John S Torday

John S Torday
University of California, Los Angeles | UCLA · Pediatrics, Obstetrics and Gynecology, Evolutionary Medicine

BS, MSc, PhD

About

423
Publications
63,067
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9,215
Citations
Citations since 2016
111 Research Items
3211 Citations
20162017201820192020202120220200400600
20162017201820192020202120220200400600
20162017201820192020202120220200400600
20162017201820192020202120220200400600
Introduction
John S Torday currently works in the Departments of Pediatrics, Obstetrics and Gynecology, Evolutionary Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles. He was recently appointed as a Fellow of The European Academy of Sciences and Arts. John does research in Endocrinology, Molecular Biology and Developmental Biology. His current project is on the Evolution of Vertebrate Physiology'.
Additional affiliations
March 2016 - May 2016
University of California, Los Angeles
Position
  • Professor
Description
  • Taught seminar on Evolutionary Physiology
July 1998 - June 2015
University of California, Los Angeles
Position
  • Professor
Education
September 1968 - May 1974
McGill University
Field of study
  • Experimental Medicine

Publications

Publications (423)
Chapter
The realization that the cell membrane is a “Mobius strip” provides a means of transcending David Bohm’s mundane Explicate Order and entering the Cosmologic Implicate Order of the cell. In that vein, the interrelationship between the Periodic Table of Elements and Evolution is a homology, the physical and biological being of the same origin. There...
Chapter
All prior endeavors to apply Quantum Mechanics (QM) to Evolutionary Biology have entailed a direct “one-to-one” synchronic approach to the overt physiologic properties of biology as the product of evolution, rather than to the latter’s ontologic origins and epistemologic causal mechanisms. In contrast to that, the homologous (same origin) applicati...
Chapter
By reducing developmental biology to cell-cell communication, a portal for understanding fundamental mechanisms of physiology derived from physics through Quantum Mechanics offers itself. When such a framework is considered, combined with experimental evidence for epigenetic inheritance directly from the environment, the unicell can be reprised as...
Chapter
The endocrine system is an evolved set of hormones that maintain physiologic homeostasis. As such, they monitor the moment-to-moment status of cells, tissues, organs, and whole organism structure and function. Like the process of cellular evolution itself, which senses when there is a loss of homeostasis and remodels itself in order to reinstate ce...
Chapter
It has been hypothesized that consciousness is the aggregate of our evolutionary history, forged by ontogeny and phylogeny via cell-cell communication. Evolution is topologic because it began as a “surface,” formed by lipid micelles submersed in the ocean that covered the primordial Earth, forming a boundary between the exterior Cosmos and the inte...
Chapter
Norbert Wiener was the first to functionally define Cybernetics as “the study of control and communication in the animal and the machine.” Herein, it is shown that as a manifestation of physiology, Cybernetics can be further reduced to cell-cell signaling to maintain homeostasis, bridging Newtonian Third-Order Cybernetics with Quantum Mechanical Fo...
Chapter
If you cut a Mobius strip in half, the edges form a Trefoil Knot, which can be untied to form a circle, proving it is a true mathematical knot. The cell is a homologue of the mathematical knot since it, too, must be able to unknot itself to form the egg and sperm meiotically in order to reproduce. The homology between a knot and a cell is thought-p...
Chapter
The zygotic unicell that results from the fertilization of two gametes following meiotic division has always been assumed to contain all of the genetic information necessary to form a new individual. As the impact of epigenetics has continually enlarged, it can now be said that the recapitulation of all multicellular eukaryotic organisms through th...
Chapter
Without an understanding of consciousness, we have failed to determine our evolution. However, by exploiting cell-cell communication as the basis for physiologic evolution, our origins have been traced back to the unicellular state. With that perspective, consciousness is tractable as the Cosmos mapped onto our physiology. Consequently, our subcons...
Chapter
The Greeks spoke of the “One,” Einstein equated energy and matter, and we wonder from time to time why there is never a bad color combination in Nature. That is because there is a “Singularity of Nature,” begging the question as to how and why that has occurred. There are hints in the scientific evidence that offer an answer, if only we were to use...
Article
We have systematically misconstrued the nature of consciousness by overlooking our own physiology as that awareness. The following is a way to rectify this error through a deep understanding of what life ‘means’ in order to further advance our knowledge of who and what we are. The evolution of consciousness from the cell membrane to physiology is r...
Article
Fractals are everywhere in nature, particularly at the interfaces where matter or energy must be transferred, since they maximize surface area while minimizing energy losses. Temporal fractals have been well studied at micro scales in human biology, but have received comparatively little attention at broader macro scales. In this paper, we describe...
Article
It has previously been hypothesized that consciousness is the aggregate of our evolutionary history, forged by ontogeny and phylogeny via cell-cell communications. In an on-going effort to identify the serial pre-adaptations that gave rise to consciousness, certain fundamental properties of the emerging cell are addressed herein. Evolution is topol...
Chapter
By imagining imagining, we can finally “see” its origin as a “by-product” of endothermy, physiologically determined by the evolution of the hormone oxytocin, which took over from the conditional stress reaction to intermittent hypoxia caused by the evolution of the lung from the swim bladder of boney fish during the transition from water to land. S...
Chapter
James Lovelock expressed the idea that the earth is an organic whole in his groundbreaking book Gaia Theory, which we all sense is true as its citizens, but that is only a gut feeling, a conjecture. However, the emerging concept of niche construction scientifically interconnects the environment with the earth’s flora and fauna mechanistically, step...
Chapter
It is so much easier to reason after the fact and make up “just-so stories” than it is to actually determine the “how and why” of things. But we are at a critical inflection point in human history, with dwindling resources and huge pressures for food, water, and medicine brought on by climate change in combination with globalization of economies. W...
Article
Norbert Wiener was the first to functionally define cybernetics as “the study of control and communication in the animal and the machine”. Herein, it is shown that as a manifestation of physiology, cybernetics can be further reduced to cell-cell signaling to maintain homeostasis, bridging Newtonian 3rd Order Cybernetics with Quantum Mechanical 4th...
Article
The solution to the problem of evolution has proven refractory to experimentation-how fish have evolved into Man phylogenetically, for example-because evolution is thought to be due to random mutations, obviating the opportunity to test such a mechanism, leaving only correlations and associations, which do not show causation. Ideally, there would b...
Chapter
Confusion about our place in the cosmos is exemplified by the anthropic principle, which we are in it, not of it, first voiced by physicist Brandon Carter in 1974. The following is a cohesive way of understanding that our being is integral with the cosmos. Ontogeny and phylogeny are waves generated by cell-cell communication mediated by soluble gro...
Chapter
An intimate relationship exists between physics and biology, beginning with the formation of the first cell from lipids delivered by snowball-like asteroids during the formation of earth’s oceans (Deamer 2017). Lipids spontaneously form primitive “cells” or micelles, when immersed in water. Regulated by homeostasis, micelles with semipermeable memb...
Chapter
Since evolution is the biologic “history” of man, it should be functionally integrated with our social history. Furthermore, conventional Darwinian evolution is not mechanistic, allowing for a testable/refutable understanding of the causal relationships underlying the process. By merging history with “non-machine like” mechanistic evolutionary biol...
Chapter
Humans only differ from chimpanzees by about 1% of their DNA, yet there is a world of difference between us – characterized by physiologic features of a humans that resemble late-stage fetal chimpanzees. These fetal characteristics include the hair on the head, globular skull, ear shape, vertical plane face, absence of penal bone (baculum) in fetal...
Chapter
This chapter is written in the context of cybernetics as the “feedback mechanism” controlling physiology, from which it originated. Cybernetics, in turn, is the product of our imagination, derived from our autopoietic, self-referential, self-organizing beings. Before the micelles partitioned the implicate order, first-order feedback systems were no...
Chapter
There are many internal atavisms at the cellular-molecular level, such as the watershed realization that the fish swim bladder is the precursor to the lung, as a homology, not the gill, which is an analogy. Or that bottleneck encountered by evolutionists trying to trace the evolution of the central nervous system in vertebrates, seeing no connectio...
Chapter
Darwinian evolution is founded on the material competition between organisms, whereas cellular epigenetic evolution focuses on cell-cell communication of data from one stage of life to another – developmentally, phylogenetically, as injury-repair – ultimately governed by the first principles of physiology. Since both ontogeny and phylogeny are base...
Chapter
There is empiric evidence that the sensation of a differential between our subjective judgment of physiologic age and our actual chronological age is virtually a universal phenomenon that shifts over the course of our life cycle. During adolescence, individuals begin feeling older than their chronological age, whereas in early to mid-adulthood the...
Chapter
The endocrine system is an evolved set of hormones that maintain physiologic homeostasis. As such, they monitor the moment to moment status of cells, tissues, organs, and whole organism structure and function. Like the process of cellular evolution itself, which senses when there is a loss of homeostasis and remodels itself in order to reinstate ce...
Chapter
We need a new narrative for human evolution that begins at the beginning instead of at the end. The following is an effort to do so. It has previously been proposed that there is a step-wise continuum of evolved physiologic events that gave rise to human consciousness, centered on the role of bipedalism in freeing the forelimbs for toolmaking and i...
Chapter
The interrelationship between the periodic table of elements and evolution is not coincidental. There is a foundational relationship between these processes that stems from nucleosynthesis, the way in which stars produce light by converting matter into energy. In so doing, they generate the Elements sequentially based on their atomic mass, in order...
Chapter
Despite the historic advances that have been made in understanding such fundamental questions as the origins of the physical realm and how and why we have evolved, there are equally perplexing paradoxes that are unexplained by our conventional way of thinking about “reality.” No greater an example is there than the failure to reconcile quantum mech...
Chapter
By cutting a Mobius strip in half, the edges form a Trefoil knot that can be untied to form a circle. That is proof of a true mathematical knot. The mathematical knot is homologous with a cell since it too must be able to untie itself to form the egg and sperm in order to reproduce. The homologous knot and cell are thought-provoking biologically be...
Chapter
The concept of the postdigital and current conceptions of the biodigital stem from an understanding of computer networks which itself has a history deriving from biology in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. This chapter traces the historical development of modern conceptions of ‘network’ from Rashevsky, to McCulloch and Pitts, thro...
Article
To gain a full understanding of the relationship between climate change and physiology we must transcend the superficial Anthropic Principle, that we are ‘in’ this Universe, and enter the world of ‘Goldilocks’ who was seeking the ‘just right’ condition in the home of the three bears. What she was actually looking for was homeostasis, that balance t...
Article
If you cut a mobius strip in half, the edges form a Trefoil Knot, which can be untied to form a circle, proving it's a true mathematical knot. The cell is a homologue of the mathematical knot since it, too, must be able to unknot itself to form the egg and sperm meiotically in order to reproduce. The homology between a knot and a cell is thought-pr...
Article
The evolutionary origin of language remains unknown despite many efforts to determine the origin of this signature human trait. Based on epigenetic inheritance, the current article hypothesizes that language evolved from cell-cell communication as the basis for generating structure and function embryologically and phylogenetically, as did all physi...
Article
In contrast to Darwinian evolution, which is founded on the material competition between organisms, cellular epigenetic evolution focuses on cell-cell communication of data from one stage of life to another-developmentally, phylogenetically, as injury-repair – ultimately governed by the First Principles of Physiology. By merging ontogeny and phylog...
Article
Full-text available
Covid-19 is a natural phenomenon that has rapidly upended much of the cultural infrastructure of societies across the globe. Education, which in recent years increasingly tied itself to notions of global culture and markets, is deeply threatened by these changes to the natural environment. This paper makes the case that the relationship between nat...
Chapter
Full-text available
In “On the Origin of Species,” Darwin describes the terrain of Patagonia at great length during his voyage on the HMS Beagle. From that experience, he inferred the importance of the environment in understanding the adaptive evolution of flora and fauna. To this day, and despite the passage of time, observations of the interrelationship between the...
Chapter
Dobzhansky famously said, “Evolution is all of biology.” This resolute dictum raised the bar by challenging the field to exactly explain what he meant. The crux in biology is that it is easier to describe the relationship between ontogeny and phylogeny than it is to determine the mechanistic interrelationships between them. Retrospective reasoning...
Article
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All living entities are cognitive and dependent on ambiguous information. Any assessment of that imprecision is necessarily a measuring function. Individual cells measure information to sustain self-referential homeostatic equipoise (self-identity) in juxtaposition to the external environment. The validity of that information is improved by its col...
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Full-text available
There have been many attempts to explain consciousness, ranging from Plato’s archetypes, to Descartes’ ‘Mind-Body Dualism’, and more recently to Chalmers’ Qualia, and Andy Clarke’s extended mind. Yet none of these conceptualizations of consciousness provide empiric evidence for what consciousness actually constitutes. The present hypothesis is that...
Chapter
In previous chapters, a differing point of initiation for evolutionary development has been introduced through concepts of information management and cell–cell communication. It has been emphasized that evolution proceeds quite differently than it had been supposed. Instead of random genetic variations based on intermittent replication errors, evol...
Chapter
It has become apparent that any robust biological system based on prediction and refutation requires a thorough rethinking of previously ingrained biological presumptions. Consequently, some distance must be placed between the assumptions that underlie neo-Darwinism and a twenty-first century biology in order to fully explore a differing narrative...
Chapter
If life is based within cognition, then information and communication are its requisites. It can be directly maintained that life is sustained by communication. It thereby derives that biological development and its evolution are dependent upon communication (Torday and Rehan 2012; De Loof 2014; Witzany 2016). Yet, communication is the transfer of...
Chapter
The conventional view of phenotype is that it is an epiphenomenon directly driven by selection. Instead, in a modern context based on the primacy of the unicellular form, phenotype can be re-appraised as a means toward obtaining contemporaneous genetic marks (Torday and Miller 2016c). When the evolutionary imperative is appropriately understood as...
Chapter
For his entire life, Einstein retained a steadfast commitment to determinism. He believed that there is an objective reality that can be observed and accurately measured. If there was sufficient understanding and measuring capacity, any of the apparent indeterminacies of quantum mechanics would eventually be shown to be deterministic (Landsman 2009...
Chapter
The self-referential appraisal of information characterizes cells of all types whether they are prokaryotic bacteria or individual eukaryotic cells (Shapiro 2011; Trewavas and Baluška 2011; Miller 2013). Plainly then, the manner in which cellular organisms retrieve, assess, and deploy information to maintain homeostasis or to communicate with other...
Chapter
Prior chapters have emphasized information and its management. Certainly, DNA is a crucial aspect of information and absolutely vital to the living condition. However, in recent years, there has been a consequential shift in understanding how the genetic code operates. The concept of the genome as a linear “blueprint” of genetic information has bee...
Chapter
A prior series of peer-reviewed journal articles (Torday and Rehan 2007; Torday 2013, 2015a, b, 2018a, b) and monographs (Torday and Rehan 2012; Torday et al. 2017) have elucidated how cell–cell signaling for form and function during embryologic development can be exploited to determine the evolution of such processes. This is particularly true whe...
Chapter
Any attempt to provide a coherent alternative evolutionary narrative to standard Darwinian tenets should offer a brief overview of the progression of scholarly thought about evolutionary mechanisms. All narratives focus on Charles Darwin's seminal “On the Origin of Species” (Darwin 1859). When Darwin offered that influential work in 1859, he was un...
Chapter
In 2010, the evolutionary biologist, mathematician, and geneticist, Richard Lewontin noted that the standard narrative of evolution by natural selection does not explain the actual forms of life that have evolved. He further contended that there is an immense amount of biology that is missing from neo-Darwinism. Other scientists also agree (Pigliuc...
Chapter
Aside from the transfer of genetic material and a large array of bioactive molecules by endocytosis and other cellular mechanisms, there are many additional sources of information exchange among cells. The primary cilia are one such example. These slender projections on microbes and cells are an essential element for both their communication proces...
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It has been previously asserted that self-referential cognition is the exact definition of the living circumstances. Once granted, this becomes the requisite platform for understanding biological development and its evolutionary ramifications over geological space–time. It is our human nature to be riveted by the expanse of intricate forms that can...
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Full-text available
The Singularity/Big Bang is believed to have instantiated the Universe 13.8 billion years ago, giving rise to everything in the cosmos, including the Earth and its biosphere (Hawking 1998). From this unitary beginning, a path opens from the first primitive unicell to consciousness as one continuous process of dualities (matter and energy existing a...
Chapter
Our contemporary era permits a harnessing of fresh contemporary resources to evolutionary biology from the emerging fields of metagenomics (the direct study of genetic material from environmental samples), epigenomics (the complete range of epigenetic factors that influence gene expression), and hologenomics (the complete genetic complement of an o...
Chapter
All science began as description, skewed through our subjective senses (Bohm 1980). Physics, chemistry, and biology were all established within these same circumstances. However, the two former disciplines have ultimately become “hard” mechanistic sciences by being thoroughly grounded within prediction, testable, and refutable. Despite its so-calle...
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Big History traces the cosmologic arc from the Singularity/Big Bang to the present. Similarly, Evolutionary Biology, as ‘all of biology,’ represents the arc of life from its origins, without which there would be no history ‘to speak of.’ There is mechanistic consilience between Quantum Mechanics, The First Principles of Physiology and Evolutionary...
Book
There has been no mechanistic explanation for evolutionary change consistent with phylogeny in the 150 years since the publication of ‘Origins’. As a result, progress in the field of evolutionary biology has stagnated, relying on descriptive observations and genetic associations rather testable scientific measures. This book illuminates the need fo...
Book
It is widely acknowledged that life has adapted to its environment, but the precise mechanism remains unknown since Natural Selection, Descent with Modification and Survival of the Fittest are metaphors that cannot be scientifically tested. In this unique text invertebrate and vertebrate biologists illuminate the effects of physiologic stress on ep...
Article
Full-text available
Empirical research is based on observation and experimentation. Yet, experimental controls are essential for overcoming our sensory limits and generating reliable, unbiased and objective results.
Article
Self-referential cellular homeostasis is maintained by the measured assessment of both internal status and external conditions based within an integrated cellular information field. This cellular field attachment to biologic information space-time coordinates environmental inputs by connecting the cellular senome, as the sum of the sensory experien...
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Full-text available
A number of theories have been proposed to explain the exteriorization of the testicles in most mammalian species. None of these provide a consistent account for the wide variety of testicular locations found across the animal kingdom. It is proposed that testicular location is the result of coordinate action of testicular tissue ecologies to susta...
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A discussion of the roots of biological deception and its impact on human society
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Perinatal nicotine exposure drives the differentiation of alveolar lipofibroblasts (LIFs), which are critical for lung injury repair, to myofibroblasts (MYFs), which are the hallmark of chronic lung disease. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) are important players in lung injury repair; however, how these cells are affected with per...
Preprint
Full-text available
The unexploited unification of quantum physics, general relativity and biology is a keystone that paves the way towards a better understanding of the whole of Nature. Here we propose a mathematical approach that introduces the problem in terms of group theory. We build a cyclic groupoid (a nonempty set with a binary operation defined on it) that en...
Preprint
Full-text available
We will examine one of the traits more frequently suggested in order to define life: living beings are able to produce new individual organisms (offspring), either asexually from a single parent organism, or sexually from two parent organisms. We will treat life’s occurrence and reproduction in terms of algebraic topology, making clear that two of...
Article
Full-text available
Although the origin of self-referential consciousness is unknown, it can be argued that the instantiation of self-reference was the commencement of the living state as phenomenal experientiality. As self-referential cognition is demonstrated by all living organisms, life can be equated with the sustenance of cellular homeostasis in the continuous d...
Article
The feasibility of formulating the Singularity of Nature, the unity of life and non-life alike, was enunciated by Einstein's equivalency of energy and mass (E=mc2). Despite that, it has proven impossible to achieve the goal of 'synthesizing' all of existence scientifically by directly merging biology and physics into one continuum. More recently, i...
Article
Full-text available
Nowhere are the shortcomings of conventional descriptive biology more evident than in the literature on Quantum Biology. In the ongoing effort to apply Quantum Mechanics (QM) to evolutionary biology, application of QM to the fundamentals of evolution as the First Principles of Physiology-namely negentropy, chemiosmosis and homeostasis-offers an aut...
Article
Full-text available
Reduction of developmental biology to self-referential cell-cell communication offers a portal for understanding fundamental mechanisms of physiology as derived from physics through quantum mechanics. It is argued that self-referential organization is implicit to the Big Bang and its further expression is a recoil reaction to that Singularity. When...
Article
Full-text available
Biology has remained descriptive since its formalization by Linnaeus in the 18th Century. Dobzhansky has challenged us to think mechanistically by stating that 'Nothing in Biology makes sense except in the light of evolution', but NeoDarwinian evolution remains untestable or refutable. The physicist Bohm has encouraged us to recognize that our perc...
Article
Full-text available
Reduction of developmental biology to self-referential cell-cell communication offers a portal for understanding fundamental mechanisms of physiology as derived from physics through quantum mechanics. It is argued that self-referential organization is implicit to the Big Bang and its further expression is a recoil reaction to that Singularity. When...
Article
Full-text available
Contemporary research supports the viewpoint that self-referential cognition is the proper definition of life. From that initiating platform, a cohesive alternative evolutionary narrative distinct from standard Neodarwinism can be presented. Cognition-Based Evolution contends that biological variation is a product of a self-reinforcing information...
Article
Full-text available
The common relationships among a great variety of biological phenomena seem enigmatic when considered solely at the level of the phenotype. The deep connections in physiology, for example, between the effects of maternal food restriction in utero and the subsequent incidence of metabolic syndrome in offspring, the effects of microgravity on cell po...
Article
Biologic organisms act like fields. Hypothetically, pleiotropy results from the systematic re-purposing of genes over the course of the evolutionary history of the organism as pre-adaptations or exaptations. Mechanistically, pleiotropic genes are selected for during the process of evolution with reference to the First Principles of Physiology (FPP)...
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Full-text available
Contrary to claims that physics is timeless while biology is time-dependent, we take the opposite standpoint: physical systems' dynamics are constrained by the arrow of time, while living assemblies are time-independent. Indeed, the concepts of “constraints” and “displacements” shed new light on the role of continuous time flow in life evolution, a...
Article
Recent advances in our understanding of evolutionary development permit a reframed appraisal of Terminal Addition as a continuous historical process of cellular-environmental complementarity. Within this frame of reference, evolutionary terminal additions can be identified as environmental induction of episodic adjustments to cell-cell signaling pa...
Article
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The nature of consciousness has been debated for centuries. It can be understood as part and parcel of the natural progression of life from unicellular to multicellular, calcium fluxes mediating communication within and between cells. Consciousness is the vertical integration of calcium fluxes, mediated by the Target of Rapamycin gene integrated wi...
Article
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Boundary conditions enable cellular life through negentropy, chemiosmosis, and homeostasis as identifiable First Principles of Physiology. Self-referential awareness of status arises from this organized state to sustain homeostatic imperatives. Preferred homeostatic status is dependent upon the appraisal of information and its communication. Howeve...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter provides a mechanistic integration for the how and why of evolution. Beginning with the protocell, homeostasis acts as the integrating principle on a scale-free basis. Ontogeny and phylogeny as one continuous mechanism of lung homeostasis turns out to be a unique and empowering insight to the fundamental mechanism of evolution - how ho...
Chapter
This chapter shows how the advent of cell culture revealed the fact that complex physiology is mediated by cell-cell communication. That realization was a game changer for the understanding of embryology, homeostasis, and repair as a functional continuum. Cell theory has undergone significant revision since the 1960s, with the advent of readily ava...
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Full-text available
The underlying unity of nature is scale-free and predictive, offering a “central theory of biology”. Vertebrate evolution is a chronicle of the adaptation to oxygen for ever-increasing metabolism. This chapter discusses the hypothesis that visceral organ changes during the water-to-land transition were caused by physiologic stress. The key empiric...
Chapter
This chapter exemplifies the vertical integration from the molecular to the physiologic/pathophysiologic using the lung alveolus as a model. In order to understand the evolution of the lipofibroblast, it must be seen in the context of cellular-molecular lung development. Given the evolutionary significance of lipofibroblasts in lung biology, it is...
Chapter
This chapter suggests that the cell is the ultimate physiologic fractal, expressing the “first principles of physiology”. Biology mimics the Big Bang of physics, generating its own internal pseudo-Universe through the entraining of calcium by lipids, which is vertically integrated to generate complex physiology. Maintenance of calcium homeostasis d...
Chapter
This chapter focuses on cell-cell signaling as the mechanistic basis for all of the principles of physiology. Tiktaalik, the fish/tetrapod fossil first documented by Neil Shubin in 2004, provides a hypothetical way of thinking about the cellular-molecular ontogenetic and phylogenetic changes that occurred during the vertebrate water-to-land transit...
Chapter
Calcium acts as a universal intracellular signal for controlling many cellular mechanisms. Calcium signaling depends on increased intracellular calcium derived from either extracellular or intracellular sources. The signaling role of calcium is well recognized in mammalian reproduction. Later in development, calcium signals determine the differenti...
Chapter
This chapter explains the concept that by starting from the cellular origins of life the underlying principles of seemingly complex, indecipherable physiologic principles can be understood and expanded to all of physiology. The realization that there are first principles in physiology, as predicted by the cellular-molecular approach to evolution, i...
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This chapter addresses the value added in seeing physiology and evolution from their origins. Following the course of vertebrate physiology from its unicellular origins instead of its overt phenotypic appearances and functional associations provides a robust, predictive picture of how and why complex physiology evolved from unicellular organisms. T...
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This chapter describes the utility of understanding the nature of neutral lipid trafficking in the lung alveolus and its evolutionary exploitation for broadening the knowledge of other vertebrate physiologic traits. The discovery that neutral lipid trafficking mediates the well-recognized on-demand property of lung surfactant production has provide...
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Full-text available
This chapter delves into philosophical aspects of the cellular-molecular approach to evolution. In order to solve the puzzle of evolution, one must have a biologic model that accounts for the spatial and temporal changes that have occurred during the history of the organism. One of the major advances in evolution theory has been the inclusion of de...
Chapter
This chapter shows examples of how the current language of evolutionary biology might change as a result of recentering it on cellular homeostasis. Genetic assimilation is a classic example of how reducing evolution to cellular homeostasis can change the perspective, impacting on the language of evolutionary biology. The chapter then proposes a cel...
Chapter
This chapter provides examples of the power of the cellular-molecular approach to evolution. The species has its own set of traits that allow it to adapt to its environmental niche, including humans. That perception is very deceptive. This observation is more in keeping with Spencerian environmental adaptation than with Darwinian survival of the fi...

Questions

Questions (4)
Question
Conventional Darwinian evolution is based on random mutations causing adaptive change. In contrast to that, evolution due to epigenetic inheritance offers the opportunity to trace the causal relationships, particularly when seen from the cellular-molecular level. Using this approach, the exaptive changes in adaptation to gas exchange from the lung alveolus to the unicellular have been traced (Torday JS, Rehan VK. The evolutionary continuum from lung development to homeostasis and repair. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2007 Mar;292(3):L608-11; Torday and Rehan. Evolution, the Logic of Biology. Wiley, Hoboken, 2017) with gaps along the way due to the novelty of this approach. However, such gaps could be filled, and other physiologic traits could similarly be elucidated, leading to a new way of understanding physiologic evolution independent of function, particularly as it relates to dysfunction in disease.

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Projects (5)
Project
Identify critical regulators of alveolar type II cell development that come through cell-cell communication mechanisms from fibroblasts