Jon A Frederick

Jon A Frederick

Ph.D.

About

51
Publications
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Introduction
Mechanisms of learning in physiological self-regulation, esp. the role of explicit processing or attention. How does awareness interact with control of physiological states? I also argue that the EEG state discrimination paradigm offers a novel empirical window on the mind-body problem.

Publications

Publications (51)
Chapter
Full-text available
While standard biofeedback training rewards the production or inhibition (or “control”) of certain physiological states, state discrimination training rewards the observation and reporting (or “awareness”) of these states. It is commonly argued that increasing awareness of subtle phenomenological correlates of physiological states is central to the...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract While biofeedback is often said to increase self-control of physiological states by increasing awareness of their subjective correlates, relatively few studies have analyzed the relationship between control (standard biofeedback) and awareness (a discrimination paradigm). We hypothesized that the two skills would generalize and facilitate...
Article
Full-text available
EEG state discrimination studies may contribute to understanding the role of awareness in physiological self-regulation, but many individuals learn the existing paradigm very slowly. In this study, a self-prompted discrimination paradigm, in which subjects decide when to respond based upon their subjective state, was examined for the rate of learni...
Presentation
Full-text available
While some have argued that conscious awareness is central to the mechanism of action of biofeedback (Brener, 1974; Frederick, 2016), others have suggested conscious awareness is neither necessary nor sufficient for physiological self-regulation (Black, Cott, and Pavloski, 1977; Lacroix, 1981). Our laboratory has examined relationships and differen...
Book
This book is an essential resource describing a wide range of approaches and technologies in the areas of quantitative EEG (QEEG) and neurotherapy including neurofeedback and neuromodulation approaches. It emphasizes practical, clinically useful methods, reported by experienced clinicians who have developed and used these approaches first hand. The...
Poster
Full-text available
Biofeedback is commonly believed to train increased awareness and voluntary control over physiological processes that would otherwise remain unconscious and involuntary (Frederick, in press; Olson, 1987; Plotkin, 1981). Brener (1974) argued that repeated pairing of external feedback with internal afferents related to the response lead to the awaren...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Attention and explicit processing are known recruit more widely distributed resources in the brain and produce more effective learning. Since EEG state discrimination trains attention and explicit processing of the subjective correlates of EEG states, we hypothesized that training to discriminate high from low 8–12 Hz EEG amplitude (“alpha”) states...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
It is commonly argued that the mechanism of action of biofeedback involves increasing awareness of subjective correlates of one's physiological state (Frederick, 2007; 2012). However, the relationship between awareness and control of physiological states is largely unexplored. Kamiya (1968) reported that those trained in alpha discrimination later...
Article
Full-text available
The relationship between discrimination and control of physiological states is largely unexplored, although it is often suggested that this relationship is important for the mechanism of action of biofeedback. This pilot study examined 6 participants given 7 sessions of alpha discrimination training combined with standard neurofeedback “control” tr...
Research
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I am fascinated by the topics that I teach. If you do not share that fascination, that's okay: just memorize these 25 words for the quiz.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is one of neurodevelopment disorders, which presents with impairments in communication and social skills, and stereotyped, repetitive patterns of behavior. Disturbances of affective reactivity and innate inability to perceive and respond to the social cues including facial emotional expressions in a typical and approp...
Article
Full-text available
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is one of neurodevelopment disorders, which presents with impairments in communication and social skills, and stereotyped, repetitive patterns of behavior. Disturbances of affective reactivity and innate inability to perceive and respond to the social cues in a typical and appropriate manner, including facial emotiona...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Previous studies have found that about 3/4 human subjects can discriminate EEG alpha activity (Frederick, 2012; Kamiya, 1968), but relatively few can do it consistently across ten sessions. Since gamma activity has previously been shown to be involved in conscious awareness of sensory information (Engle & Singer, 2001), we hypothesized subjects cou...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
While it is often stated that neurofeedback training increases perceptual acuity for subtle internal signals about EEG states, very few studies have directly measured the human ability to discriminate between these states. The purpose of this study is to determine the stimulus dimensions that optimize this ability. EEG alpha amplitude (at Pz or F3)...
Article
Full-text available
Although substance-related disorders are heritable, the genetic factors contributing to vulnerability to these disorders are expected to be complex. Nonetheless, identifying genes underlying this vulnerability and understanding their relationship with environmental factors and behavior holds the promise of dramatic advances in diagnosis, prevention...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Nearly all research on human EEG learning since the 1960's has focused on control of EEG constructs. Learning is difficult to measure in EEG control training because thresholds are constantly adjusted based on within-subject variation, and effects of training are often smaller than the baseline variation. By contrast, a direct measurement of succes...
Article
Full-text available
Inhibition of return (IOR) refers to an increase in time to react to a target in a previously attended location. Children with spina bifida meningomyelocele (SBM) and hydrocephalus have congenital dysmorphology of the midbrain, a brain region associated with the control of covert orienting in general and with IOR in particular. The authors studied...
Article
Full-text available
The effects of a single session of audio-visual stimulation (AVS) at the dominant alpha rhythm and twice-dominant alpha frequency on EEG coherence were studied in 23 subjects. An eyes-closed baseline EEG determined each subject's dominant alpha frequency. Subjects were stimulated at their dominant alpha frequency or at their twice dominant alpha fr...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the level of a spinal lesion is associated with variations in anomalous brain development and neurobehavioral outcomes in children suffering from the meningomyelocele form of spina bifida and hydrocephalus (SBM-H). Two hundred sixty-eight children with SBM-H were divided into upper (T-12 and above; 82 p...
Article
Full-text available
Horizontal and vertical line bisection was studied in 129 children and adolescents between 8 and 19 years of age, one group (n=32) of typically developing controls and one group (n=97) with spina bifida (SBM), a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with dysmorphology of the corpus callosum, posterior cortex, and midbrain. For each participant, st...
Article
Full-text available
Children with spina bifida meningomyelocele and hydrocephalus (SBM) have congenital dysmorphology of the midbrain and thinning of the posterior cortex, brain regions associated with the control of covert orienting. We studied cued covert orienting in 92 children with SBM, and 40 age-matched typically developing controls. Cues were of three types: e...
Article
Full-text available
The cerebellum is part of a neural circuit involved in procedural motor learning. We examined how congenital cerebellar malformations affect mirror drawing performance, a procedural learning task that involves learning to trace the outline of a star while looking at the reflection of the star in a mirror. Participants were 88 children with spina bi...
Article
Full-text available
The cerebellum is important for perceptual and motor timing in the mature brain, but the timing function of the cerebellum in the immature brain is less well understood. We investigated timing in children with spina bifida meningomyelocele (SB), a neural tube defect that involves cerebellar dysgenesis, and in age-matched controls. Specifically, we...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
See the presentation video at https://youtu.be/WFDYMkC6-AQ Introduction. Most quantitative EEG software packages provide the mean value of the EEG time series for EEG amplitude, coherence, etc. However, use of the mean rather than the median as a measure of central tendency generally assumes that data have a symmetric distribution and are not influ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
30 college students received 5-minute auditory, visual and combined audiovisual stimulation at the dominant alpha rhythm (DA) while a 19-channel 10-20 standard EEG was recorded. The three stimulation conditions were presented in counterbalanced order, after a five-minute eyes-closed baseline from which the DA at O1 was determined. A four-minute pos...
Article
Full-text available
Background. Although slow-wave EEG activity has traditionally been associated with either deep sleep or brain pathology, recent studies have revealed a relationship between this neuronal activity and cognitive functions. The present study explored the slow-wave EEG amplitude differences between resting and reading states in a group of 19 non-clinic...
Thesis
Full-text available
The photic driving response, the effect of a flashing light stimulus on the cortical EEG, has proven to be a sensistive neurometric that varies with differences in perception, mood, and physiological states. The diverse effects of photic stimulation have made commercially available "brainwave syncronizers" popular among consumers and even among som...
Conference Paper
Previous research has shown that EEG coherence during rest was correlated to reading skills between individuals. Moreover, we have shown that EEG coherence differentiates between resting states and reading tasks within individuals. This presentation discussed the predictive value of EEG coherence during a series of reading tasks on a number of psyc...
Article
Full-text available
As part of this laboratory’s ongoing effort to develop neurometric methods for the assessment and treatment of learning disabilities, this study investigated the EEG coherence effects of several reading and cognitive tasks in 18 college students. Tasks were designed to selectively engage visual, phonological, semantic, spelling and arithmetic proce...
Article
Full-text available
Recently, audio-visual stimulation (AVS) has been proposed to be effective as an adjunct to EEG biofeedback (neurofeedback) therapy, when used as a “priming stimulus” to activate desired cortical frequencies. Since standard neurofeedback therapies for ADD/HD involve training subjects to enhance activity in the 13-21 Hz bandpass, we hypothesized tha...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Barkley (1998) reports that 36% of students with ADHD never finish high school. DuPaul and Eckert (1997) reported that academic improvement was “almost uniformly low” with school-based interventions, even for a significant minority of children on stimulant medication. A primary objective of this study was to explore how AVS and HEG interventions a...
Article
Full-text available
The high affinity of 5-HT6 receptors for atypical antipsychotic drugs, and their localization in limbic and cortical regions of the brain, suggest that they might play a role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. To determine if this receptor is regulated by antipsychotics, rats were injected with clozapine (20 mg/kg/day), haloperidol (2 mg/kg/d...
Article
Full-text available
The effects of audio-visual stimulation at the dominant alpha frequency and twice dominant alpha frequency on the EEG were investigated. An eyes-closed baseline EEG determined each subject's dominant alpha frequency. Subjects were stimulated at their dominant alpha frequency and at twice dominant alpha frequency for 20 min on two occasions. A 30-mi...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Barkley (1998) reports that 36% of students with ADHD never finish high school. DuPaul and Eckert (1997) reported that academic improvement was “almost uniformly low” with school-based interventions, even for a significant minority of children on stimulant medication. A primary objective of this study was to explore how AVS and HEG interventions a...
Article
Full-text available
This electroencephalographic (EEG) study was designed to explore the differences in power spectra and coherence associated with subjective levels of engrossment, or absorption, in an auditory task. Quantitative referential EEG activity was recorded using 19 electrodes while subjects (n = 17) listened to a story and indicated on a continuous basis,...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The distribution and regulation of messenger RNA encoding two recently cloned serotonin receptors was examined by in situ hybridization in the rat brain. 5-HT6 labelling was observed in the striatum, olfactory tubercle, neocortex, and hippocampus. 5-HT7 labelling was observed in the thalamus, hypothalamus, piriform cortex, entorhinal cortex, superf...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We studied the long term effects of the antidepressant drug Fluoxetine, aka Prosac, on a presynaptic receptor for norepineprine that regulates the release of NE from the nerve terminal in these hippocampus and frontal cortex. One of the outstanding unresolved problems of psychiatry is that the therapeutic effects of antidepressant drugs do not corr...

Questions

Questions (11)
Question
In particular, I am interested in whether babies or very young children have the same or significantly less (or more) cortical magnification of the "important" or high-acuity/high-sensitivity receptive fields. 
We know that the amount of cortex representing a body part increases with increased use (e.g. enlarged right postcentral gyrus in string musicians, Elbert et al., 1995), but does the brain start out with significant cortical magnification in the primary sensory areas, or is it all developed as a result of use and plasticity?
Question
I have been explaining the physiological explanation for color afterimages for many years. What is the functional-evolutionary explanation for that physiological system? If the function is contrast enhancement, why the particular arrangement of complementary colors?
Question
I am having no luck in my library or on the internet. Interlibrary loan finds only one copy at a location that is unable to lend or copy it. 
Caine, T. M., and K. Hope. Manual of the Hysteroid-obsessoid Questionnaire. University of London Press, 1967.
Question
I am having no luck in my library or on the internet. The reference below includes a few representative items but not the whole 48-item test.
Caine, T. M., and L. G. Hawkins. "Questionnaire measure of the hysteroid/obsessoid component of personality: the HOQ." Journal of Consulting Psychology 27.3 (1963): 206.
Question
Ernest Hilgard (1977, 1992; as cited in L.A. King, 2016) proposed that hypnosis created a "divided consciousness" where one part obeyed the hypnotist's commands and the other part remained as a "hidden observer." An experiment supporting this involved asking the hypnotized person to submerge their hand in a bucket of ice water and telling them that it would not hurt. However, they were also instructed that part of their mind, a hidden part, would still be aware of the pain, and could signal the real pain by pressing a key with the hand that was not submerged. In this experiment, the hypnotized subjects complied with both suggestions. Verbally, they said the freezing cold water didn’t hurt. However, the longer they kept their hand submerged, the more the other hand pushed the button. This could be interpreted as supporting the divided consciousness theory. However, a social cognitive behavior explanation would be that both behaviors are consistent with a compliant subject following the expectations and roles of a good hypnotized subject. A more definitive test would be if you could get hypnotized subjects to perform dual tasks that would be impossible with normal consciousness, like attending to two separate messages in two ears or tapping incompatible rhythms with the two hands. Have you heard of any such successful demonstrations?
Question
The membrane is already permeable to potassium, and the resting potential is close to the equilibrium potential for potassium. How can opening more potassium channels change the membrane voltage?
I'm sure I knew this in graduate school. Right now I'm worried some student might ask me this upcoming week.
Question
Thibault & Raz (2016) argued that neurofeedback can't be considered an efficacious treatment unless it beats a "sham" or "placebo" neurofeedback control. However, others have argued that any form of neurofeedback simple enough to be effectively double-blinded couldn't be powerful enough to beat a sham control. This raises the question, what is the appropriate randomized control condition for studying the efficacy of psychotherapy? The existing best standard of care? Or is there a literature comparing forms of psychotherapy to double-blinded "sham" psychotherapy controls? What would sham psychotherapy look like, and how would it not be obvious to the participant?
Question
Dark adaptation (the lowering of the absolute threshold or increasing in light sensitivity after turning out the lights) can be studied in cones at the fixation point because there are only cones in the fovea. In the periphery, there are both rods and cones. So why wouldn't the rod adaptation function just be equal to that measured in the periphery minus that measured in the fovea?  The standard answer to the question is that you need to use rare individuals with rod monochromatism, who don't have cones.
Question
An iridectomy relieves the pressure from glaucoma by allowing the aqueous humor to drain, but where? I thought the aqueous humor was on both sides of the iris.
Question
It has long been argued that the brain has no sensory receptors, but the smooth muscle controlling blood flow of the intracerebral arteries clearly has sensory and motor innervation. 
Robert A. Hill, Lei Tong, Peng Yuan, Sasidhar Murikinati, Shobhana Gupta, Jaime Grutzendler. Regional Blood Flow in the Normal and Ischemic Brain Is Controlled by Arteriolar Smooth Muscle Cell Contractility and Not by Capillary Pericytes. Neuron, 2015; DOI: 10.1016/j.neuron.2015.06.001

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