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Joke Torbeyns

Joke Torbeyns
KU Leuven | ku leuven · Research unit for Education and Training

PhD

About

101
Publications
34,238
Reads
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2,487
Citations
Citations since 2016
45 Research Items
1727 Citations
20162017201820192020202120220100200300
20162017201820192020202120220100200300
20162017201820192020202120220100200300
20162017201820192020202120220100200300
Additional affiliations
October 1999 - present
KU Leuven
Position
  • PostDoc Position

Publications

Publications (101)
Article
When solving subtraction problems such as 83–46, children use the direct subtraction (DS) strategy (e.g., 83 – 40 = 43, 43 – 6 = 37) or the subtraction by addition (SBA) strategy (e.g., 46 + 4 = 50, 50 + 30 = 80, 80 + 3 = 83, so the answer is 4 + 30 + 3 = 37). This study is the first to use the choice/no-choice method to examine DS and SBA use in t...
Article
Shared picture book reading (SPBR) refers to an activity in which the adult reads aloud a picture book to children and which often includes interactions about the picture book outside of the actual reading. In this systematic review, we analyzed the characteristics of the picture books that are used to stimulate early mathematics, and the frequency...
Article
This study examined adults’ frequent, efficient and adaptive use of direct subtraction (DS) and subtraction by addition (SBA) in mental multi-digit subtraction with the choice/no-choice method. Participants were offered subtractions in one choice condition (choice between DS and SBA) and two no-choice conditions (mandatory use of either DS or SBA)....
Article
Research Findings: Shared-picture book reading can stimulate children’s mathematical development. Evidence of learning-supportive characteristics in picture books is limited in this domain. A first step is systematically analyzing the occurrence of domain-specific features in publicly available picture books. We analyzed the occurrence of general b...
Article
We investigated elementary school children's use of direct subtraction (DS) and subtraction by addition (SBA) when mentally solving multi-digit subtractions. Fourth- to sixth-grade children of varying mathematical achievement levels were offered subtractions in one choice condition (choice between DS or SBA) and two no-choice conditions (mandatory...
Article
El propósito del estudio fue examinar si los niños preescolares se enfocan espontáneamente en estructuras matemáticas –patrones y clasificación– y si dicho enfoque se asocia con sus habilidades para trabajar patrones. La metodología fue cuantitativa de tipo descriptivo y comparativo. Participaron en el estudio 60 preescolares que fueron evaluados a...
Article
Full-text available
Ellis et al. (2021, this issue; in the following abbreviated as EEA) conducted a conceptual replication and extension of a recent meta-analysis relating number line estimation to broader mathematical competence (Schneider et al., 2018; in the following: SEA). EEA pooled and analyzed data from seven new studies and compared the results to SEA’s find...
Article
This study presents a patterning intervention for 5-year-olds, who were in their third year of preschool in Flanders (Belgium), with two key elements: A focus on the structure of patterns, and the inclusion of growing patterns (e.g., ABAABAAAB) in addition to repeating patterns (e.g., ABABAB). We evaluated the impact of this intervention on pattern...
Article
This longitudinal cross-lagged panel study investigated the development of the structure of young children’s spontaneous number focusing tendencies and their longitudinal associations with numerical abilities and mathematics achievement over the course of a 3-year period, that is, in the second and third year of kindergarten and in first grade of p...
Article
The current study examined upper elementary school children’s frequent, efficient and adaptive use of direct subtraction ( DS ) and subtraction by addition ( SBA ) when mentally solving multi-digit subtractions, replicating and expanding previous research by Torbeyns et al. (2018). First, children were offered subtractions in two choice conditions...
Article
Full-text available
Insight into early precursors of proportional reasoning is necessary to further our theoretical understanding of mathematical development and to guide early interventions. Although several researchers have suggested patterning as a possible precursor for proportional reasoning, there is little empirical evidence to support this assumption, particul...
Article
Despite the general agreement regarding the importance of stimulating young children’s early mathematical skills, mathematical learning opportunities in preschool are limited. Educational technology (ET) may be an effective tool to address this problem. Taking into account the weaknesses of previous reviews, we conducted a systematic and comprehens...
Article
The present study aimed to analyze the direction of the associations between repeating patterning, growing patterning, and numerical ability. Participants were 410 children who were annually assessed on their repeating patterning, growing patterning, and numerical ability, at ages 4, 5, and 6 years (i.e., spring 2017, 2018, and 2019). A cross-lagge...
Chapter
In this chapter, we review a long-standing and comprehensive line of research on the use of the subtraction by addition (SBA) strategy when solving subtractions, in which our own research center has played an important role. We document this phenomenon in a variety of subdomains of the elementary arithmetic curriculum, ranging from single-digit men...
Article
Full-text available
Resumen El objetivo de este estudio fue examinar las competencias numéricas tempranas de 355 niños ecuatorianos al iniciar el jardín infantil, teniendo en cuenta el tipo de escuela a la que asisten. Los niños resolvieron una prueba de habilidades numéricas tempranas y una de enfoque espontáneo en la numerosidad. Los resultados revelaron un nivel de...
Article
Full-text available
Selecting a large and diverse sample of 5-6-year-old preschool children (179 boys and 174 girls; M age = 70.03 months, SD age = 3.43), we aimed to extend previous findings on variability in children's home math environment (i.e., home math activities, parental expectations, and attitudes) and its association with children's mathematical skills. We...
Article
Children’s spontaneous focusing on Arabic number symbols (SFONS) has been identified as a relevant component of their early mathematical development. This study investigated whether SFONS is a separate construct from spontaneous focusing on numerosity (SFON) and examined whether it is uniquely related to numerical abilities and mathematics achievem...
Article
Young children’s early repeating patterning abilities are important foundations for their later mathematical development. Prior studies on young children’s repeating patterning abilities have been conducted exclusively in developed countries differing in economic, societal, and educational characteristics from developing countries. In this study, w...
Article
Children’s spontaneous focusing on Arabic number symbols (SFONS) has been identified as a relevant component of their early mathematical development. This study investigated whether SFONS is a separate construct from spontaneous focusing on numerosity (SFON) and examined whether it is uniquely related to numerical abilities and mathematics achievem...
Chapter
In this chapter we review and discuss a relatively new line of research in the domain of early mathematical development that addresses the dispositional rather than the ability aspect of children’s early mathematical competence, namely their tendencies to attend to and focus on various mathematical elements in their environment and its relation wit...
Article
Young children show large individual differences in their tendency to focus spontaneously on numerical aspects (e.g., numerosities or Arabic number symbols) of their everyday environment. The origins of these individual differences are unclear. Given the role of the home numeracy environment (HNE) in children’s early mathematical development and th...
Article
Background: Early patterning competence has recently been identified as an important precursor of mathematical development. Whereas the focus of this research has been on children's ability regarding repeating patterns, children might also differ in their spontaneous attention to patterns. Aims: The present study aimed to explore 4- to 5-year ol...
Article
Full-text available
El objetivo del presente estudio fue examinar la influencia del nivel socioeconómico de los niños de jardín infantil en el desarrollo de sus habilidades numéricas tempranas y su enfoque espontáneo en el número (SFON), después de controlar por variables cognitivas de dominio general, como inteligencia y memoria de trabajo, y por edad. Al iniciar el...
Article
Teachers’ pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) importantly contributes to instructional quality and student outcomes. We aimed to complement the limited insights into preservice preschool teachers’ PCK, and its association with opportunities to learn (OTL), during teacher training. We offered 162 first-to-final-year preservice preschool teachers fro...
Article
In this study, we aimed to address two gaps in research on early mathematical patterning, namely the lack of attention (1) to growing patterns and (2) to the association between different aspects of patterning and numerical ability. Participants were 400 four-year olds from a wide range of socioeconomic backgrounds. Children's patterning and numeri...
Chapter
Activities with patterns (e.g., making a necklace with alternating blue and red pearls) are common in many preschool and kindergarten settings. These activities are assumed to play an important role in children’s mathematical development. Nevertheless, most research on early mathematical development focuses on numerical and arithmetical abilities,...
Article
Many studies have investigated the association between children’s spontaneous attention to number and their early mathematical abilities. This work has presented number in a non-symbolic format by exclusively using numerosities as their stimuli. Therefore, little is known about children’s spontaneous attention for Arabic number symbols. We aimed to...
Article
Full-text available
Mathematics-related affect comprises an individual’s attitudes, beliefs, emotions and motivations towards mathematics. These affective constructs have been widely studied in mathematics education and cognitive psychology and have been shown to be related to cognitive outcomes such as performance on a range of mathematical tasks. However, it is not...
Article
Full-text available
The transition from natural to rational numbers is difficult for most elementary school children. A major cause for these difficulties is assumed to be the “conceptual change” they need to undergo in order to see that several natural number properties do not apply to rational numbers. To appropriately handle pupils’ difficulties, teachers need well...
Article
The number line estimation task is widely used to investigate mathematical learning and development. The present meta-analysis statistically synthesized the extensive evidence on the correlation between number line estimation and broader mathematical competence. Averaged over 263 effect sizes with 10576 participants with sample mean ages from 4 to...
Article
Full-text available
Numerical competencies acquired in preschool are foundational and predictive for children's later mathematical development. It remains to be determined whether there are gender differences in these early numerical competencies which could explain the often‐reported gender differences in later mathematics and STEM‐related abilities. Using a Bayesian...
Article
Full-text available
We investigated the use of the subtraction by addition strategy, an important mental calculation strategy in children with different levels of mathematics achievement. In doing so we relied on Siegler’s cognitive psychological model of strategy change (Lemaire & Siegler, 1995), which defines strategy competencies in terms of four parameters (strate...
Article
Full-text available
This study aimed at analyzing the development of Ecuadorian children’s early numerical abilities during the Kindergarten year in relation to their SES, the quality of their early mathematics education, and the attended school type. 179 Ecuadorian Kindergartners (18 classrooms, 6 classrooms per school type) were offered a standards-based early numer...
Chapter
Young children’s spontaneous focusing on numerosity (SFON) predicts their later mathematical competencies. In this study we investigated the development of SFON in Ecuadorian kindergartners as well as the contribution of early numerical abilities and the quality of mathematics education to this development. The participants were 100 kindergartners...
Chapter
Children’s Spontaneous Focusing On Numerosity (SFON) predicts later mathematics performance. This association is assumed to rely on children’s self-initiated practice in number recognition during everyday activities, which would enhance their further mathematical development. Consequently, SFON in experimental tasks should be associated with SFON d...
Article
We investigated the effectiveness of the Building Blocks program for enhancing Ecuadorian kindergart-ners' early numerical abilities and spontaneous focusing on numerosity (SFON), after controlling for working memory, intelligence, age, and SES. Following a pretest-intervention-posttest design, 18 classes comprising 355 children from varied SES bac...
Article
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We aimed to investigate upper elementary children's strategy use in the domain of multidigit division in two instructional settings: the Netherlands and Flanders (Belgium). A cross‐sectional sample of 119 Dutch and 122 Flemish fourth to sixth graders solved a varied set of multidigit division problems. With latent class analysis, three distinct str...
Article
Young children’s spontaneous focusing on numerosity (SFON) as measured by experimental tasks is related to their mathematics achievement. This association is hypothetically explained by children’s self-initiated practice in number recognition during everyday activities. As such, experimentally measured SFON should be associated with SFON exhibited...
Article
Recent evidence indicates that young children's spontaneous focusing on numerosity (SFON) uniquely contributes to their early numerical abilities. This study complements previous findings by validating the relation between young children's SFON and their early numerical abilities in a developing country, namely Ecuador. We analysed 355 Ecuadorian 5...
Article
This study explored the development of Ecuadorian Kindergartners’ spontaneous focusing on numerosity (SFON) during the kindergarten year, as well as the contribution of early numerical abilities to this development. One hundred Kindergartners coming from ten classrooms received two SFON tasks, one at the beginning and one at the end of the school y...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated the relationship between kindergartners’ Spontaneous Focusing on Numerosity (SFON) and their number-related utterances during numerical picture book reading. Forty-eight 4- to 5-year-olds were individually interviewed via a SFON Imitation Task and a numerical picture book reading activity. We expected differences in the freq...
Article
Full-text available
Background: In the last decades, children's understanding of mathematical principles has become an important research topic. Different from the commutativity and inversion principles, only few studies have focused on children's understanding of the addition/subtraction complement principle (if a - b = c, then c + b = a), mainly relying on verbal t...
Article
There are two well-known computation methods for solving multi-digit subtraction items, namely mental and algorithmic computation. It has been contended that mental and algorithmic computation differentially rely on numerical magnitude processing, an assumption that has already been examined in children, but not yet in adults. Therefore, in this st...
Article
During the past 15 years, the research of Hannula-Sormunen and colleagues has identified Spontaneous Focusing On Numerosity (SFON), or the spontaneous self-initiated attentional focus on the exact number of a set of items or incidents and using exact number recognition in one’s action, as an important contributor to young children’s mathematical de...
Article
Hace algunos años, Hatano diferenció entre el nivel de experto de aprendizaje de rutina y el adaptativo e impulsó el desarrollo y la implementación de ambientes de aprendizaje que tengan como objetivo el tipo adaptativo de experiencia por sobre el de rutina. En esta contribución, nos enfocamos en un aspecto de la adaptabilidad, la llamada adaptativ...
Article
This study aimed at (a) constructing a reliable and valid test to assess Ecuadorian 4–5-year olds’ number and arithmetic skills; (b) providing empirical data on Ecuadorian 4–5-year olds’ number and arithmetic skills; and (c) confronting these children’s actual performances with the performances expected by national experts in this domain. We admini...
Chapter
The past decade witnessed increasing interest and extremely positive beliefs in the use of games, and especially so-called “serious” games, as educational tools. This AGBL-book on “Describing and studying domain-specific serious games” aims at complementing our current insights into the effectiveness of games as educational tools. In this introduct...
Book
This book describes research outcomes on domain-specific serious games. The first part of the book focuses on the design and major characteristics of actual (mainly math-related) serious games. The second part of the book presents recent empirical studies on these games, exploring topics such as the effectiveness of serious games for learning and i...
Article
Full-text available
There is abundant evidence that young children are capable of developing mathematical knowledge and that the arithmetic skills of young children are a predictor of their future academic achievement. There is also a common agreement that the quality of early mathematical instruction has an important influence on children´s subsequent learning. In Ec...
Article
Full-text available
This study analyzed children’s use of mental computation strategies and the standard algorithm on multi-digit subtractions. Fifty-eight Flemish 4th graders of varying mathematical achievement level were individually offered subtractions that either stimulated the use of mental computation strategies or the standard algorithm in one choice and two n...
Article
This is an Accepted Manuscript of an article published by Taylor & Francis Group in Mathematical Thinking and Learning on 7/05/2015, available online: http://www.tandfonline.com/10.1080/10986065.2015.1016810.
Article
Full-text available
In this contribution we discuss the use of reaction time analyses to identify strategy use patterns in mentally solving elementary subtraction, with a special focus on the subtraction by addition strategy. Previous research has shown that adults frequently report this strategy, whereas children hardly do so. Reaction time data of earlier studies su...
Article
In the last decades, strategy variability and flexibility have become major aims in mathematics education. For children with mathematical learning disabilities (MLD) it is unclear whether the same goals can and should be set. Some researchers and policy makers advise to teach MLD children only one solution strategy, others advocate stimulating the...
Article
Full-text available
Numerical understanding and arithmetic skills are easier to acquire for whole numbers than fractions. The integrated theory of numerical development posits that, in addition to these differences, whole numbers and fractions also have important commonalities. In both, students need to learn how to interpret number symbols in terms of the magnitudes...
Article
Subtraction problems of the type M - S = ? can be solved with various mental calculation strategies. We investigated fourth- to sixth-graders' use of the subtraction by addition strategy, first by fitting regression models to the reaction times of 32 two-digit subtractions. These models represented three different strategy use patterns: the use of...
Article
This study analysed children's use of mental computation strategies and standard written algorithms in the domain of multi-digit addition and subtraction, using the choice/no-choice method. Twenty-one Flemish fourth-graders (M Age =9y10m) solved problem-items that either stimulated the use of mental computation strategies or a standard written algo...
Article
Full-text available
Subtractions of the type M − S = ? can be solved by various strategies, including subtraction by addition. In this study, we investigated children’s use of subtraction by addition by means of reaction time analyses. We presented 106 third to sixth graders with 32 large non-tie single-digit problems in both subtraction (12 − 9 = .) and addition form...
Chapter
Full-text available
In this chapter, we describe and comment on how strategy flexibility or adaptivity has been defined, operationalized, and investigated from different theoretical perspectives on (elementary) mathematics learning and teaching. The resulting working definition is the selection and execution of the most appropriate solution strategy (available in one’...
Article
This study examined adults' use of indirect addition and direct subtraction strategies on multi-digit subtractions in the number domain up to 1,000. Seventy students who differed in their level of arithmetic ability solved multi-digit subtractions in one choice and two no-choice conditions. Against the background of recent findings in elementary su...
Article
Full-text available
The present study investigates adults' use of addition to solve two-digit subtractions. Inspired by research on single-digit arithmetic, we first examined regression models in which different problem characteristics predicted participants' reaction times. Second, we compared performance on two-digit subtractions presented in 2 presentation formats,...
Article
This study examined the development of indirect addition as an alternative for solving multidigit subtractions, by means of two learning environments in traditionally schooled third-graders in Flanders (Belgium). Thirty-five third-graders, who did not demonstrate mastery of indirect addition, participated in an Explicit (n = 20) or Implicit (n = 15...
Article
Full-text available
Sixty-six primary school children were selected, of which 21 scored low on a standardized math achievement test, 23 were normal, and 22 high achievers. In a numerical Stroop experiment, children were asked to make numerical and physical size comparisons on digit pairs. The effects of congruity and numerical distance were determined. All children ex...
Article
Background. Subtraction problems of the type a - b = ? can be flexibly solved by various strategies, including the indirect addition (IA) strategy 'how much do I have to add to b to get a ?' Although rational task analyses indicate that IA is highly efficient especially on subtractions with small differences between the integers, little research ha...
Article
This study examined 25 university students' use of addition to solve large single-digit subtractions by contrasting performance in the standard subtraction format (12-9=.) and in the addition format (9+.=12). In particular, we investigated the effect of the relative size of the subtrahend on performance in both formats. We found a significant inter...