John M. Swales

John M. Swales
University of Michigan | U-M · English Language Institute

About

176
Publications
144,744
Reads
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18,793
Citations
Citations since 2016
20 Research Items
8594 Citations
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Additional affiliations
November 1984 - June 2007
University of Michigan
Position
  • Professor Emeritus
Description
  • Although retired, I am still active with research projects and with advising doctoral students
September 1978 - November 1984
Aston University
Position
  • Professor (Full)
Description
  • Course tutor for MA in ESP

Publications

Publications (176)
Article
The ESP Journal, the first peer-reviewed international journal in our field, was launched in 1980, thus making it 40 years old in 2020. This short article explores the years immediately before 1980 and attempts to explain the factors that led to the emergence of the journal. These included major ESP projects funded mainly in OPEC countries, the rol...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) promotes adaptive immunity and tumor regression in some cancer patients. However, in patients with immunologically "cold" tumors, tumor-resident innate immune cell activation may be required to prime an adaptive immune response and so exploit the full potential of ICB. Whilst Toll-like receptor (TLR) ag...
Article
This argumentative essay opens with the suggestion that EAP genre analysts and practitioners may legitimately differ with regard to the appropriate size and extent of genres. It then argues that certain recent popular topics in genre studies have been overdone, and then goes on to suggest and illustrate areas that could be more fruitfully investiga...
Book
"John Swales' textography might also be called 'comparative rhetoric in a small building,' offering proof, once again, that another culture may be only a trip up or down a flight of stairs. . . .such an appealing and original book." ---BAAL News Originally published in 1998, Other Floors, Other Voices uses texts to capture the lives of three commun...
Article
Full-text available
Move analysis is a text analytical approach first developed by John Swales (1981) to investigate the underlying generic structure of research articles (RAs) in terms of moves-and-steps for pedagogical purposes. A widely shared aspiration of move analysts has been to identify the linguistic features characterizing the various RA moves not only in En...
Article
This paper is a contribution to the "Research into Practice" genre recently established by the journal in order to highlight the pedagogical applications of EAP research. The research in question is taken from a recently published paper (Neiderhiser et al., 2016) analyzing senior undergraduate and graduate student use of imperatives in their academ...
Article
Full-text available
Herbaria principally host and study collections of dried vegetal specimens, and the curators and researchers employed there are mainly systematic botanists working on plant taxonomy. Twenty years ago, a textographic investigation of the University of Michigan Herbarium was conducted as part of a larger study. In this follow-up inquiry, we investiga...
Article
Full-text available
Institutional genres often form dynamic systems or chains. In this paper we report on a possible expansion of the genre system that undergirds the appointment process of assistant professors in the U.S. This expansion consists of a "response letter" to a letter of recommendation. We first analyse a small corpus of these response letters by looking...
Chapter
This chapter provides a comprehensive, state of the art overview of the field English for Academic Purposes. Throughout the chapter we also seek to foreground the importance of establishing synergies between the field of English for Academic Purposes and the broad fields of SLA and SLL. We describe the main theoretical trends and pedagogical tradit...
Article
Full-text available
This article reflects upon my thirty-year intermittent involvement with the concept of discourse community. It opens with a personal history of that involvement, focusing on a study of the communities in a single, small university building. It then moves to the way the concept has become co-opted by those who teach university-level writing in the U...
Article
Full-text available
The sparse literature on the use of imperatives in research papers suggests that they are relatively common in a small number of disciplines, but rare, if used at all, in others. The present study addresses the use of imperatives in a corpus of upper-level A-graded student papers from 16 disciplines. A total of 822 papers collected within the past...
Article
Full-text available
Este é um artigo de acesso aberto, licenciado por Creative Commons Attribution License (CC-BY 3.0), sendo permitidas reprodução, adaptação e distribuição desde que o autor e a fonte originais sejam creditados.
Article
The sparse literature on the use of imperatives in research papers suggests that they are relatively common in a small number of disciplines, but rare, if used at all, in others. The present study addresses the use of imperatives in a corpus of upper-level A-graded student papers from 16 disciplines. A total of 822 papers collected within the past...
Article
Full-text available
This is a corpus-based study of a key aspect of academic writing in one discipline (biology) by final-year undergraduates and first-, second-, and third-year graduate students. The papers come from the Michigan Corpus of Upper-level Student Papers, a freely available electronic database. The principal aim of the study is to examine the extent of va...
Chapter
At first sight, revising an English for Academic Purposes (EAP) writing textbook seems a simple matter. All that appears to be needed is to update example texts, incorporate recent research findings, and fine-tune the tasks and explanations in the light of practitioner experience. However, it soon becomes clear that little is simple, given multiple...
Article
Full-text available
EAP practitioners in advanced courses have often focused on assisting junior scholars who are non-native speakers of English with their attempts to publish in English. Today, however, university administrators increasingly rely on post-publication data such as citation records. We therefore suggest that identifying heavily cited and largely uncited...
Article
Full-text available
This paper addresses the question of what governs the optional attendance of the determiner this by a noun phrase in academic student writing. Previous research on this has largely focused on the noun phrases accompanying this, while the question of what determines writers choice between attended and unattended this in the first place has received...
Article
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Reception histories are retrospectives; they look back at publications and ask who has cited them, how often, when, where and why. This paper takes an influential 1996 paper on genre analysis and examines how it has played out intertextually over the 15 years or so since its publication. The main sources used have been Google Scholar and the Web of...
Article
Full-text available
The subtitle of Huddleston (1971) reads A syntactic study based on an analysis of scientific texts; this volume thus represents the first carefully designed and substantial corpus of scientific English. In this paper I re-examine a selection of his findings based on the science and engineering half of Hyland's corpus of 240 research articles. Featu...
Article
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This paper investigates patterns of rhetorical convergence and divergence in pairs of RA abstracts (English-Spanish and Spanish-English) published in the journal Ibérica. To that end, a total of 84 pairs of author-translated RA abstracts were analyzed. Based on the results of a pilot study, the following rhetorical patterns were analyzed in the cor...
Article
Full-text available
Although Arabic is a language with a long scholarly tradition, relatively little is known about the rhetorical and linguistic features of contemporary Arabic prose. In this paper, we examine 28 Arabic and English paired abstracts dealing with the language sciences drawn from three journals. The analysis shows in both sub-corpora little use of first...
Article
This paper discusses the John Swales Conference Corpus (JSCC), which contains the lectures and discussion sessions from an applied linguistics conference held in 2006 at the University of Michigan. This corpus constitutes a useful resource in that it provides insights into the language of a narrowly defined academic community. Moreover, it spans th...
Article
Full-text available
This practitioner-oriented paper opens with an account of the difficulties EAP materials providers encounter in finding “perfect texts” for pedagogical purposes. It then discusses two alternative options. In the first, the materials writer creates a collection of source texts for class integration and summary work; in the second, the materials writ...
Article
In the relatively few corpus-linguistics conferences that I have attended, more often than not there has been a panel discussion on whether using electronic corpora is a 'methodology' or a 'field'. The emerging consensus would seem to be that corpus linguistics is a methodology, and one particularly suited for delineating lexicogrammatical patterns...
Article
This article compares French and English academic article abstracts from the language sciences in an attempt to understand how and why language choice might affect this part-genre—both in actual use and according to authors’ linguistic and rhetorical perceptions. Two corpora are used: Corpus A consists of abstracts from a French linguistics journal...
Article
Full-text available
The paper opens with a discussion suggest ing that a consensus has been growing among genre theorists since Hyon's 1996 article outlining "thre e traditions". It then addresses the issue of defin ing "genre" itself and goes on to suggest that a metaphorical a pproach is a viable alternative. Two extensive illu strations follow: One dealing with per...
Article
This paper presents a discussion of an experimental, innovative course in corpus-informed EAP for doctoral students. Participants were given access to specialized corpora of academic writing and speaking, instructed in the tools of the trade (web- and PC-based concordancers) and gradually inducted into the skills needed to best exploit the data and...
Article
HOW TO USE CORPORA IN LANGUAGE TEACHING. John McH. Sinclair (Ed.). Amsterdam. Benjamins, 2004. Pp. vi + 306. $114.00 cloth, $42.95 paper. This is the 12th volume in Benjamins' estimable Studies in corpus linguistics series and has been edited by Sinclair, in many ways the doyen of the field. After an introduction by the editor, the collection is di...
Article
TEACHING AND LEARNING BY DOING CORPUS ANALYSIS. Bernard Ketteman and Georg Marko (Eds.). Amsterdam: Rodopi, 2002. Pp. vii + 390. $148.00 cloth. This substantial volume contains 23 papers selected from the Fourth International Conference on Teaching and Language Corpora (TALC) held in Graz, Austria in the summer of 2000. Like many edited conference...
Article
Full-text available
The anaphoric this occurs frequently in academic prose–around six times per 1000 words on average. In this paper, I discuss its problematics, particularly whether or not the demonstrative needs to be followed by a suitable noun phrase. This is followed by an illustrative review of attempts to deal with this word in EAP materials going back to 1971....
Book
Full-text available
This book provides a rich and accessible account of genre studies by a world-renowned applied linguist. The hardback edition discusses today's research world, its various configurations of genres, and the role of English within the genres. Theoretical and methodological issues are explored, with a special emphasis on various metaphors of genre. The...
Article
The properties of academic speech are much less well known than those of academic writing. As part of an attempt to redress this imbalance, this paper investigates evaluative adjectives and their intensifiers in a portion of the MICASE corpus and compares these findings with those from a corpus of academic writing. Results suggest that adjectival e...
Article
There are widespread (and correct) beliefs that the writing tasks that students are asked to undertake as they move through their undergraduate and graduate years show a broadly upward progression in terms of length, complexity of resources utilized, and sophistication expected. Even so, we also suggest that a number of uncertainties persist: wheth...
Article
As the title suggests, this paper explores the competing pressures toward ESP accommodation to institutional exigencies and to a critical response to those exigencies. The locus of the discussion is the design and implementation of an EAP course for Master's of Architecture students in a major US university. Architectural professional education has...
Chapter
Full-text available
The number of non-native students studying in English-medium universities has increased over the past decade. Paralleling this growth is the interest in English for Academic Purposes (EAP). No one research-based volume has yet investigated the theoretical issues and pedagogical concerns of the area. This wide-ranging volume of specially commissione...
Article
Partington has produced an attractive and useful introduction to the field of applied corpus linguistics, a field that has been around for 40 years (since the Brown corpus) but is only now coming into its own in the United States. The volume is attractive for three main reasons: it is clearly and pleasantly written, it quotes extensively and approp...
Article
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Article
Configurations 8.3 (2000) 429-562 Associate Bibliographer Susan Allender-Hagedorn Virginia Tech Bibliography Committee Linda S. Bergmann University of Missouri/ Rolla Anne Collins University of Texas/Austin Linda Dalrymple Henderson University of Texas/Austin Jea-Young Eun University of Michigan Patricia Marino University of California/ Irvine John...
Article
Full-text available
Thirty-five years ago, three leading British linguists published a landmark volume entitled The linguistic sciences and language teaching (Halliday, McIntosh and Strevens 1964). The careful wording of the title of this book was something of a clarion call; in effect, the authors promised to usher in a Brave New World of a stronger descriptive base...
Article
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Peer Reviewed http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/68463/2/10.1177_0741088399016004005.pdf
Article
…and a certain woman … suffered many things of many physicians and had spent all that she had and was nothing better, but rather grew worse. Mark 5:25Medical discourse has been widely investigated over the last two decades by sociologists, anthropologists, sociolinguists, applied linguists and discourse analysts. Medical research texts have been st...
Article
In this dialogic essay, we reflect on various aspects of our two professional lives. The first section begins by offering commentaries on our initial reactions to each other as authors. It then discusses our first face-to-face meeting (Egypt in 1984), and briefly describes how we subsequently came to co-edit English for Specific Purposes for a numb...
Article
Full-text available
There have been numerous investigations in recent years into the linguistic and rhetorical features of research articles, but none, to our knowledge, has examined the ‘fringe phenomenon’ of imperatives This study investigates the use of imperatives in research articles from ten disciplines Five articles in each field, all five from one journal, wer...

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Projects

Project (1)
Project
This is a project funded by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness and by the European Social Fund (EU) (FFI2015-68638-R MINECO/FEDER, UE). The aim of the project is to understand genre-mediated activity in academic and research settings and identify the repertoires of genres that scholars use to communicate locally, transnationally and internationally. It is also our aim to understand ecologies of genres in relation to linguistic ecologies. To do so, we draw on the theoretical perspectives of genre analysis, rhetoric and composition, social linguistics and academic literacies (Bazerman & Prior, 2004; Berkenkotter & Huckin, 1995; Gee, 2012; Johns, 1999). We have designed some prototypes of analytical tools to identify the roles that genres and academic languages (English and other languages) in contemporary academia. We want to understand current and changing social interaction practices contextually and determine the parameters that make genres and languages ecologies evolve across academic and research communities of practice.