John Russell Turner

John Russell Turner
Bangor University · School of Ocean Sciences

BSc (Brisl),DPhil (Oxon)

About

118
Publications
38,020
Reads
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2,079
Citations
Citations since 2017
33 Research Items
983 Citations
2017201820192020202120222023050100150
2017201820192020202120222023050100150
2017201820192020202120222023050100150
2017201820192020202120222023050100150
Additional affiliations
September 1988 - February 2016
Bangor University
Position
  • Professor

Publications

Publications (118)
Article
Full-text available
Within low-nutrient tropical oceans, islands and atolls with higher primary production support higher fish biomass and reef organism abundance. External energy subsidies can be delivered onto reefs via a range of physical mechanisms. However, the influence of spatial variation in primary production on reef fish growth and condition is largely unkno...
Article
Full-text available
In a time of unprecedented ecological change, understanding natural biophysical relationships between reef resilience and physical drivers is of increasing importance. This study evaluates how wave forcing structures coral reef benthic community composition and recovery trajectories after the major 2015/2016 bleaching event in the remote Chagos Arc...
Article
Ocean deoxygenation is one of the major consequences of climate change. In coastal waters, this process can be exacerbated by eutrophication, which is contributing to an alarming increase in the so‐called “dead zones” globally. Despite its severity, the effect of reduced dissolved oxygen has only been studied for a very limited number of organisms,...
Article
The distribution and organisation of benthic organisms on tropical reefs are typically heterogenous yet display distinct zonation patterns across depth gradients. However, there are few datasets which inform our understanding of how depth zonation in benthic community composition varies spatially among and within different reef systems. Here, we as...
Article
Understanding how Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) improve conservation outcomes across anthropogenic pressures can improve the benefits derived from them. Effects of protection for coral reefs in the western and central Indian Ocean were assessed using size-spectra analysis of fish and the relationships of trophic group biomass with human population...
Article
Temperate Mesophotic Ecosystems (TMEs) are stable habitats, usually dominated by slow-growing, long-lived sessile invertebrates and sciaphilous algae. Organisms inhabiting TMEs can form complex three-dimensional structures and support many commercially important species. However, TMEs have been poorly studied, with little known about their vulnerab...
Article
Full-text available
Given the recent trend towards establishing very large marine protected areas (MPAs) and the high potential of these to contribute to global conservation targets, we review outcomes of the last decade of marine conservation research in the British Indian Ocean Territory (BIOT), one of the largest MPAs in the world. The BIOT MPA consists of the atol...
Article
Full-text available
Studying scleractinian coral bleaching and recovery dynamics in remote, isolated reef systems offers an opportunity to examine impacts of global reef stressors in the absence of local human threats. Reefs in the Chagos Archipelago, central Indian Ocean, suffered severe bleaching and mortality in 2015 following a 7.5 maximum degree heating weeks (DH...
Article
Full-text available
1. Passive acoustic monitoring (PAM) is used for many vocal species. However, few studies have quantified the fraction of vocalisations captured, and how animal distance and sound source level affect detection probability. Quantifying the detection probability or effective detection area (EDA) of a recorder is a prerequisite for designing and imple...
Article
Full-text available
Impacts of invasive species are context dependent and linked to the ecosystem they occur within. To broaden the understanding of the impact of a globally widespread invasive oyster, Crassostrea (Magallana) gigas, intertidal surveys were carried out at 15 different sites in Europe. The impact of C. gigas on macro- (taxa surrounding oyster > 1 cm) an...
Article
Full-text available
Coral reefs are a globally threatened ecosystem due to a range of anthropogenic impacts. Increasing sea surface temperatures associated with global warming are a particular threat, as corals grow close to their upper thermal limit. When this limit is exceeded for a sufficient length of time during thermal stress events, corals lose their algal symb...
Article
In order to implement spatial fisheries management in the Arabian Gulf, a better understanding of the distribution of fish in relation to benthic habitats is required. To facilitate this, hydroacoustic fish surveys were conducted over oyster bed/reef (“shallow”) and surrounding soft sediment (“deep”) habitats in the offshore central Gulf, within Qa...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding the drivers of variability in the composition of fish assemblages across the Indo-Pacific region is crucial to support coral reef ecosystem resilience. Whilst numerous relationships and feedback mechanisms between the functional roles of coral reef fishes and reef benthic composition have been investigated, certain key groups, such as...
Data
Fish and benthos survey sites with reef type descriptors at each atoll. Two dive surveys for fish were done at each site. * = fish survey sites where no benthic data were collected. (DOCX)
Data
Taxa surveyed for abundance and biomass and their trophic group and functional characteristics. All taxa were recorded to species level (not all species are listed here). Those split by body size are species that change diet with size. Trophic categories adapted from Green and Bellwood 2009, Sandin and Williams 2010, and feeding information based o...
Data
Mean density per hectare ± SD for each fish species per site. (XLS)
Data
Mean biomass (kg) per hectare ± SD for each fish species per site. (XLS)
Data
Mean percentage cover for each benthic category per hectare ± SD per site. (XLSX)
Article
Full-text available
Hydroacoustic technologies are widely used in fisheries research but few studies have used them to examine the effects of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs). We evaluate the efficacy of hydroacoustics to examine the effects of closure to fishing and habitat type on fish populations in the Cabo Pulmo National Park (CPNP), Mexico, and compare these method...
Article
Full-text available
The atolls and coral banks of the Chagos Archipelago (British Indian Ocean Territory) in the central Indian Ocean were badly affected by the warm water event that started in 2015 and lasted for nearly two years. On these reefs, coral mortality was very severe, reducing coral cover to <10% cover and usually about 5%, almost eliminating soft corals a...
Article
Full-text available
Fish spawning aggregations (FSAs) are vital life-history events that need to be monitored to determine the health of aggregating populations; this is especially true of the endangered Nassau grouper (Epinephelus striatus). Hydroacoustics were used to locate Nassau grouper FSAs at sites on the west end of Little Cayman (LCW), and east ends of Grand...
Article
Full-text available
Recreational diving on coral reefs is an activity that has experienced rapidly growing levels of popularity and participation. Despite providing economic activity for many developing coastal communities, the potential role of dive impacts in contributing to coral reef damage is a concern at heavily dived locations. Management measures to address th...
Article
Read the Feature Paper: Setting evolutionary‐based conservation priorities for a phylogenetically data‐poor taxonomic group (Scleractinia) and the Commentaries on this Feature Paper: Valuing species on the cheap; Conservation prioritization in the context of uncertainty; Regional specific approach is a next step for setting evolutionary‐based conse...
Article
Full-text available
Outbreaks of the crown-of-thorns starfish (COTS), Acanthaster planci, have occurred at many locations throughout the Indo-Pacific and are a major contributor to widespread coral loss and reef degradation. The causes of outbreaks remain controversial, but are commonly attributed to anthropogenically elevated nutrients and/or over-fishing. If so, it...
Article
Full-text available
The Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, native to northeast Asia, is one of the most important cultured shellfish species. In Europe, Pacific oysters first settled along the Atlantic coasts of France at the end of the 1960s but rapidly spread and are now widely established. Twenty-two sites in the United Kingdom (UK), Ireland, Denmark, France and Sp...
Article
Full-text available
Given the current extinction crisis coupled with the shortfall in funding, there is a pressing need to establish species conservation priorities. The prioritization of phylogenetic diversity and evolutionary distinctiveness is one approach; however, taking such an approach requires more phylogenetic data than are currently available for most taxa....
Article
Full-text available
The cleaning system is a classic model for cooperative behaviour among species in which cleaner fish or shrimps remove parasites and/or dead tissue from clients that pose at stations to solicit services from them (Côté 2000). Sharks, including pelagic thresher sharks, host a variety of ectoparasites that may affect their health and fitness (Oliver...
Article
Full-text available
The trophic ecology of epibenthic mesopredators is not well understood in terms of prey partitioning with sympatric elasmobranchs or their effects on prey communities, yet the importance of omnivores in community trophic dynamics is being increasingly realised. This study used stable isotope analysis of (15)N and (13)C to model diet composition of...
Article
Full-text available
Acoustic dataloggers are used for monitoring the occurrence of cetaceans and can aid in fulfilling statutory monitoring requirements of protected species. Although useful for long-term monitoring, their spatial coverage is restricted, and for many devices the effective detection distance is not specified. A generalized additive mixed model (GAMM) w...
Article
Full-text available
The hunting strategies of pelagic thresher sharks (Alopias pelagicus) were investigated at Pescador Island in the Philippines. It has long been suspected that thresher sharks hunt with their scythe-like tails but the kinematics associated with the behaviour in the wild are poorly understood. From 61 observations recorded by handheld underwater vide...
Data
Overhead tail-slap with preparation, strike, wind down recovery and prey item collection phases. Recorded in the sagittal plane on 24 August 2010, cavitation bubbles can be seen rising from the apex of the arc forming the trajectory of a pelagic thresher shark's strike. This event resulted in the shark successfully debilitating and consuming three...
Data
Overhead tail-slap with preparation, strike, wind down recovery and prey item collection phases. Recorded in the transverse plane on 9 September 2010, this successful event resulted in a pelagic thresher shark debilitating and consuming two sardines. (M4V)
Data
Overhead tail-slap with preparation, strike, wind down recovery and prey item collection phases. Recorded in the sagittal plane on 24 May 2010, this event did not result in prey capture and was classified as unsuccessful. (M4V)
Data
Sideways tail-slap. Recorded in the sagittal plane on 14 June 2010, this event followed a previously successful overhead tail-slap. Sideways tail-slaps appeared slow and lazy compared to overhead tail-slaps. (M4V)
Article
Full-text available
The structure of animal movement paths at varying spatial scales allows insight into the importance of habitat distribution and their response to scale in heterogeneous landscapes. Home-ranging animals typically exhibit constrained random movements at large spatial scales, with small-scale orientation reflecting responses to sensory stimuli. The so...
Chapter
Full-text available
Over the period of BIOT’s existence, there have been a dozen scientific visits to its atolls by more than 50 scientists, and double this number have become engaged in work on materi- als sent back. It is clear, during this period when coral reefs in most of the Indian Ocean have become seriously degraded, that the reefs of Chagos persist in an exce...
Chapter
The Cayman islands are three small low-lying subtropical islands in the NW Caribbean. The islands are tips of an underwater mountain chain and have a very narrow coastal shelf, usually of less than 1 km wide, which support considerable reef development. The major sublittoral habitats are coral reefs, lagoons, seagrass beds and mangroves, and fringi...
Article
Full-text available
Sound is the main means of communication for cetaceans, and studying their vocal behaviour can reveal important information about their activity patterns. As static acoustic monitoring (SAM) of whales, dolphins, and porpoises becomes more widespread, it is important to understand how data collected with automated click loggers relate to their behav...
Article
1. The Chagos Archipelago was designated a no-take marine protected area (MPA) in 2010; it covers 550 000 km2, with more than 60 000 km2 shallow limestone platform and reefs. This has doubled the global cover of such MPAs. 2. It contains 25–50% of the Indian Ocean reef area remaining in excellent condition, as well as the world’s largest contiguous...
Article
1. The Chagos Archipelago was designated a no-take marine protected area (MPA) in 2010; it covers 550 000 km 2 , with more than 60 000 km 2 shallow limestone platform and reefs. This has doubled the global cover of such MPAs. 2. It contains 25–50% of the Indian Ocean reef area remaining in excellent condition, as well as the world's largest contigu...
Article
1. The Chagos Archipelago was designated a no-take marine protected area (MPA) in 2010; it covers 550 000 km 2 , with more than 60 000 km 2 shallow limestone platform and reefs. This has doubled the global cover of such MPAs. 2. It contains 25–50% of the Indian Ocean reef area remaining in excellent condition, as well as the world's largest contigu...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Cayman Brac and Little Cayman are small remote islands (< 30 km²) centrally located in the northwest Caribbean. These islands have no commercial fisheries to date, low fishing pressure and a relatively low population. Their Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) were established in 1986 and have never been assessed to determine their performances on coral r...
Data
Mean ± standard deviations (sd) of the number of recreational divers and dive boats that visited Monad Shoal, by time of day, during 232 days of field observations July 2005–December 2009. (0.03 MB DOC)
Data
Matrix of post hoc analysis for estimated cleaner inspections between patches. t-tests were conducted among the estimated proportions of inspections per patch (log(pi/p1) for patch surface areas (log(hi/h1)). Test scores (t) and significance values (p) are presented with their lower (L CI) and upper confidence intervals (U CI). Cleaner preferences...
Data
A segment of an event, which resulted in cleaning interactions being interrupted by another thresher shark. Recorded by remote video camera 10 May 2008, on Station A, at 11:03 hours, a pelagic thresher shark interacted with cleaners during eight circular-stance-swim segments before being joined by another. The two circled the cleaning station for a...
Data
A segment of an uninterrupted event, which resulted in cleaning interactions. Recorded by remote video camera 10 March 2009, on Station A, at 08:04 hours, a male pelagic thresher shark (Alopias pelagicus) modified its behavior by slowly circling over cleaner territories while lowering its caudal fin in a pose, presumably to facilitate cleaner inspe...
Data
A segment of an event, which resulted in cleaning interactions being interrupted by a grey reef shark (Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos). Recorded by remote video camera 10 November 2009, on Station A, at 09:38 hours, a female pelagic thresher shark was joined by a grey reef shark 18 circular-stance-swim segments into its cleaning event. The two sharks s...
Data
A segment of an event, which resulted in cleaning interactions being interrupted by a devil ray (Mobula spp.). Recorded by remote video camera 27 June 2008, on Station A, at 12:32 hours, a female pelagic thresher shark was joined by a devil ray six segments into its cleaning event. The two elasmobranchs shared the station for one additional segment...
Data
A segment of an event, which resulted in cleaning interactions being interrupted by a giant manta ray (Manta birostris). Recorded by remote video 22 September 2005, on Station A, at 10:23 hours, a pelagic thresher shark interacted with cleaners over four circular-stance-swim segments before the arrival of a giant (∼2.5 m wingspan) manta ray interru...
Data
A segment of an event, which resulted in cleaning interactions being interrupted by recreational SCUBA divers. Recorded by remote video camera, 08 December 2009, on Station A, at 08:16 hours, a thresher shark interacted with cleaners for 22 circular-stance-swim segments before the arrival of a group of divers interrupted its behavior. The shark abr...
Article
Full-text available
Interactions between pelagic thresher sharks (Alopias pelagicus) and cleaner wrasse were investigated at a seamount in the Philippines. Cleaning associations between sharks and teleosts are poorly understood, but the observable interactions seen at this site may explain why these mainly oceanic sharks regularly venture into shallow coastal waters w...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Much is now known about the coral communities of the Cayman Islands; however few studies have been carried out on reef fish assemblages. Though there are no commercial fisheries to-date in the archipelago, however recreational fishing pressure has increased considerably with the growing population over the past decade. Marine Protected Areas (MPAs)...
Book
Full-text available
The objective of the mission was to conduct a rapid assessment of reefs around the Andaman Islands to identify the level of importance of the reef systems to global biodiversity, and to assess the status of the reefs with respect to their general condition. The stepped approach adopted involved: (1) reviewing relevant literature; (2) processing sat...
Article
Assessments of carbonate platform reef–lagoon sediments and benthic habitats around Rodrigues Island (south-west Indian Ocean) have been undertaken in order to examine carbonate sediment textural properties and the controls on texturally-defined sediment fabrics. Reef–lagoon sediments, sampled from across the expansive (~ 8 km wide) carbonate-domin...
Article
The influence of habitat type upon reef fish assemblage structures has been extensively reported, but there is still a need to quantitatively demonstrate the factors driving reef fish assemblages within and among habitats. This mensurative study examined diversity and community composition of reef fish assemblages between five habitats (shallow kel...
Article
Full-text available
Although the factors in£uencing patterns of expansion and contraction of polyps and tentacles for tropical anthozoans has been well described there is still little information for temperate species. This study investigated the patterns of tentacle and polyp expansion behaviour of nine species of temperate Anthozoa in response to current £ow, turbul...