John Tchalenko

John Tchalenko
University of the Arts London · Camberwell College of Arts

About

56
Publications
20,733
Reads
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3,371
Citations
Citations since 2017
3 Research Items
785 Citations
2017201820192020202120222023050100150
2017201820192020202120222023050100150
2017201820192020202120222023050100150
2017201820192020202120222023050100150
Additional affiliations
August 1999 - April 2012
University of the Arts London
Position
  • Senior Researcher

Publications

Publications (56)
Article
Late in his life Rodin produced many thousand “instant drawings.” He asked models to make natural energetic movements, and he would draw them at high speed without looking at his hand or paper. To help understand his “blind drawing” process, the authors tracked the eye and hand movements of art students while they drew blind, copying complex lines...
Article
Full-text available
To copy a natural visual image as a line drawing, visual identification and extraction of features in the image must be guided by top-down decisions, and is usually influenced by prior knowledge. In parallel with other behavioural studies testing the relationship between eye and hand movements when drawing, we report here a functional brain imaging...
Article
Full-text available
Alternating the point of gaze between an original (model or sitter, object, or scene) and a picture (paper, canvas, or digital touch screen) is the most common observational drawing strategy. However, a number of investigations into eye–hand interactions in drawing have revealed the existence of some “blind” drawing taking place (drawing the pictur...
Technical Report
Full-text available
CAPTURING LIFE 4 Studies of eye-hand coordination during drawing http://www.vimeo.com/70552585 The 52 min documentary film by John Tchalenko was conceived as support material to accompany two published papers: Tchalenko, J., Se-Ho, N., Ladanga, M. & R. Chris Miall (2014). The gaze Strategy in Drawing. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity and the...
Article
Full-text available
Henri Matisse (1869-1954), one of the most influential artists of the 20th Century, attached fundamental importance to his drawings, in particular to the famous ‘Themes et Variations’ series. These were accomplished following a precise method starting with arduous life studies and evolving into brilliant spontaneous drawings. A 1946 archival docume...
Article
As part of an ongoing investigation into real-world copying and drawing, I recorded the eye-hand drawing strategies of 16 subjects with drawing experiences ranging from expert to novice while they copied a line drawing of a standing nude. The experts produced accurate copies whereas all the beginners produced marked inaccuracies of overall scaling,...
Article
Full-text available
Eye movements and eye-hand interactions have been recorded for 10 beginner art students copying complex lines representing outlines of caricature heads seen in profile. Four copying conditions mimicking real-world drawing situations were tested: Direct copying where the original and copy were placed side by side, Direct Blind copying where the subj...
Article
We report a functional imaging study of drawing cartoon faces. Normal, untrained participants were scanned while viewing simple black and white cartoon line drawings of human faces, retaining them for a short memory interval, and then drawing them without vision of their hand or the paper. Specific encoding and retention of information about the fa...
Article
In 1970 March 28, Asia Minor was shaken by a severe earthquake of magnitude 7. The shock affected the region of Gediz where 1100 people were killed. The earthquake was associated with 45 km of surface faulting, most of which occurred on pre-existing faults and zones of weakness. The sense of movement was predominantly normal, with a relatively smal...
Article
Full-text available
As part of an investigation into real-world drawing, eye movements and eye-hand interactions have been recorded for twenty subjects of varying drawing experience drawing simple straight and curved lines and a square. Two modes of eye-hand behaviour were observed. In the first, named 'close pursuit', fixations closely followed the pencil with a sequ...
Article
Full-text available
Alexander Iyas, a Finno-Russian military officer, lived in Persia (present-day Iran) from 1901 to 1914. An amateur photographer of notable skill, his recently discovered photographs provide a unique and personal view of the Middle East.
Book
The life and photographs of Alexandre Iyas 1869-1914
Chapter
In drawing portraits from life, the eye plays a central role as it is the means by which visual input is acquired from the external world, as well as the means by which the hand is guided as it draws, and the results are evaluated. This chapter explores painter's eye movements to establish the ground data required to understand the picture producti...
Article
The mental processes that al- low an artist to transform visual images—e.g. those of his model— into a picture on the canvas are not easily studied. The authors re- port work measuring the eye and hand movements of a single artist, chosen for his detailed and realis- tic portraits produced from life. His eye fixations when painting or drawing were...
Article
Depictions of the wild man in manuscript illuminations date back to A.D. 1000 or even earlier, but the oldest known sculputure is from the mid-thirteenth-century Notre-Dame de Semur-en-Auxois (Côte d'Or). An analysis of this wild man in the context of two adjacent figures and the sculpted tympanum behind them identifies him as the Old Testament cha...
Article
The drift of the Arabian plate towards the north-east against Eurasia results in a collision zone in the region of Lake Van (Turkey). McKenzie suggested in 1972 a model in which other smaller plates move symmetrically away from the Lake Van region to the east and to the west as if pushed aside by the advancing Arabian Plate. The present study is a...
Article
The North Tehran Fault is the principal structure by which the southern flank of the Alborz range was raised about above the alluvium of the Tehran embayment. It forms part of a system of small blocks accommodating the NE-SW thrust of the Alborz. The fault is about 35 km long and seems to die out as a single structure in the west and joints the maj...
Article
Full-text available
An 18-km-long segment of bed rock of the Dasht-e Baȳaz earthquake fault was studied in detail to define the 1968 earthquake-related and earlier tectonic deformations. Ground displacements that accompanied the earthquake coincided precisely with the pre-existing east-trending fault trace. Maximum components of offset were 4 m left-lateral and 1 m so...
Article
The region considered under the general term 'Kopet Dagh' is located east of the Caspian Sea, and includes Northeast Iran and southern Soviet Turkmenia. The regional tectonics are reviewed with special emphasis on the post-Alpine 'Diagonal Fault System'. The seismicity over the last 100 years is studied, and the four strongest earthquakes in Northe...
Article
Tchalenko, J.S., 1975. Seismotectonic framework of the North Tehran Fault. In: N. Pavoni and R. Green (Editors), Recent Crustal Movements. Tectonophysics, 29 (1—4): 411—420.
Article
AN earthquake fault is a ground fracture formed in association with a shallow earthquake, usually by reactivation of a pre-existing geological fault. It can provide information about both the mechanism of seismic energy release during an earthquake and the accompanying regional strains. Until now only two such faults which have been adequately docu...
Article
Full-text available
The most recent tectonic deformation of the Zagros, and in particular the late Quaternary right-lateral wrench movement along the Main Recent Fault, is summarized in the context of the general tectonic history of the range. The seismicity along the Main Recent Fault between latitudes 33 and 35 degrees N is examined, and details are given for severa...
Article
Full-text available
Field investigations and bibliographical research into the little-known but important Salmas earthquake in Northwest Azarbaijan (Iran) provided the following results. The morning before the earthquake, a foreshock (Mb — 5.4) centered, as the main shock, in the Salmas Plain, killed about 25 people and incited a great part of the population to spend...
Article
An earthquake fault is a ground fracture formed in association with a shallow earthquake, usually by reactivation of a pre-existing geological fault. It can provide information about both the mechanism of seismic energy release during an earthquake and the accompanying regional strains. Until now only two such faults which have been adequately docu...
Article
Geomorphic and seismic data relative to one of the major faults of Iran, the Doruneh Fault, are presented. It is shown that along its eastern section, the fault is presently active and connected with two destructive earthquakes during the twentieth century. Contrary to previous assumptions, recent and probably contemporary movements along it are es...
Article
Full-text available
The Babol-Kenar earthquake (9tli August, 1971) was a relatively minor event compared to previous catastrophic earthquakes in the Central Alborz mountains of northern Iran. It's study however, is important for the understanding of the seismicity of a region which has already experienced two large earthquakes during this century and which could be en...
Article
Full-text available
The spatial arrangement of platy particles in a clay is defined by an orientation ratio which can be derived analytically from optical birefringence as well as from X-ray diffraction data. Measurements on kaolin slurries consolidated by increasing loads were used to verify that orientation ratios obtained experimentally by these two methods are in...
Article
ON March 28, 1970, at about 2300 h, Turkey was shaken by a severe earthquake of magnitude 7.1. The earthquake occurred in the upper reaches of the Gediz River and affected the region between the towns of Kutahya, Emet, Simav and Usak (Fig. 1), not far from where earlier shocks had caused damage in 1866, 1896, 1930, 1943 and 1944. In the province of...
Article
Full-text available
An examination is made of the formation and development of shear zone structures on (1) the microscopic scale in the shear box test, (2) an intermediate scale in the Riedel test, and (3) the regional scale in the earthquake fault. On the basis of the resistance to shear, three structural stages are chosen for detailed study: the peak structure occu...
Article
Full-text available
A structural analysis is presented of the fractures formed in the fault zone associated with the Dasht-e Bayaz earthquake of August 31, 1968. The segment of the fault zone studied in detail here is 25 km long, 2 to 3 km wide, and located in the Quaternary sediments of the Nimbluk Valley. The maximum relative displacements ohserved in the fault zone...
Article
Full-text available
An 18-kin-long segment of bed rock of the Dasht-e Ba~az earthquake fault was studied in detail to define the 1968 earthquake-related and earlier tectonic de-formations. Ground displacements that ac-companied the earthquake coincided pre-cisely with the pre-existing east-trending fault trace. Maximum components of offset were 4m left-lateral and 1 m...
Article
The microstructure of London Clay from several localities and depths was examined in thin section under the polarizing microscope. Except where severely weathered the clay was found to have a strong preferred particle orientation and frequent microscopic discontinuities. These features are compared with those observed in the study of some other cla...
Article
THE Dashti Biaz earthquake of August 31, 1968, occurred at the east-central part of Iran, in the province of Khorassan, not far from where earlier shocks had caused damage in 1939, 1941, 1947 and 1962. The magnitude of the shock was 7.3 and preliminary focal depth determinations indicate a very shallow focus, less than 15 km. Fig. 1 shows the appro...
Article
Studies have been made of the development of preferred particle orientation in the shear zone of a landslide in Walton's Wood, Staffordshire, and in a kaolin subjected to direct shear in the laboratory. The particle orientation was found to be approximately normal to the major principal stress direction, and it is termed here compression texture. I...
Article
Full-text available
The degree of preferred orientation and fabric homogeneity of a clay depend upon its method of preparation and subsequent history of loading. The degree of preferred orientation can be determined by measuring the birefringence ratio for a thin section of clay. When the fabric is homogeneous this value is shown to be independent of the area observed...
Article
Full-text available
Although single clay particles can seldom be seen with an optical microscope the preferred orientation of an aggregate of clay particles may be investigated by studying in thin section the birefringence of the aggregate. The techniques of preparing thin sections of clay with a minimum of disturbance of the structure and for measuring the birefringe...
Article
Synopsis A clay with near perfect particle parallelism was prepared by consolidating a slurried kaolin in a large oedometer. Shear box samples trimmed at various angles to the compression direction revealed no significant difference in drained strength. Samples with original bedding normal and parallel to the shearing direction were interrupted at...

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Project
Late in his life Rodin produced many thousand ‘instant drawings’. He asked models to make natural energetic movements, and would suddenly draw them at high speed without looking at his hand or paper. To help understand his ‘blind drawing’ process, eye and hand movements of art students were tracked while they drew blind, copying complex lines presented to them as static images. The line shape was correctly reproduced, but scaling could show major deficiencies not seen in Rodin’s sketches. We propose that Rodin’s direct vision-to-motor strategy, coupled with his high expertise, allowed him to accurately depict in one sweep the entire model, without “thoughts arresting the flow of sensations.”