John Sullivan

John Sullivan
Universitat Oberta de Catalunya | UOC · Internet Interdisciplinary Institute - IN3

PhD

About

51
Publications
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808
Citations
Citations since 2017
18 Research Items
375 Citations
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Introduction
John Sullivan is currently an instructor at the Safe Communities institute (SCI), University of Southern California(USC) and a past Global Fellow at Strator. He completed his doctoral studies at the Universitat Oberta de Catalunya. John does research in Qualitative Social Research, Conflict Processes, Transnational Organized Crime, Policing and International Relations. One of his recent publications is 'Efficient solutions for joint activity based security games: fast algorithms, results and a field experiment on a transit system.'

Publications

Publications (51)
Technical Report
Full-text available
This working paper assesses the potential for employing humanitarian diplomacy to mitigate the humanitarian crisis stem- ming from conflicts between criminal cartels, gangs, and the state in Mexico and Central America’s Northern Triangle. It will assess opportunities for humanitarian diplomacy to enable humanitarian access to protect refugees, the...
Article
Full-text available
Criminal cartels and gangs dominate the illicit economy in Mexico. These organized crime groups challenge the solvency (specifically capacity and legitimacy) of the state in Mexico. Organized crime in Mexico is involved in a range of activities including extortion, drug trafficking, human trafficking, and petroleum theft. Criminal cartels, often ca...
Article
Full-text available
Transnational organized crime is a pressing global security issue. Mexico is currently embroiled in a protracted drug war. Mexican drug cartels and allied gangs (actually poly-crime organizations) are currently challenging states and sub-state polities (in Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador and beyond) to capitalize on lucrative illicit global economic...
Article
Full-text available
This paper discusses the range of intelligence challenges and approaches to addressing the cross-cutting issues of crime, gangs, and terrorism. These approaches include fusion centers, terrorism early warning, and analysis/synthesis approaches. Tools potentially included within these approaches include red teaming, transaction analysis, intelligenc...
Article
Full-text available
This article assesses Mexico’s organized crime alliance and subgroup network structures. Through social network analysis (SNA) of data from Lantia Consultores, a consulting firm in Mexico that specializes in the analysis of public policies, it demonstrates differential alliance structures within Mexico’s bipolar illicit network system. The Cártel d...
Article
Full-text available
This article is a mixed methods research study on the Mexican Mafia and La Familia Michoacana (La Familia or LFM), with a focus on their alliance, dubbed "The Project." Using two indictments of the Mexican Mafia that included an attempt to establish a permanent relationship with the Mexican La Familia drug cartel, we used social network analysis (S...
Article
Full-text available
Violent conflicts involving non-State armed groups challenge conventional perceptions of war and armed conflict. Criminal enterprises (transnational organized criminal groups including gangs and cartels) are involved in violent competition for both profit and territorial control in many parts of the world. This paper examines the situation in Mexic...
Technical Report
This technical paper will frame the issue of current and protentional threats to homeland security posed by Unmanned Aerial Systems(UAS), commonly and hereby referred to as drones, on public stadiums. Institute for Homeland Security Sam Houston State University Detecting Drone (Unmanned or Uncrewed Aerial System) Threats at Stadium (Stadia) and...
Technical Report
The potential use of aerial drones—or small unmanned or uncrewed aerial systems (sUAS)—to attack or disrupt outdoor public gatherings or sports events at stadiums (stadia), race tracks, or other outdoor venues is a serious public safety concern. It is also a concern to the operators of these facilities since it can have devastating business consequ...
Technical Report
Detecting and countering drone threats at public stadiums and large events is a necessary component of modern emergency operations and crisis management. Large event and stadium security regularly deploys drone detection technologies and may soon deploy counter drone technologies. This final technical paper in our series on drones as potential thre...
Article
While conflict, crime, and terrorism are persistent geopolitical and human security threats, climate change can be a threat multiplier, affecting geopolitical stability on local, regional, and global scales. This paper provides a qualitative assessment of the literature and geopolitical trends related to climate change, migration, and ethnocentrism...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This paper assesses Mexico's organized crime alliance and subgroup network structures. Through social network analysis (SNA) of data from Lantia Consultores, a consulting firm in Mexico that specializes in the analysis of public policies, it demonstrates differential alliance structures within Mexico's bipolar illicit network system. The Cártel de...
Article
Book review of "Policing in France" edited by Jacques de Maillard and Wesley G. Skogan. Policing in France is a useful and important read. It illustrates that the divide between Anglo-Saxon conceptions of policing by consent and Francophone conceptions of policing as a national security endeavor are abstractions — both traditions have much in commo...
Article
Full-text available
This article looks at the evolution of US domestic intelligence prior to and since 9/11 in light of the Capitol attacks. It also reviews the literature and practice of intelligence reform in the context of foreign comparative experience (France, UK, Canada, Australia). It looks at the promise of fusion centers, cocontemporay domestic intelligence m...
Article
Full-text available
A Federal Grand Jury in Los Angeles named six defendants in a weapon smuggling organization in a 23-count indictment alleging that the cell conspired to violate federal export laws to provide weapons and ammunition to Cártel Jalisco Nueva Generación (CJNG) operatives in Mexico. The indictment charged six individuals and asserts that they are member...
Article
Full-text available
Foreward to the Journal of Strategic Security Special issue on Climate Security.
Book
Full-text available
Para entender la resiliencia de las redes criminales es necesario entender su complejidad y esto, a su vez, es requisito para adoptar medidas acertadas para enfrentarlas efectivamente. Omitir esa complejidad en el largo plazo conduce a escenarios en los que, mediante sofisticadas formas de cooptación, las redes criminales infiltran y manipulan de m...
Article
Full-text available
In recent years, several security agencies have been deploying scheduling systems based on algorithmic advances in Stackelberg security games (SSGs). Unfortunately, none of the existing algorithms can scale up to domains where benefits are accrued from multiple defender resources performing jointly coordinated activities. Yet in many domains, inclu...
Article
Full-text available
Attacker-Defender Stackelberg security games (SSGs) have emerged as an important research area in multi-agent systems. However, existing SSGs models yield fixed, static, schedules which fail in dynamic domains where defenders face execution uncertainty, i.e., in domains where defenders may face unanticipated disruptions of their schedules. A concre...
Conference Paper
This paper proposes the Multi-Operation Patrol Scheduling System (MOPSS), a new system to generate patrols for transit system. MOPSS is based on five contributions. First, MOPSS is the first system to use three fundamentally different adversary models for the threats of fare evasion, terrorism and crime, generating three significantly different typ...
Article
Full-text available
In proof-of-payment transit systems, passengers are legally required to purchase tickets before entering but are not phys-ically forced to do so. Instead, patrol units move about the transit system, inspecting the tickets of passengers, who face fines if caught fare evading. The deterrence of fare evasion depends on the unpredictability and effecti...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In proof-of-payment transit systems, passengers are legally required to purchase tickets before entering but are not physically forced to do so. Instead, patrol units move about the transit system, inspecting the tickets of passengers, who face fines if caught fare evading. The deterrence of such fines depends on the unpredictability and effectiven...
Article
In proof-of-payment transit systems, passengers are legally required to purchase tickets before entering but are not physically forced to do so. Instead, patrol units move about the transit system, inspecting the tickets of passengers, who face fines if caught fare evading. The deterrence of such fines depends on the unpredictability and effectiven...
Article
Driven by globalization, Internet communications technology (ICT), and new economic forms the nature of states may be changing. Transnational criminal organizations (TCOs) – including what are commonly known as cartels – are early adopters to the new political/economic landscape. In addition to seeking to rule the illicit economy, criminal actors (...
Article
This essay addresses and integrates ‘feral cities’ with ‘third phase cartel’ and ‘third generation gangs’ (3GEN Gangs) research. The feral cities diagnostic tool will be expanded from three levels (green, yellow, and red) to five (adding purple and black). This will be accomplished by means of the addition of two new levels that model the shift fro...
Article
Drug Trafficking Organizations (DTOs) – commonly called drug cartels – are challenging states and their institutions in increasingly brutal and profound ways. This is seen dramatically in Mexico's drug wars and the expanding reach of Mexican organized criminal enterprises throughout Latin America and other parts of the world. This essay updates a 1...
Article
Narcotics and the drug trade contribute to a range of social ills. Among these are social instability, violence, corruption, and a weakening of the state. A range of criminal enterprises, including transnational gangs and drug cartels are engaged in the global trade in illicit drugs. This essay looks at measures to stem this trade through intervent...
Article
This paper explores methods for capitalizing on existing law enforcement intelligence capabilities to provide intelligence support to decision makers for a full spectrum of public safety and emergency service operations. Intelligence-led mitigation is a management philosophy and business process to proactively guide strategic, operational, and tact...
Article
Contemporary terrorist networks challenge state institutions and globalsecurity. The 11 September 2001 attacks on New York City and Washington, DC, the M-11 (Eme Once) attacks against the Madrid Metro, and the 7 July 2005 attacks on the London Underground highlight the threat posed by transnational terrorism. Extremist organizations, exemplified by...
Article
Full-text available
Mexico is under siege, and the barbarians are dangerously close to breaching the castle walls. Responding to President Felipe Calderon's latest drug crackdown, an army of drug cartels has launched a vicious criminal insurgency against the Mexican state. So far, the conflict has killed over 1,400 Mexicans, 500 of them law enforcement officers. 1 No...
Article
Full-text available
Transnational gangs are a concern throughout the Western Hemisphere. Criminal street gangs have evolved to pose significant security and public safety threats in individual neighborhoods, metropolitan areas, nations, and across borders. Such gangs—widely known as maras—are no longer just street gangs. They have morphed across three generations thro...
Article
Intelligence and counter terrorism are key elements of the contemporary global security environment. Profound changes in the nature of states fuelled by globalization, information technology, and the influence of non‐state actors are changing the structure and dynamics of intelligence. A range of global threats and conditions influence the contempo...
Article
This paper reviews the literature and research related to third generation street gangs. Widely known as third generation gangs (3 GEN Gangs), these complex gangs operate with broad reach - often across borders - and have mercenary and at times political and potentially terrorist objectives. These are frequently identified as transnational gangs, k...
Article
Criminal-states and Criminal-soldiers are two interrelated threats that challenge order and stability at local, national, and potentially global levels. Policing and law enforcement are essential to securing the conditions necessary for stable governance and preserving the rule of law. Law enforcement and police services play key roles in ensuring...
Article
Third generation street gangs are a crime and security problem in many global cities, internationally linked ethnic Diasporas, and cross-border regions where insecurity and criminal non-state actors reign. Widely known as third generation gangs (3 GEN Gangs), complex gangs operate with broad reach—often across borders—and can develop mercenary and...
Article
The face of terrorism and warfare appears to be changing. This paper describes ways to develop a networked force structure and C41 (command, control, communications, computers, intelligence) apparatus based upon improved intelligence and operations fusion capabilities to enhance the way we wage war and protect the public in the now and future battl...
Article
The nature of crime and conflict has changed and continues to evolve. The now and future war is and will be influenced by irregular combatants – non-state soldiers – that utilize technology and networked doctrine to spread their influence across traditional geographic boundaries. This era shift in political and social organization, fueled by rapid...
Article
The nature of crime and conflict is rapidly evolving. Postmodern war is increasingly influenced by non-traditional and irregular combatants: non-state soldiers. These actors are exploiting technology and networked doctrine to spread their influence across traditional geographic boundaries. This emphasis on non-traditional actors accompanies a shift...
Article
Postmodern terrorism presents a significant challenge to global security and law enforcement institutions. Non-state actors operating across international borders, engaged in an apparent global insurgency of extremism that transects the traditional boundaries of crime and war, pose significant challenges to both intelligence and law enforcement age...
Article
The nature of conflict and crime is changing. Technology allows groups to spread their influence without regard to geographic limitations. A shift from hierarchies to network organizational forms is also occurring. As a consequence non‐state actors can extend their influence to gain social, political or economic power and challenge state institutio...
Article
The emergence of transnational criminal actors challenges national law enforcement and intelligence agencies. Global criminals are involved in traditional organized crime activities, e.g., theft, smuggling, and dealing in all types of contraband. These criminal networks, however, also engage in activities that can fuel domestic and international co...

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https://digitalcommons.usf.edu/jss/call_for_papers.html Journal of Strategic Security Call for Papers 2023 Special Issue: Urban Security United Nations Secretary General António Guterres pointed out at a recent Security Council meeting, that “50 million people currently face the dire consequences of urban warfare” and that “when explosive weapons are used in cities, 90 percent of those affected are civilians.”[1] Urban warfare has long been minimized in insurgency and counterinsurgency (COIN) studies with a focus on the rural environment, despite the historical significance of urban insurgency in the 20th century, e.g. the Tupamaros and Marighella.[2] The emphasis on rural COIN may have been based upon the US experience in Vietnam and Afghanistan, the rise of Mao in China, its implications, and 20th century demographics.[3] However, as the global population increases, there are myriad reasons why conventional and unconventional conflict will tend toward the urban. Scholar-practitioners such as David Kilcullen,[4] Anthony King,[5] Jamison Medby and Russell Glenn,[6] have pointed out the presence of megatrends which increase the likelihood the world will face more urban conflict. These mega-trends include population growth, increased urbanization, increased growth of cities on coasts, and the advantages urban environments have for connectivity. As Kilcullen points out, rising sea levels due to climate change endanger the cities where growth is likely to occur. Further, in many urban settings, “ungoverned spaces” are really “alternatively authority and [places of] softened sovereignty;”[7] be they governed by warlords, insurgencies, militias, pirates, or profit-seeking criminal groups in forms of ‘synergistic violence.’[8] The security community has also increasingly recognized that mega-cities, defined as cities of more than 10 million people, are increasingly likely to be the sites of urban conflict.[9] Scholars such as Medby and Glenn (2002) have long pointed to the importance of urban intelligence in conflict and the role of “intelligence preparation of the battlefield” (IPB), an analytical approach to understanding how an urban adversary might react in various situations given terrain and other contingent factors.[10] In a testament to the growing interest in urban security there have been numerous anthologies, edited volumes, and collections published on the subject in recent years. For example, scholars such as Glass, Seybolt, and Williams (2022) focused an edited volume on the importance of urban violence resilience with a focus on the global south.[11] The Small Wars Journal recently published an anthology on urban warfare and its consequences entitled Blood and Concrete which anthologized many of the key pieces from the famous Small Wars Journal website.[12] The conflict in Ukraine has opened the world’s eyes to the horrors of urban warfare. Urban warfare will be a part of the return of great power conflict, be it in the form of revanchist/irredentist powers such as a Russia and China, or in the defense of national sovereignty by democracies such as Ukraine and the West. Scholar practitioners such as John Spencer have written urban warfare guides and handbooks which have been distributed to urban defenders in recent urban warfare in Ukraine. His website contains a Ukrainian translation in addition to an English version of his Mini-Manual for the Urban Defender.[13] The uptake of the manual from US personal computer to social media, to the battlefield, demonstrates the real-world implications of scholar-practitioner activity in urban security. This special issue of the Journal of Strategic Security hopes to add to the important literature on Urban Security by receiving and peer reviewing high quality submissions in accordance with the Journal’s high publishing standards. Below is a list of urban security issues the special issue editors would like to see submissions on: Conflict in Megacities (10 million or more) Police-Military Intelligence interface in urban conflict Insurrection Urban-littoral nexus Information warfare in support of urban conflict Urban insurgency Urban Terrorism Criminal governance in cities (Slums/Favelas) Criminal Armed Groups (CAGs) in cities Social Media and Urban Conflict Climate Conflict in Cities (Urban-Climate Conflict Nexus) Urban counterterrorism Urban counterinsurgency (COIN) Urban Riots and Public Order Intelligence for Urban Operations (e.g., GeoINT) Urban policing Urban critical infrastructure protection including urban cyber security Humanitarian operations and protection of civilians in urban conflict Medical and humanitarian response to urban crises and disasters Please follow manuscript submission guidelines for drafts. https://digitalcommons.usf.edu/jss/submissionguidelines.html Special Issue Editors John P. Sullivan globalwarning1@gmail.com Nathan P. Jones: nxj008@shsu.edu Daniel Weisz Argomedo Key Dates Abstract submissions to special issue editors February 1, 2023 (250-word maximum) Draft submissions for blind peer review June 1, 2023 Projected Special Issue Publication Fall 2023 Endnotes [1] “Urban Warfare Devastates 50 Million People Worldwide, Speakers Tell Security Council, Calling for Effective Tools to End Impunity, Improve Humanitarian Response,” (Security Council, January 25, 2022), https://www.un.org/press/en/2022/sc14775.doc.htm. [2] John P. Sullivan and Nathan P. Jones, “Bandits, Urban Guerrillas, and Criminal Insurgents: Crime and Resistance in Latin America,” in The Routledge Handbook of Latin America and the Caribbean (Twentieth and Twenty-First Century)ed. Pablo Baisotti (New York: Routledge, 2021). [3] David Kilcullen, Out of the Mountains: The Coming Age of the Urban Guerrilla (New York: Oxford University Press, 2015); Mao Tse-tung, Mao Tse-Tung on Guerrilla Warfare, trans. Samuel B. Griffith, FMFRP 12-18 (Washington, DC: U.S. Marine Corps, 1989), https://www.marines.mil/Portals/1/Publications/FMFRP%2012-18%20%20Mao%20Tse-tung%20on%20Guerrilla%20Warfare.pdf. [4] Kilcullen, Out of the Mountains: The Coming Age of the Urban Guerrilla. [5] Anthony King, Urban Warfare in the Twenty-First Century (Medford: Polity, 2021). [6] Jamison Jo. Medby and Russell W. Glenn, Street Smart: Intelligence Preparation of the Battlefield for Urban Operations (Santa Monica, CA: RAND, 2002), https://apps.dtic.mil/sti/pdfs/ADA411686.pdf. [7] Anne L. Clunan and Harold A. Trinkunas, Ungoverned Spaces: Alternatives to State Authority in an Era of Softened Sovereignty (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2010), 19. [8] Howard Campbell, “Downtown Juárez,” in Downtown Juárez: Underworlds of Violence and Abuse (Austin: University of Texas Press, 2022), 19. [9] Dave Dillege, Robert J. Bunker, John P. Sullivan, and Anna Keshavarz., eds., Blood and Concrete: 21st Century Conflict in Urban Centers and Megacities, A Small Wars Journal Anthology (Bloomington, IN: Xlibris, 2019), https://www.amazon.com/Blood-Concrete-Conflict-Megacities-Anthology/dp/1984573756. [10] Jamison Jo. Medby and Russell W. Glenn, Street Smart: Intelligence Preparation of the Battlefield for Urban Operations (Santa Monica, CA: RAND, 2002), https://apps.dtic.mil/sti/pdfs/ADA411686.pdf. [11] Michael R. Glass, Taylor B. Seybolt, and Phil Williams, “Introduction to Urban Violence, Resilience and Security,” in Urban Violence, Resilience and Security: Governance Responses in the Global South (Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2022). [12] Dave Dillege, Robert J. Bunker, John P. Sullivan, and Anna Keshavarz., eds., Blood and Concrete. [13] John Spencer, The Mini-Manual for the Urban Defender: A Guide to Strategies and Tactics for Defending a City, Fourth Version, April 3, 2022, https://static1.squarespace.com/static/622cbafd4ab19b7c0966d469/t/624b0fcc746c1e4ec5984cd6/1649086413544/Mini_Manual_Spencerv4_English_03APR22v2.pdf; John Spencer, “John Spencer Online,” Professional, John Spencer, 2022, https://www.johnspenceronline.com/urban-warfare.
Project
Call for Papers Special Issue: Climate Security: Geo-Political and Security Consequences of Climate Change Guest Editors: Dr. Nathan P. Jones (nxj008@shsu.edu) and Dr. John P. Sullivan (Globalwarning1@gmail.com) The Journal of Strategic Security hereby makes its formal call for papers for its upcoming special issue climate security. This issue will examine the threat and risks of climate change from a security perspective. Climate security and related risks have global security implications that will influence governance, conflict, and crime in profound ways. Early work on the security facets of climate change focused on the military and national security components of these threats and later works have focused on the humanitarian consequences. Current research interests include the intersection of climate change and terrorism. This special edition will address the convergence of these various aspects of climate security. The special issue will specifically look at several interrelated issues: 1) An overview of Climate Change and the Climate Emergency. 2) Climate Security: The geo-political and security issues related to climate change. 3) Disaster Risk Reduction, Emergency Operations, Public Health and Climate Change. 4) The Climate-Conflict Nexus as related to resource wars, insurgency, and terrorism. 5) Organized Crime and Climate Change (including corruption, resource extraction and conflict generating potentials). The Geo-Political and Security Impacts of Climate Change Several reports from the United States and United Nations (UN) recognize climate change as having real impacts on national and human security at a global scale. No longer is climate change an issue of the distant future as UN panel reports argue. The beginning of significant climate effects will occur by the mid-21st century suggesting that anyone reading this will experience these effects. Climate change has already contributed at least in part to worsening world conflicts such as in Syria and Darfur as Ban Ki Moon argued in 2007. New attribution scholarship has parsed the effects of climate change from normal “weather,” to quantify exactly how much impact can be attributed to climate change versus normal weather events. Droughts and rising sea levels have already led to mass migrations as scholars such as Chris Webersik have predicted. Further, as scholars such as Nils Gilman have argued, the far right may use the climate change “urgency” to justify their own “avocado politics,” “green on the outside,” “brown(shirt)” on the inside, replete with new security policies like militarizing borders to keep immigrants out. Drought in Central America has exacerbated migratory flow north which has been met in the United States and Mexico with increased militarization of borders and immigration enforcement. Numerous authors and reports have raised the specter of climate change creating resource scarcity, which in turn leads to conflicts. This special edition looks to explore the security issues of climate change. All contributions will be subject to double blind peer review. The editors will produce an introduction to the special issue, including a brief survey of the literature, introduction of themes, and overview of the articles accepted for publication. In addition to thematic articles, the editors will also solicit a postscript summarizing the contributions in the strategic context of climate security. Interested scholars are encouraged to submit a 250 word abstract to the special issue editors as soon as possible with a target date of January 15, 2020. While not a requirement for submission of a paper, this will assist the editors in planning the content of the special issue. Timeline: Call for Papers November 1, 2019 Recommended Abstract Submission to Special Editors January 15, 2020 @ nxj008@shsu.edu and globalwarning1@gmail.com Article submission deadline May 1, 2020; Peer review and edits Due September 1, 2020 Copyediting and return of acceptance of copyedits October 1, 2020 Publication November 1, 2020 (Third Quarterly issue 2020) Please follow JSS submission guidelines and strictly adhere to Chicago Manual of Style http://scholarcommons.usf.edu/jss/submissionguidelines.html Please submit all articles to the Journal of Strategic Security submission portal at: http://scholarcommons.usf.edu/cgi/submit.cgi?context=jss We hope to receive articles that explore climate security implications of the following broad themes: • Resource conflicts, water security, food security • Migration, refugees, internally displaced persons (IDPs) and border security • Identity-based extremist in domestic and international conflicts • Sea level rise, loss of coastal cities • Economic collapse, inequality and climate change • Public order, civil unrest, and riots • Desertification, drought, and famine • Climate change as a geo-strategic conflict-driver (Amazon, Arctic, Antarctic, etc.) • Climate change and technology (geoengineering, carbon capture, and corporate competition). • Climate change and terrorism • Climate change, organized crime, and gangs • The crime-terror nexus and climate challenges • Climate change, disaster risk reduction and sustainable development (wildfires, extreme weather events, heat emergencies) • Climate change, environmental degradation and public health (animal, plant, and human biosecurity, emerging diseases, and pandemics) • Urban consequences of climate change • State change and climate change (emergence of climate refuges/city-states, feral cities, and enclaves, etc.) Notes John P. Sullivan, “A catastrophic climate: Conflict and environmental security setting the stage for humanitarian crises,” Chapter 7 in Peter Katona, John P. Sullivan, and Michael Intriligator, Global Biosecurity: Threats and Responses (London: Routledge, 2010). Andrew Silke and John Morrison, “Climate Change and Terrorism,” Call for abstracts and expressions of interest, Research Gate, https://www.researchgate.net/project/Climate-Change-and-Terrorism. Coral Davenport, “Major Climate Report Describes a Strong Risk of Crisis as Early as 2040,” The New York Times, October 7, 2018, sec. Climate, https://www.nytimes.com/2018/10/07/climate/ipcc-climate-report-2040.html. John Vidal, “The Climate Crisis in 2050: What Happens If Cities Act but Nations Don’t?,” The Guardian, October 10, 2019, sec. Cities, https://www.theguardian.com/cities/2019/oct/10/the-climate-crisis-in-2050-what-happens-if-cities-act-but-nations-dont; John Vidal, “Is Climate Change Responsible for the Conflicts We’re Seeing around the World Today?,” Ensia, October 15, 2019, https://ensia.com/features/climate-change-conflict-violence-extremism-draught-flood/. Kendra Pierre-Louis, “Climate Change Fills Storms With More Rain, Analysis Shows,” The New York Times, July 11, 2019, sec. Climate, https://www.nytimes.com/2019/07/11/climate/hurricane-tropical-storms.html; Cynthia Rosenzweig et al., “Attributing Physical and Biological Impacts to Anthropogenic Climate Change,” Nature 453, no. 7193 (2008): 353. Christian Webersik, Climate Change and Security: A Gathering Storm of Global Challenges, Security and the Environment (Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, 2010); Kirk Semple, “Central American Farmers Head to the U.S., Fleeing Climate Change,” The New York Times, April 13, 2019, sec. World, https://www.nytimes.com/2019/04/13/world/americas/coffee-climate-change-migration.html. Nils Gilman, “Beware the Rise of Far-Right Environmentalism,” Berggruen Institute, October 17, 2019, https://www.berggruen.org/the-worldpost/articles/beware-the-rise-of-far-right-environmentalism/.