John Seidensticker

John Seidensticker
George Mason University | GMU · Department of Environmental Science and Policy

PhD

About

103
Publications
77,136
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6,663
Citations
Citations since 2016
3 Research Items
2947 Citations
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20162017201820192020202120220100200300400
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400

Publications

Publications (103)
Chapter
The snow leopard is an important symbol of healthy mountain ecosystems and the communities living there, yet this cat is under threat of extinction across its range. Hundreds of millions of people depend on these landscapes for water, hydropower, agriculture, mineral resources, medicinal products, cultural traditions and spiritual values, and inspi...
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The global population of wild tigers remains dangerously low at fewer than 3500 individuals. Habitat loss, along with poaching, can undermine the international target recovery of doubling the number of wild tigers by 2022. Using a new satellite-based monitoring system, we analyzed 14 years of forest loss data within the 76 landscapes (ranging from...
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Corridors (variably called landscape linkages, connectors, and gateways) are expanses of a landscape that facilitate the flow or movement of individuals, genes, and ecological processes. Protected areas with their buffer zones and the corridors that connect them are cornerstones of modern conservation actions to maintain the biodiversity we have an...
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Sloth bears (Melursus ursinus) are endemic to the Indian subcontinent. As a result of continued habitat loss and degradation over the past century, sloth bear populations have been in steady decline and now exist only in isolated or fragmented habitat across the entire range. We investigated the genetic connectivity of the sloth bear meta-populatio...
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The sloth bear (Melursus ursinus) is a threatened species endemic to the Indian subcontinent. To date, no reliable method has been developed for identifying individuals or monitoring their populations. Here we describe a non-invasive genetic monitoring technique for individual identification of sloth bears. After testing 18 microsatellites develope...
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The jungle cat (Felis chaus), a small-sized felid, is distributed across Southeast and South Asia to Egypt in Africa. In India, it is one of the most common small cat species but no reliable methods are available to monitor its population status. We describe a non-invasive genetic monitoring technique using fecal samples for individual identificati...
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Gene flow is a critical ecological process that must be maintained in order to counteract the detrimental effects of genetic drift in subdivided populations, with conservation benefits ranging from promoting the persistence of small populations to spreading adaptive traits in changing environments. We evaluated historical and contemporary gene flow...
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Understanding the patterns of gene flow of an endangered species metapopulation occupying a fragmented habitat is crucial for landscape-level conservation planning and devising effective conservation strategies. Tigers (Panthera tigris) are globally endangered and their populations are highly fragmented and exist in a few isolated metapopulations a...
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We investigated the spatial genetic structure of the tiger meta-population in the Satpura-Maikal landscape of central India using population- and individual-based genetic clustering methods on multilocus genotypic data from 273 individuals. The Satpura-Maikal landscape is classified as a global-priority Tiger Conservation Landscape (TCL) due to its...
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A recent study of tigers in Chitwan, Nepal (1) stirred controversy by challenging the “source-sink” approach that underlies current global tiger conservation strategies (2). The observed lack of difference in tiger density estimates inside the protected area compared with a multiple-use area outside is offered as evidence. Based on this result, the...
Article
We propose the wildlife premium mechanism as an innovation to conserve endangered large vertebrates. The performance-based payment scheme would allow stakeholders in lower-income countries to generate revenue by recovering and maintaining threatened fauna that can also serve as umbrella species (i.e., species whose protection benefits other species...
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We describe a highly polymorphic microsatellite panel for identifying individual leopards using DNA from scat. After successfully screening 16 published microsatellites, we optimized a panel of 7 microsatellites that yields a Probability of Identity between siblings value of 5.24E-04. We used this panel to identify 217 individuals from 287 leopard...
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The rapid disruption of tropical forests probably imperils global biodiversity more than any other contemporary phenomenon. With deforestation advancing quickly, protected areas are increasingly becoming final refuges for threatened species and natural ecosystem processes. However, many protected areas in the tropics are themselves vulnerable to hu...
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Recent genetic analysis has shown that the extinct Caspian Tiger (P. t. virgata) and the living Amur Tigers (P. t. altaica) of the Russian Far East are actually taxonomically synonymous and that Caspian and Amur groups historically formed a single population, only becoming separated within the last 200 years by human agency. A major conservation im...
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Aim Habitat loss and fragmentation can influence the genetic structure of biological populations. Large terrestrial predators can often avoid genetic subdivision due to fragmentation because they have high rates of dispersal-mediated gene flow. Leopards (Panthera pardus) are found in a variety of habitats and are the most widely distributed of the...
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In an unprecedented response to the rapid decline in wild tiger populations, the Heads of Government of the 13 tiger range countries endorsed the St. Petersburg Declaration in November 2010, pledging to double the wild tiger population. We conducted a landscape analysis of tiger habitat to determine if a recovery of such magnitude is possible. The...
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![Figure][1] CREDIT: FOTOSEARCH The Indian government reported a 16% increase in tiger numbers over the past 4 years (News of the Week, Around the World item “Tiger numbers up? Maybe,” 1 April, p. [332][2]). This implies an average increase of 49% in local tiger densities, despite the
Data
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The tropical dry and moist broadleaf forests that extend along a great arc from Sri Lanka through the Indian subcontinent, Myanmar, and into Southeast Asia have been reduced in area, are highly fragmented, and are battered by extensive and excessive anthropogenic burden. These forests, however, are essential habitats for sloth bears (Ursus ursinus)...
Article
Making effective investments through grantees in order to sustain and recover wild tiger populations from the vantage point of an organization based in Washington DC (USA) is a high risk endeavor for two reasons: grantees may fail to produce the outputs or deliverables promised; and even if the outputs are generated as promised, grantees may fail t...
Chapter
This chapter describes two collaborations-Terai Arc Landscape (TAL) in Nepal and India, and Malaysian Conservation Alliance for Tigers (MYCAT) in Malaysia-that have been forged and shaped over the past decade by government and non-government stakeholders. These bodies joined together in an effort to sustain and recover priority tiger conservation l...
Chapter
Tigers are increasingly disappearing from the ecosystems where they evolved and the nation states in which they live. Their vast range in Asia has been reduced to a small number of isolated populations, they are hunted intensively for the trade in tiger parts, and the prey on which they depend is reduced throughout much of their range. Many differe...
Chapter
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The most recent analysis of tiger habitats suggests that tigers now occupy only 7% of their historic range and the area they occupy has decreased by as much as 40% in the past decade. The understanding of wild tiger populations and their habitats in many of the range states has improved substantially. Newer statistically robust estimates of tiger d...
Article
Wild tigers are being annihilated. Tiger range countries and their partners met at the 1st Asian Ministerial Conference on Tiger Conservation in January 2010 to mandate the creation of the Global Tiger Recovery Program to double the number of tigers by 2022. Only 3200-3600 wild adult tigers remain, approximately half of the population estimated a d...
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Despite its significant weaknesses, this volume could be a good starting point for scientists looking for background information and literature on capybaras. The book includes a thorough reference list and helpful index, allowing readers to find information without getting lost in the text.
Article
This chapter summarizes the trends revealed by two range-wide analyses on the conservation potential of tigers, performed a decade apart. The analysis is focuses on the managing large landscapes that harbor populations of tigers across all the ecotypes they inhabit. The second range-wide assessment is used to present three possible future scenarios...
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The Sloth bear (Melursus ursinus), which is endemic to the Indian subcontinent and Sri Lanka, has declined in numbers in many areas in recent years probably as the result of over-killing and habitat alteration. In the 544 km2 Royal Chitawan National Park in the Nepal terai, we estimated there were a minimum of 55 bears or a crude density of 0˙1/km2...
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Demographic characteristics of respondents (0.02 MB DOC)
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This chapter begins by stating that one of the great problems in conservation biology is so-called ecological amnesia, the disappearance in the public mind of what environments were like even a few decades ago. Once species and natural environments are lost, mental adjustments are made in the minds of local people; what is "natural" now is not what...
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A heated debate has recently emerged between tiger farmers and conservationists about the potential consequences of lifting the ban on trade in farmed tiger products in China. This debate has caused unfounded speculation about the extent of the potential market for tiger products. To fill this knowledge gap, we surveyed 1880 residents from a total...
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This is the first attempt to analyse the performance of US 12.6 million invested by Save The Tiger Fund (STF) in more than 250 tiger conservation grants in 13 tiger-range countries. We devised a simple implementation evaluation method to assess performance on an ordinal scale using archival documents from project grant files. Performance was scored...
Article
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Wild tigers are in a precarious state. Habitat loss and intense poaching of tigers and their prey, coupled with inadequate government efforts to maintain tiger populations, have resulted in a dramatic range contraction in tiger populations. Tigers now occupy 7 percent of their historical range, and in the past decade, the area occupied by tigers ha...
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The Sloth Bear Melursus ursinus is endemic to the Indian subcontinent. Sloth Bear populations have declined and its range has shrunk over the past century, primarily due to habitat loss. However, even fundamental information on distribution and present status is lacking for most of its range. We collated recent information from literature and by di...
Article
Conservation practices are supposed to get refined by advancing scientific knowledge. We study this phenomenon in the context of monitoring tiger populations in India, by evaluating the ‘pugmark census method’ employed by wildlife managers for three decades. We use an analytical framework of modern animal population sampling to test the efficacy of...
Article
Most species-specific conservation efforts require estimates of population size to establish priorities and to monitor management activities. Yet obtaining reliable estimates of animal populations is often difficult, especially given time and funding limitations experienced by many research programmes. Consequently, there is a great need for pr...
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Vocalizations of white-nosed coatis (Nasua narica) emitted in nonaggressive and aggressive contexts were measured and compared to determine if these calls exhibited acoustic characteristics in accordance with motivation-structural (MS) rules. “Chirp” and “squawk” calls were compared spectrographically using 11 coatis from 3 zoos. Chirps were short-...
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The monitoring and management of species depends on reliable population estimates, and this can be both difficult and very costly for cryptic large vertebrates that live in forested habitats. Recently developed camera trapping techniques have already been shown to be an effective means of making mark-recapture estimates of individually identifiable...
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In this study we assessed the extent of psychological attachment between male cheetahs living in same sex pairs in zoos by recording the behavior and vocal-izations of two male coalitions (siblings and nonsiblings) during four experimental separations and reunions of each coalition. Both coalitions showed higher vocalization rates and walking rates...
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The incorporation of precise definitions for taxonomic units into wildlife legislation has necessitated the reevaluation of the taxonomy of endangered and threatened species. We used the subspecies recognition criteria proposed by Avise and Ball (1990) and O’Brien and Mayr (1991) to examine the infraspecific taxonomy of the leopard, Panthera pardus...
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Maintenance energy (ME)requirements have been determined for the domestic cat, Felis silvestris catus, but not for larger felids. To determine if the domestic cat represents an appropriate model for studies with larger species, we measured digestive efficiency and digestible energy intakes in cats of different body sizes (body mass range: 15-195 kg...
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Indicators of environmental adequacy relevant to the well-being of small felids are developed by examining, in 4 captive leopard cats, interrelationships between behavioral and adrenocortical responses to changes in housing conditions. Singly housed cats were moved from their barren home cage (Cage 1, baseline) sequentially to 2 new, barren housing...
Article
Captive small felids frequently pace repetitively and/or spend large amounts of time inactive. Presenting a fishing cat with live-fish resulted in more activity (60% less sleeping), increased behavioral diversity, including previously unobserved hunting behaviors, and greater enclosure utilization. Effects persisted for at least 48 h after presenta...
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The behaviour of a male American black bear Ursus americanus was observed for over 2400 h across all seasons of the year. Stereotypic pacing was most frequent, oriented away from the exhibit, and performed mainly after feeding during the period May–July; from August–November pacing was oriented towards the exhibit and performed mainly around feedin...
Article
The high incidence of stereotypic behaviors in zoo bears (van Keulen-Kromhout: International Zoo Yearbook 18:177–186, 1978) suggests that the environment of these animals lacks essential stimuli for guiding normal behavior. Three experiments investigated ways in which bear husbandry procedures can be altered to promote normal behavior. In experimen...
Article
Electrophoretic variation of 50 gene-enzyme systems was typed in a population of 33 captive leopards (Panthera pardus) from the island of Sri Lanka. The captive leopard population was composed of several lineages: (1) wild-caught leopards of the island subspecies (P. p. kotiya), (2) captive-born animals of the same subspecies, (3) a melanistic line...
Article
We compared direct enumeration, the closed population models of program CAPTURE, the Jackknife estimator, Chao's (1987) moment estimator, and the Jolly-Seber open population model in estimating abundance of Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana) and raccoons (Procyon lotor). For 57 months, we used mark-recapture and radio-telemetry methods to stu...
Conference Paper
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Using standard electrophoretic techniques genetic variation was assessed in a sample of 22 leopards (Panthera pardus kotiya) and 31 Asian elephants (Elephas maximus maximus) from the collections of the National Zoological Gardens, Dehiwala, Sri Lanka. Two out of 50 loci were polymorphic in all the leopards and three out of 54 loci were polymorphic...
Article
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Home range size for an adult female Panthera pardus in the park was 7 km2, and 6 and 13 km2 for 2 females residing outside the Park. The composition of leopard prey killed inside the Park was predominately non-refuging species <50kg in size. Domestic stock <50 kg made up the bulk of the diet of leopards living outside the Park. Interbirth intervals...
Article
Twenty-one captive leopards (Panthera pardus kotiya) at the National Zoological Gardens in Sri Lanka were individually identified using spot pattern variation, Based on an identification method established for lions (Panthera leo), a code was devised examining 23 variable characters, each of which had one to three values. These characters ranged fr...
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In Study 1, semen was collected using a standardized electroejaculation procedure. Males (N = 8) produced ejaculates with a high incidence of sperm abnormalities (77 +/- 3.3%). After electroejaculation under anaesthesia, serum cortisol concentrations increased (P less than 0.05), while testosterone concentrations decreased (P less than 0.05) and LH...
Article
Rabies began killing Procyon lotor living in Virginia Appalachian Mountain hollow in 1980. Survival rate from May through December 1980 for radio-tagged raccoons was only 0.36. Survival rate of radio-tagged raccoons rose to 0.90 from July to December 1981. No evidence of rabies was detected from December 1982 through August 1983. No "spillover' of...
Article
The People's Republic of China has designated a system of reserves in the mountains that rim the Sichuan Basin as areas to be managed specifically for the conservation of the giant panda Ailuropoda melanoleuca. We were invited to visit three of these reserves in April and May 1981 as guests of the China Association for Science and Technology and th...
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Outlines procedures for managing elephants in and around project areas as part of the project design. Helps project designers plan activities that will protect wildlife and prevent financial loss from damage by animals. Illustrates methods used to investigate elephant behaviour and ecology. Notes that careful scheduling of project activities is req...
Article
The study of ungulate populations in south Asia has lagged behind comparable efforts in Africa. The need for intensive study of Asian wildlife communities is critical. The existing data concerning the numbers and habitat needs of selected mammalian herbivores in south Asia are reviewed. It is concluded that special attention must be given to those...
Article
In the Royal Chitawan National Park, Nepal, the tiger (Panthera tigris) and the leopard (Panthera pardus) coexist in the riverine forest/tall grass vegetation types. These two big cats differ in the size of prey killed, use of vegetation types, and in activity periods. Although the tiger's weight is four times that of the leopard, coexistence is re...
Article
The population composition and density of wild and domestic ungulates in selected areas of Chitawan Valley, Nepal, are estimated and compared with other regions. Species considered include Axis axis, Axis porcinus, Cervus unicolor, Muntiacus muntjak, Sus scrofa, Rhinoceros unicornis, and domestic cattle, water buffalo, sheep, and goats. Rhinoceros...
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In August 1974 a young male tiger moved into a populated area in the Sundarbans, the delta of the Ganges, and killed one woman and a number of livestock. Rather than destroy the animal the Forest Directorate decided to capture it, using immobilising drugs, and release it in the Sundarbans Tiger Reserve. This was successfully done, but less than a w...