long-term effectiveness of dry-forest fuels treatments (restoration thinning and prescribed burning) depends, in part, on the pace at which trees regenerate and recruit into the overstory. Knowledge of the factors that shape post-treatment regeneration and growth is limited by the short timeframes and simple disturbance histories of past resear...
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Wildland fires have a multitude of ecological effects in forests, woodlands, and savannas across the globe. A major focus of past research has been on tree mortality from fire, as trees provide a vast range of biological services. We assembled a database of individual-tree records from prescribed fires and wildfires in the United States. The Fire a...
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An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.
Article
Aim Climate variability threatens to destabilize production in many ecosystems. Asynchronous species dynamics may buffer against such variability when a decrease in performance by some species is offset by an increase in performance of others. However, high climatic variability can eliminate species through stochastic extinctions or cause similar s...
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Nutrient enrichment is associated with plant invasions and biodiversity loss. Functional trait advantages may predict the ascendancy of invasive plants following nutrient enrichment but this is rarely tested. Here, we investigate (a) whether dominant native and non‐native plants differ in important morphological and physiological leaf traits, (b) h...
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Grasslands are subject to considerable alteration due to human activities globally, including widespread changes in populations and composition of large mammalian herbivores and elevated supply of nutrients. Grassland soils remain important reservoirs of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N). Herbivores may affect both C and N pools and these changes likely...
Article
1. Long-term monitoring is an integral part of land management and biodiversity conservation. Sampling grain, a key component of monitoring design, can impact conclusions about spatial patterns in composition, but less is known about how sampling grain influences our ability to detect temporal compositional dynamics. 2. To evaluate how sampling gra...
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Propagation of native plants is generally more successful when plant scientists and managers have a broad understanding of the natural history of a species, including the conditions that seeds of that species require to germinate. We studied 2 sedges, Carex inops L.H. Bailey ssp. inops (long-stolon sedge [Cyperaceae]) and Carex tumulicola Mack. (sp...
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Anthropogenic activities are increasing nutrient inputs to ecosystems worldwide, with consequences for global carbon and nutrient cycles. Recent meta-analyses show that aboveground primary production is often co-limited by multiple nutrients; however, little is known about how root production responds to changes in nutrient availability. At twenty-...
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Understanding how plant community dynamics are impacted by altered disturbance regimes is a pressing challenge for restoration ecology. Most assessments of community dynamics involve computationally‐intensive statistical techniques, whilst management often defers to derived, qualitative “state‐and‐transition” models. Here, we demonstrate an interme...
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Leaf traits are frequently measured in ecology to provide a ‘common currency’ for predicting how anthropogenic pressures impact ecosystem function. Here, we test whether leaf traits consistently respond to experimental treatments across 27 globally distributed grassland sites across 4 continents. We find that specific leaf area (leaf area per unit...
Article
The demand for restoration of degraded lands to diverse native habitat is growing, requiring efficient strategies for large-scale seeding and planting of native species. Restoration is often limited by low germination and establishment rates of native plants, so identifying the most effective seeding methods and rates may speed the restoration proc...
Article
As approaches to ecological restoration become increasingly large scale and collaborative, there is a need to better understand social aspects of restoration and how they influence land management. In this article, we examine social perspectives that influence the determination of ecological reference conditions in restoration. Our analysis is base...
Article
Ecological restoration has become an overarching management paradigm for sustaining the health and resilience of forests across western North America. Restoration often involves mechanical thinning to promote development of complex habitats in moist, productive forests and mechanical thinning with prescribed fire to reduce fuels and restore natural...
Article
1. Outcomes for butterfly conservation can hinge on interactions with host plants during early larval instars. Ontogenetic changes in larvae may cause predictors of survival to shift quickly over time. 2. Survival from instar to instar was measured for an endangered oligophagous butterfly, Euphydryas editha ssp. taylori (Taylor's checkerspot), whic...
Article
Fuel-reduction treatments have been used effectively in dry, fire-adapted forests to reduce risk of high-severity crown fire, but it is less certain whether they achieve ecological objectives such as promoting understory diversity. Using long-term data from a fuel-reduction experiment, we tested how conclusions about treatment effectiveness are rel...
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Environmental change can result in substantial shifts in community composition. The associated immigration and extinction events are likely constrained by the spatial distribution of species. Still, studies on environmental change typically quantify biotic responses at single spatial (time series within a single plot) or temporal (spatial beta dive...
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This study develops an approach to automating the process of vegetation cover estimates using computer vision and pattern recognition algorithms. Visual cover estimation is a key tool for many ecological studies, yet quadrat‐based analyses are known to suffer from issues of consistency between people as well as across sites (spatially) and time (te...
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Biodiversity is declining in many local communities while also becoming increasingly homogenized across space. Experiments show that local plant species loss reduces ecosystem functioning and services, but the role of spatial homogenization of community composition and the potential interaction between diversity at different scales in maintaining e...
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Adaptive management (AM) was proposed as a rigorous and structured approach to natural resource management that increases learning and reduces uncertainty. It has been adopted as a guiding principle by agencies worldwide, yet its usefulness for guiding management continues to be debated. We propose a new strategy, which we term staged-scale restora...
Article
Parasitic plants can serve as critical intermediaries between their hosts and other organisms; however these relationships are not well understood. To investigate the relative importance of plant traits in such interactions, we studied the role of the root hemiparasite, Castilleja levisecta (Orobanchaceae), as a mediator of interactions between the...
Article
Prescribed burning is a primary tool for habitat restoration and management in fire-adapted grasslands. Concerns about detrimental effects of burning on butterfly populations, however, can inhibit implementation of treatments. Burning in cool and humid conditions is likely to result in lowered soil temperatures and to produce patches of low burn se...
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The paradigmatic hypothesis for the effect of fertilisation on plant diversity represents a one-dimensional trade-off for plants competing for below-ground nutrients (generically) and above-ground light: fertilisation reduces competition for nutrients while increasing biomass and thereby shifts competition for depleted available light. The essentia...
Article
Regional and global studies of ectomycorrhizal fungal (EMF) communities associated with Alnus have made progress in determining the key factors that influence EMF diversity and biogeography. Smaller scale studies provide a valuable complement by relating EMF to environmental gradients and describing how community composition is influenced by compet...
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Abiotic conditions, biotic factors, and disturbances can act as filters that control community structure and composition. Understanding the relative importance of these drivers would allow us to understand and predict the causes and consequences of changes in community structure. We used long-term data (1989-2002) from the sagebrush steppe in Washi...
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Key message Wind, salt spray, and the proximity to the coastline significantly caused the variation of tree shape and dry mass density of Casuarina equisetifolia L. planted in coastal areas. Abstract Despite negative effects of exotic plants, they play an important role in the erosion control and the accumulation of wind-borne deposits in coastal a...
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Collaborative approaches to natural resource management are becoming increasingly common on public lands. Negotiating a shared vision for desired conditions is a fundamental task of collaboration and serves as a foundation for developing management objectives and monitoring strategies. We explore the complex socio-ecological processes involved in d...
Chapter
Temperate grasslands are generally dominated by graminoid vegetation and have less than 10 per cent cover of trees and shrubs. These ecosystems occur around the world, provide important ecological functions, and often have high biodiversity. We review the types of temperate grasslands, consider why they have been lost or degraded and why they are b...
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The Campos grasslands of southern South America have been affected by long-term livestock grazing and increasingly widespread afforestation, but the effects of multiple disturbances have not been well studied, especially at multiple spatiotemporal scales. To determine vegetation response to these disturbances, we constructed grazing exclosures bise...
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Coastal marshes are highly valued for ecosystem services such as protecting inland habitats from storms, sequestering carbon, removing nutrients and other pollutants from surface water, and providing habitat for fish, shellfish, and birds. Because plants largely determine the structure and function of coastal marshes, quantifying plant biomass is e...
Article
Niche dimensionality provides a general theoretical explanation for biodiversity-more niches, defined by more limiting factors, allow for more ways that species can coexist. Because plant species compete for the same set of limiting resources, theory predicts that addition of a limiting resource eliminates potential trade-offs, reducing the number...
Article
Ecosystem eutrophication often increases domination by non-natives and causes displacement of native taxa. However, variation in environmental conditions may affect the outcome of interactions between native and non-native taxa in environments where nutrient supply is elevated. We examined the interactive effects of eutrophication, climate variabil...
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Rare species recovery presents several challenges for conservation managers, particularly when listed species interact with one another. We present a case study involving two such species: golden paintbrush (Castilleja levisecta) and Taylor's checkerspot butterfly (Euphydryas editha taylori), both of which occur in lowland prairies in the Puget Sou...
Article
During community assembly, plant functional traits are hypothesized to be filtered both by prevailing abiotic conditions and by competition from the surrounding community. While trait responses to abiotic conditions are well documented, whether and how traits respond to the biotic community is less studied. We investigated trait responses in specif...
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Fraser et al. (Reports, 17 July 2015, p. 302) report a unimodal relationship between productivity and species richness at regional and global scales, which they contrast with the results of Adler et al. (Reports, 23 September 2011, p. 1750). However, both data sets, when analyzed correctly, show clearly and consistently that productivity is a poor...
Article
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How ecosystem productivity and species richness are interrelated is one of the most debated subjects in the history of ecology. Decades of intensive study have yet to discern the actual mechanisms behind observed global patterns. Here, by integrating the predictions from multiple theories into a single model and using data from 1,126 grassland plot...