John Wooldredge

John Wooldredge
University of Cincinnati | UC · School of Criminal Justice

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108
Publications
22,177
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Introduction
Skills and Expertise

Publications

Publications (108)
Article
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Theory and logic suggest that placement in restrictive housing (RH) may affect prison visitation, which may be counterproductive given the potential benefits of visitation. The goal of this paper is to examine the potential correspondence between RH and visitation. We use data on incarcerated people in Ohio to conduct two related analyses. One anal...
Article
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Objectives In light of empirical findings suggesting no substantive main effects of an incarcerated person’s (IP’s) race or ethnicity on the odds of placement in restrictive housing (RH) for rule violations, we investigated whether these effects are dependent on offense severity and context, including characteristics of facilities that could theore...
Preprint
Full-text available
Social scientists often rely on non-experimental data to examine associations between variables. This reliance, however, coincides with an inability to adjust estimated associations for unobserved confounding mechanisms. Importantly, adjusting estimates for a confounder can decrease the probability of committing a Type 1, Type 2, and/or Type S erro...
Preprint
Full-text available
Collider variables exist when two constructs cause variation in a third construct. Under these conditions, including the collider in a regression model estimating the association between the two constructs will introduce bias into key coefficients. The effects of regressing a latent variable upon a collider can have important implications for the e...
Article
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This study assesses whether racial and ethnic disparities exist in prison industry employment and whether seemingly race‐ and ethnicity‐neutral eligibility requirements contribute to any such disparities. We examine whether there are racial/ethnic disparities in industrial prison work, the extent to which disparities are explained by administrative...
Article
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A sample of 48,930 inmates was examined to estimate the direct and moderating effect of the timing of prison sanctions on recidivism. Logistic regression models demonstrated that number of sanctions was positively associated with recidivism but timing of an inmate’s last sanction before release did not significantly influence recidivism. However, t...
Article
This study examined whether and how discretionary sentencing add-ons (i.e., secondary charges, victim injury points, firearms/weapons points, drug trafficking enhancements) contribute to disparities. We examined add-ons that increase sentencing points and so contribute to a defendant “scoring to prison.” We analyzed: (1) the degree to which add-ons...
Article
Objectives Although reentry is commonly perceived as a singular event, evidence suggests that when formerly incarcerated individuals reenter society they have a heightened likelihood of returning to prison. This heightened likelihood could generate a reentry-reincarceration cycle, where individuals reenter society, become reincarcerated due to situ...
Article
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Objectives Given the challenges of conducting experimental studies in criminology and criminal justice, propensity score matching (PSM) represents one of the most commonly used techniques for evaluating the efficacy of treatment conditions on future behavior. Nevertheless, current iterations of PSM fail to adjust for the effects of longitudinal clu...
Article
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As part of the rise of “get tough” punishment in recent decades, prison systems increasingly have relied on solitary confinement and what many contemporary accounts have termed “restrictive housing.” The latter includes an emphasis on some form of isolation and restrictions on privileges. Use of solitary-like confinement has engendered considerable...
Article
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Research Summary More rigorous comparisons of private and public corrections are needed to improve our understanding of the effects of privatization. We develop a three‐step procedure for assessing equivalence and then performance measures. To illustrate these arguments, we provide an empirical descriptive analysis of two private prisons and five s...
Article
Despite the rapid growth in empirical research on the effectiveness of prison treatment programs for reducing postrelease criminality, much less attention has been paid to the importance of the timing of these programs relative to inmates’ release date. We examined the extent to which the timing of treatment during a prison sentence was a moderator...
Article
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Prison officers are directly responsible for transmitting penal culture and prison policy to the confined, yet few studies of officers’ impact on inmate behavior have been conducted. We examined the effect of inmates’ perceptions of officer legitimacy on rule breaking within prisons, as well as the effects of officers’ reliance on different power b...
Article
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Support has been offered for the relevance of daily activities and pro-social networks for shaping victimization odds among adolescents, but cross-cultural analyses of these effects have yet to be examined. The study presented here examined victimization among middle- and high school students from SK (n = 3343) and the US (n = 4990). Personal victi...
Article
To estimate the direct effects of low self-control on the incidence of personal victimization among South Korean elementary and middle school students; to examine whether these effects are mediated by deviant lifestyles and parental attachments, and to determine whether these effects differ by a youth's sex. Data from the Korean Youth Panel Survey...
Article
Prison officers are exposed to violence and other safety risks at rates higher than workers in most occupations are, and indicators of workplace safety have been linked to a number of negative health and occupational outcomes among officers. Yet, few researchers have examined the sources of prison officer safety. Using data collected from over 1,80...
Article
This study involves a longitudinal analysis of whether changes in bullying victimization over time corresponded with changes in lifestyles and/or self-control. The data from the Korean Youth Panel Survey were collected from a national sample of 2844 fourth grade students in South Korea and were followed for five years. Latent growth curve modeling...
Article
This article examines more closely the empirical relationships between correctional officers’ job attitudes and officer demographics and perceptions of safety. Bi-level analyses from 1,740 officers in 45 prisons revealed that officers’ sex and race mattered for shaping an officer’s pride with co-workers, consideration of transferring to another fac...
Article
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Objectives The present study provides an illustration of a statistical test of the Brantinghams’ theory about the formation of hotspots and the effects that nodes, paths, and environmental backcloth have on their development. Methods We used multilevel Poisson regression analysis to explain variation in the count of incidents at each address. Place...
Article
The literature on differences in the carceral experiences of women and men underscores the relevance of both background (pre-prison) and confinement factors for shaping inmates' experiences during incarceration, but with a heavier emphasis on linkages between background factors and problems women face during confinement. Here, we apply these ideas...
Article
Extrapolating from Bottoms and Tankebe’s framework for a social scientific understanding of “legitimacy,” we argue that differences in how correctional officers exercise “power” over prisoners can potentially impact their rightful claims to legitimate authority. Given the implications of this argument for the “cultivation” of legitimacy (as discuss...
Article
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Although there is some limited research on the effectiveness of the America’s Missing: Broadcast Emergency Response (AMBER) Alert system, to date, there has been no research specifically examining the viability of prospective AMBER Alert issuance criteria. Using data acquired from various media accounts of 446 AMBER Alerts issued in the United Stat...
Article
Purpose While various perspectives have been offered to explain why females might be treated more leniently by the court system than males, very few studies have investigated sex-based disparities at stages of case processing prior to sentencing. Therefore, we examine outcomes at pretrial release and sentencing and investigate for cumulative disadv...
Article
Work stress has been linked to a number of negative outcomes for employees and organizations. Drawing from the Job Demand-Control (-Support) model, we examined the influences of work stress among more than 1,800 prison officers working in 45 prisons across Ohio and Kentucky. Multilevel analyses revealed that individual factors such as experiencing...
Article
A macro-level perspective for understanding differences in levels of inmate assaults and nonviolent offenses across US prisons is presented which emphasizes the greater relevance of population composition as opposed to environmental and managerial controls over inmates. We argue that population effects are more relevant due to a heavy reliance on c...
Article
Research SummaryWe examined race-group differences in the effects of how felony defendants are treated at earlier decision points in case processing on case outcomes. Multilevel analyses of 3,459 defendants nested within 123 prosecutors and 34 judges in a large, northern U.S. jurisdiction revealed significant main and interaction effects of a defen...
Article
A sample of 448 child abduction cases in which America's Missing: Broadcast Emergency Response (AMBER) Alert was issued was examined to determine the extent to which AMBER Alert is successful in rescuing abducted children, and whether the successes suggest ‘lifesaving’ rescues. We reached conclusions consistent with the scant available prior resear...
Article
Research on bullying has been conducted primarily in the United States and other western cultures, with less attention paid to the magnitude and sources of the problem in eastern cultures. Framed within lifestyle/routine activities theories, we examined a random sample of 3,121 South Korean middle-school students in order to assess the main effects...
Article
The literature on differences in the carceral experiences of women and men underscores the relevance of both background (pre-prison) and confinement factors for shaping inmates’ experiences during incarceration, but with a heavier emphasis on linkages between background factors and problems women face during confinement. Here, we apply these ideas...
Article
Studies have revealed systematic measurement errors in self-report data on crime and deviance resulting from poor recall and/or underreporting by certain groups of respondents. Official crime data have also been criticized, but for different reasons (e.g. gross underestimations of less serious offenses). Very similar observations have been made in...
Article
Full-text available
Legal variables, such as offense severity and criminal history, principally shape sentencing decisions, but extralegal factors such as race, gender, and age also influence sentencing outcomes. Studies focusing on the effect of pretrial detention on sentencing outcomes usually associate pretrial detention with negative sentencing outcomes. The curre...
Article
Recent prison studies have identified several factors associated with the odds of both committing and being victimized by inmate violence. Toward the end of developing an instrument for assessing an inmate’s risk of violent, nonsexual victimization, we examined predictors of victimization grounded in extant studies of the topic. The sample included...
Article
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The authors describe the effects of pretrial release and detention on sentencing decisions in the U.S. federal courts,beginning with a description of extant research on the sentencing consequences of pretrial detention,drawn mostly from city and state courts. They note current trends in federal detention data,describe current research on the senten...
Article
Full-text available
While a substantial body of research indicates that legal variables, such as offense severity and criminal history, principally shape sentencing decisions, other studies demonstrate that extralegal factors such as race, gender, and age influence sentencing outcomes, as well. The handful of studies focusing upon the effect of pretrial detention/rele...
Article
This study involved a comparison of the influences on inmate misconduct among female and male inmates. Data were collected from over 5,500 inmates housed in 46 facilities in Ohio and Kentucky (570 women and 5,059 men), and the relative effects of these inmates’ background characteristics and confinement experiences were examined for sex-specific sa...
Article
Objectives To present and test an opportunity perspective on prison inmate victimization. Methods Stratified random samples of inmates (n 1 = 5,640) were selected from Ohio and Kentucky prisons (n 2 = 46). Bi-level models of the prevalence of assaults and thefts were estimated. Predictors included indicators of inmate routines/guardianship, target...
Article
Quantitative studies geared toward understanding differences among prison inmates in their odds of committing rule infractions have grown over the last decade but with little consistency in the models examined, especially regarding the types of rule violations examined. These differences have, in turn, contributed to an increasingly complex picture...
Article
In 2007, Ohio lawmakers passed that state’s version of “Jessica’s law” (Senate Bill [SB] 260), which mandates severe prison terms for sex offenses against very young children. Using data from a survey of Ohio judges administered right after SB 260’s passage, the authors found that a majority opposed the new law, as predicted. However, no relationsh...
Article
Empirical studies of judicial effects on the use of imprisonment have yet to estimate changes in these effects under more-structured sentencing schemes. Findings are presented from a multilevel analysis of whether the implementation of Ohio's presumptive guidelines in 1996 was effective for reducing inter-judge differences in the distribution of no...
Article
Violent victimization in prison may enhance inmates' cynicism toward legal authority and the risk of subsequent criminality. Both micro- and macro-level effects on the prevalence and incidence of inmate-on-inmate physical assault during a 6-month period were examined for random samples of inmates (n1 = 5,640) from all state prisons in Ohio and Kent...
Article
Racial disparities in court dispositions and sentences might reflect systemic biases toward minorities, but they might also stem from race group differences in legal or other extra-legal factors linked to a defendant’s risk for future criminality. Analyses of over 5,000 felony defendants from an urban Ohio jurisdiction revealed that significant mai...
Article
Deviant behavior (i.e, rule infractions and assaults) among inmates of U.S. correctional facilities can threaten the security of those facilities, enhance feelings of insecurity and deprivation among inmates, and hinder the success of treatment programs. For these reasons it is important to identify possible influences on an inmate's likelihood of...
Article
Scholars have argued that African-American men accused of violently victimizing whites receive especially harsh treatment in court. This thesis was tested with samples of felony defendants processed in Ohio courts before and after the implementation of sentencing guidelines. During the preguideline period only, African-American men accused of victi...
Article
How do judges in the same court system contribute differentially to extralegal disparities in sentencing? Analyses of felony sentencing in an urban Ohio trial court uncovered two distinct but equal-sized groups of judges that differed in the magnitude of extralegal correlates to imprisonment. Within the group of judges reflecting substantive extral...
Article
Studies of empirical relationships between indicators of prison crowding and inmate violence have uncovered null, negative, and positive relationships. These mixed findings may be due, in part, to cross-study differences in definitions of crowding, levels of analysis, and sample designs. We compared findings across some of the more popular approach...
Article
Drawing from micro- and macro-level theories of social control, the authors examined inmate and facility effects on the prevalence of assaults and nonviolent rule infractions committed by female inmates housed in state correctional facilities during 1991 and 1997. Analyses of national samples of more than 2,200 women confined in roughly 40 faciliti...
Article
The importance of order maintenance in prisons has generated numerous studies of the correlates to inmate misconduct. Very few of these studies, however, have focused specifically on the correlations between inmates’ race/ethnicity and prison rule breaking. Race and ethnicity could be relevant to an understanding of prison rule breaking if inmates...
Article
Research Summary The impact of Ohio's presumptive guidelines on sentencing disparities was examined for one of the state's largest jurisdictions to determine whether the switch to more structured sentencing in 1996 had any enduring effects. Sentencing patterns were examined both before and shortly after the 1996 reform, as well as 9 years later. Fi...
Article
Studies of prison crowding effects on inmate misconduct have produced anomalous findings, perhaps because of the cross-study differences in research methods. Different methods are important for several goals of scientific inquiry, but there are advantages to adopting similar approaches when studying a policy-relevant question. A cross-section of st...
Article
There has been a significant increase in the litigation of selective enforcement cases based on racial profiling claims. This trend has resulted in two legal issues that are problematic for racial profiling research. First, selective enforcement claims that rely on statistical evidence must successfully measure “similarly situated persons” who were...
Article
Identifying both individual and environmental effects on inmate misconduct is important for the protection of staff and inmates as well as for the effectiveness of facility programming. Self-report data collected from 9,828 male inmates housed in 204 state facilities in 1991 and 10,022 male inmates within 203 facilities in 1997 were examined to ass...
Article
The literature on prison crowding underscores the potential importance of both state- and facility-level effects on crowding, although empirical research has not assessed these relative effects because of the sole focus on states as units of analysis. This article describes findings from bi-level analyses of crowding across 459 state-operated facil...
Article
The relatively high imprisonment rates of African American men from poor neighborhoods raise a question of whether felony sentences are influenced by ecological factors, separately from or in conjunction with a defendant's race. To provide insight on the topic, both legal and extralegal effects on imprisonment and sentence length were modeled for n...
Article
The effectiveness of harsher sanctions for domestic violence offenders is an important topic given legislative trends in “getting tough” with these offenders. This article takes a rare look at felony domestic violence, specifically felony assaults on female intimates, with an analysis of whether conviction, jail, and imprisonment are related to the...
Article
Extending Koons-Witt's (2002) study of whether sex-based disparities in imprisonment likelihoods changed under sentencing guidelines in Minnesota, we examined similar models for Ohio with additional analyses of felony conviction likelihoods and sentence length for 5,472 felony defendants from twenty-four trial courts. The main effects of a defendan...
Article
This study examined whether the odds of subsequent domestic violence by married men are reduced when women file for divorce, and whether these odds are further influenced by the timing of divorce proceedings. The sample included 703 married men arrested for misdemeanor assaults on spouses in Hamilton County (Cincinnati), Ohio. Logistic regression m...
Article
Despite concerns over racial disparities in imprisonment across the United States, little empirical attention has been paid to how changing the structure of sentencing might affect levels of disparity. This article examines whether Ohio's shift to determinate sentencing corresponded with significant changes in legal and extralegal effects on case o...
Article
The argument that curbing judicial sentencing discretion generates more prosecutorial discretion at earlier decision points in case processing received little empirical attention beyond Miethe's (1987) before/after study of the Minnesota guidelines. This article presents an examination of whether Ohio's sentencing reform resulted in significant cha...
Article
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This article examines the hypothesis that citizens' perceptions of injustice are based on normative factors (i.e., perceptions of equity and fairness) rather than instrumen-tal factors (i.e., the outcomes received) by examining citizens'perceptions of injustice after traffic stops by police. The factors that predict citizens' perceptions of injusti...
Article
Researchers examining court dispositions and domestic violence recidivism have argued that disposition effectiveness varies by offender characteristics. We extended this research with analyses of 3,662persons arrested for misdemeanor assaults on intimates in Hamilton County, Ohio. The incidence, prevalence, and time to rearrest are examined for arr...
Article
Full-text available
Why do African Americans appear to have a higher likelihood of engaging in domestic violence than whites? To address this question, we draw on insights from social disorganization theory and recent research on urban poverty. We argue that the apparent correlation between race and domestic violence is confounded with the different ecological context...
Article
Using data on cases of intimate assault, we offer a relatively rare examination of disparities in court dispositions across multiple stages of case processing. In this context we introduce the theoretical and empirical relevance of considering the characteristics of defendants' neighborhoods as possible extralegal influences on disposition severity...
Article
Addressing the methodological shortcomings of extant research on the racial invariance thesis, race-specific rates of intimate assault are examined across census tracts in Hamilton County, Ohio. We extend Miles-Doan's (1998) approach to examining neighborhood structural effects on intimate assault rates in order to test the racial invariance thesis...
Article
The abstract for this document is available on CSA Illumina.To view the Abstract, click the Abstract button above the document title.
Article
Different operational definitions of neighborhood boundaries could generate differences in empirical relationships between ecological dynamics and crime. As a call for research on whether aggregation bias is an issue for related studies, this note compares bi-level models predicting re-arrest for domestic violence with census tracts versus official...
Article
Social scientists examining whether stake in conformity conditions the deterrent effect of arrest for domestic violence recidivism have applied criminological theory to an important criminal justice issue. We extend this research with a discussion and multi-level analysis of the possible interplay between court dispositions and (a) an offender's st...
Article
Sentencing reforms are often presumed to be negatively received by the judiciary, although there is little research directly examining why this is the case. In this article, results from a survey of Ohio judges who recently experienced a major sentencing reform (Ohio's Senate Bill 2) are examined. A number of important findings emerge, including th...
Article
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Penologists recognize that both inmate- and prison-level characteristics are relevant to an understanding of individual inmates' behaviors; yet extant studies have focused only on unilevel models with either individual- or aggregate-level predictors and outcomes. To explore the potential of multilevel modeling for related research, we examine empir...
Article
This study examined how inmate psychological well-being is influenced by participation in institutional programs, frequency of visitation with outsiders, and experiences with victimization during incarceration. Participants were 581 adult inmates from three Ohio correctional facilities. Support was found for the hypotheses that healthier attitudes...
Article
Inmate-on-inmate crime poses a serious threat to the goals of institutional corrections. Research to date on inmate victimization suggests that demographic and background characteristics (such as age and the seriousness of the offense incarcerated for) are important predictors of victimization risk during incarceration. Yet, the relative importance...
Article
The effects of court dispositions on rearrest for domestic violence was examined for a sample of adults arrested for misdemeanor domestic violence in Hamilton County (Cincinnati), Ohio. Arrestees were tracked for one year after their sentences, if any, had been served. Qualitatively, more severe sentences (e.g., jail combined with probation versus...
Article
Over the past 15 years, the emergence of date rape as a social problem has resulted in college campuses implementing rape education or awareness programs. Simultaneously, researchers have worked to uncover the rates of rape on college campuses, college students' adherence to rape myths, and to a lesser extent, the effectiveness of rape-awareness pr...
Article
Studies of racial/ethnic disparities in criminal case processing have yielded mixed results. Some differences in findings have probably resulted from analyses of different social settings, but some could be attributable to differences in analytical rigor between studies. Contextual analyses are pointless unless the research yields unbiased estimate...
Article
Since the 1960s, many studies have analyzed citizens’ attitudes toward the police. These studies have used a variety of items to measure citizens’ attitudes ( items which vary in their referent (e.g. “the police,” “the police in the neighborhood”) and in their focus (e.g. assessments of overall police performance, assessments of police performance...
Article
A greater use of sentencing alternatives to incarceration may help to reduce problems related to prison crowding and high costs of incarceration. However, a judge's ability to use these alternatives more frequently may be hindered by state sentencing policies designed to reduce judicial sentencing discretion. A study of a national random sample of...
Article
Sentencing policies focused on “getting tough” with felons may contribute to prison crowding by increasing the numbers of prison inmates serving more than I year, thereby slowing prison population turnover. However, empirical relationships between sentencing policies and inmate crowding have not been established firmly. The study presented here ind...
Article
Based on a survey of 1,448 elderly residents of Dade County (Miami), Florida, the impact on fear of crime of status characteristics, victimization experience, and various measures of life situation was assessed. The analysis yielded four main conclusions. First, in contrast to much academic and popular commentary, the elderly did not appear to have...
Article
Full-text available
In response to seemingly high recidivism rates among male African American juvenile felons in Cincinnati, a community program was created specifically for these youths. The Community Corrections Partnership (CCP) Program focuses on the cultural regrounding of African American boys to improve their self-esteem and help them to develop a sense of com...
Article
Existing research suggests that juries are more likely to condemn murderers to death when offenders are black victims are white. It remains to be seen, however, whether these decisions reflect broader racial prejudices in society that are imported into the jury room. If they do, then insuring equity in capital sentencing may be beyond reach. Accord...
Article
Victimization among inmates of a correctional facility poses significant problems for the successful control and treatment of inmates. This article presents results from a study of several possible influences on an adult male inmate's likelihood of committing personal crime, his likelihood of committing property crime, and his likelihood of being v...
Article
Very little is known about the types of services currently available in state prisons to combat the physical and psychological problems faced by pregnant inmates. Such services are extremely important for the physical and psychological well-being of these women as well as their subsequently born children. This article presents results from a study...
Article
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This research note presents findings from cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses of possible influences on the numbers of inmate suicides and natural deaths in 204 U.S. jails. Results revealed that both inmate suicides and natural deaths became less prevalent over time in larger facilities and in jails where medical tests of inmates on intake we...
Article
To advance and test fully routine activities theory, it is necessary to examine the relationship between routines and victimization in specific domains of social life, such as work, school, home, and leisure. Domain-specific studies, however, are limited in number and in rigor. In this light, using a sample of faculty members, the present study att...
Article
This note presents results from an aggregate-level study of several possible correlates of inmate crowding in county jails during 1983 (n=505) and 1988 (n=522). Findings revealed that jurisdiction variables (court caseload, degree of urbanism) and state variables (sentencing practices, degree of prison inmate crowding) are at least as significant a...
Article
One of the rationales for diverting younger, less serious juvenile offenders from juvenile court is that there may be an inverse relationship between a juvenile offender's age at first formal intervention and his or her probability of recidivating. Yet, a truly reliable empirical test of this relationship has never been presented in the literature....
Article
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A 1985 change in the Texas “good time” law provided a unique opportunity to study the effects of legislated change on a correctional process. For nearly five years the Texas Department of Corrections (TDC) had been laboring under both a court order that restricted the maximum capacity of its prison system and a growing felony offender population. A...