John P. Reganold

John P. Reganold
Washington State University | WSU · Department of Crop and Soil Sciences

About

98
Publications
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Publications

Publications (98)
Article
Volatile crop prices and a desire for sustainability have farmers considering alternative practices to increase revenue diversity and protect soil health. Organic management is rapidly expanding as an alternative to conventional agriculture, and quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is a potential new crop for organic systems in the Pacific Northwest....
Article
Food production and the wellbeing of smallholder farmers are constrained by their limited financial resources, poor market access, and inadequate institutional support in southern and eastern Africa. Conservation agriculture (CA)–minimal soil disturbance, year-round ground cover, and diverse crop rotations–is being promoted to sustainably boost cro...
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Climate change will impact bioclimatic drivers that regulate the geospatial distribution of dryland agro-ecological classes (AECs). Characterizing the geospatial relationship between present AECs and their bioclimatic controls will provide insights into potential future shifts in AECs as climate changes. The major objectives of this study are to qu...
Article
Soil organic matter (SOM) is a key indicator of agricultural productivity and overall soil health. Currently, dryland cropping systems of the inland Pacific Northwest (iPNW) span a large gradient in mean annual temperature (MAT) and precipitation (MAP). These climatic drivers are major determinants of surface SOM dynamics and storage characteristic...
Article
Reganold and Wachter reply — We appreciate Tayleur and Phalan 1 elaborating on the important challenge of habitat conversion facing agriculture. Indeed the relationship between agricultural expansion and habitat loss is complex 2 , and we did not have space to delve into this complexity in our paper 3 .
Poster
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Expansion of biofuel cropping systems requires better spatial resolution of life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and mitigation potentials. Simulation modeling was carried out to understand the impact of agro-ecological zone (AEZ), and nitrogen (N) use efficiency (NUE) for inland Pacific Northwest canola and Midwestern soybean biodiesel GHG mi...
Article
By growing trees, shrubs and other perennial plants among crops in the field, African farmers can revitalize some badly depleted soils while raising food yields
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Agriculture has made remarkable advances in fulfilling the food and nutritional requirement of expanding human numbers worldwide. There are several sustainable farming systems that contribute to overall biodiversity conservation and associated ecosystem services. Yet agricultural practices that have come to predominate since the second half of the...
Article
Monitoring soil health is an important component of any land management system that sustains soil resources. As metrics of soil health, we evaluated surface soil organic matter (SOM) properties from five field experiments ranging from 2 to 30 yr old and representing diverse agroecosystems across the inland Pacific Northwest (iPNW). The SOM properti...
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Organic agriculture has a history of being contentious and is considered by some as an inefficient approach to food production. Yet organic foods and beverages are a rapidly growing market segment in the global food industry. Here, we examine the performance of organic farming in light of four key sustainability metrics: productivity, environmental...
Article
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To promote global food and ecosystem security, several innovative farming systems have been identified that better balance multiple sustainability goals. The most rapidly growing and contentious of these systems is organic agriculture. Whether organic agriculture can continue to expand will likely be determined by whether it is economically competi...
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Background. Ecosystem services (ES) generated within agricultural landscapes, including field boundaries, are vital for the sustainable supply of food and fibre. However, the value of ES in agriculture has not been quantified experimentally and then extrapolated globally. Methods. We quantified the economic value of two key but contrasting ES (biol...
Chapter
Organic farming relies on the integration of a diversity of farm components, the cycling of nutrients and other resources, and stewardship of soil and environment. This article discusses the global history of the organic movement and its international origins, the role of organic certification, global trends in sales and production of organic foods...
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Integrating perennials with food crops could restore soil health and increase staple yields, say Jerry D. Glover, John P. Reganold and Cindy M. Cox.
Article
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A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry approach was employed to evaluate the use of metabolite patterns to differentiate fruit from six commercially grown apple cultivars harvested in 2008. Principal component analysis (PCA) of apple fruit peel and flesh data indicated that individual cultivar replicates clustered together and were separated from a...
Article
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A meta-analysis of agricultural systems shows that organic yields are mostly lower than those from conventional farming, but that organic crops perform well in some contexts. Agricultural scientists discuss whether the conclusions of the study should change farming practices and management. See Letter p.229
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The development of effective agricultural monitoring networks is essential to track, anticipate and manage changes in the social, economic and environmental aspects of agriculture. We welcome the perspective of Lindenmayer and Likens (J. Environ. Monit., 2011, 13, 1559) as published in the Journal of Environmental Monitoring on our earlier paper, "...
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This study evaluated the effects of in-row groundcovers (bare ground, brassica seed meal, cultivation, wood chip mulch, legume cover crop, and non-legume cover crop) and three compost rates (48, 101, and 152 kg available nitrogen (N)/ha/year) on soil carbon (C) pools, biological activity,N supply, fruit yield, and tree growth in a newly planted app...
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Achieving sustainable agricultural systems will require transformative changes in markets, policies, and science.
Article
The development of the perennial versions of the crops such as wheat, sunflowers, and legumes through breeding in the US would enable the country to meet the growing demands of the food. The development of perennial crops through breeding would deal with the multiple issues involving environmental conservation and food security. The crops also incr...
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We agree with Georgescu and Lobell that the effects of perennial bioenergy crops on hydrology and climate must be considered. However, our Policy Forum focused on the advantages of developing perennial grain crops ([ 1 ][1]), not bioenergy crops that can displace staple food crops. We did not
Data
Raw data for all slides. (2.98 MB CSV)
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Normalized data by functional groups. (0.00 MB CSV)
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Normalized data for diversity analysis. (0.00 MB CSV)
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Two gene sequences endemic to conventionally managed field soils and 233 sequences endemic to organically managed field soils, and the organisms from which probes were designed. (0.15 MB DOC)
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Agrichemical inputs (insecticides, fungicides, herbicides, molluscides, adjuvants, fumigants, and fertilizers) applied to 26 strawberry fields during the 2004 and 2005 growing seasons. (0.05 MB DOC)
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Fruit, leaf, and sensory properties (mean ± standard error) for ‘Diamante’ and ‘San Juan’ strawberry cultivars from organic (ORG) and conventional (CON) farms in June and September 2004 and April, June, and September 2005. (0.32 MB DOC)
Data
Data by functional groups (SNR>2.0). (1.14 MB CSV)
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Strawberry varieties, soil sampling dates, soil types, and soil classification for field pairs in the study. (0.05 MB DOC)
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Soil properties (mean ± standard error) at two depths (0–10 cm and 20–30 cm) from organic and conventional strawberry farms in June 2004 and June 2005. (0.09 MB DOC)
Article
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Sale of organic foods is one of the fastest growing market segments within the global food industry. People often buy organic food because they believe organic farms produce more nutritious and better tasting food from healthier soils. Here we tested if there are significant differences in fruit and soil quality from 13 pairs of commercial organic...
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To feed the world without further damaging the planet, Jeffrey Sachs and 24 foodsystem experts call for a global data collection and dissemination network to track the myriad impacts of different farming practices.
Article
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Despite doubling of yields of major grain crops since the 1950s, more than one in seven people suffer from malnutrition (1). Global population is growing; demand for food, especially meat, is increasing; much land most suitable for annual crops is already in use; and production of nonfood goods (e.g., biofuels) increasingly competes with food produ...
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Relationships between soil microbial diversity and soil function are the subject of much debate. Process-level analyses have shown that microbial function varies with soil type and responds to soil management. However, such measurements cannot determine the role of community structure and diversity in soil function. The goal of this study was to in...
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Synchronizing the supply of plant-available nitrogen (N) from organic materials with the N needs of apple trees is essential to cost-effective organic apple production. Tree growth and organic matter mineralization are affected by orchard floor management. This study examines the effects of three orchard floor management systems, cultivation, wood...
Article
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Plants take up nitrogen principally in the form of nitrate and ammonium; however, evidence is growing that they can also use organic N in the form of amino acids. Selecting varieties that better use organic N could be important in maximizing productivity in organic and low-input systems because these varieties may access a wider pool of available n...
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The objective of this study was to determine if perceptible sensory differences existed between biodynamically and organically grown Merlot wines. Wine grapes were raised biodynamically or organically on a commercial vineyard with wines produced from 2001 to 2004. Sensory difference testing was performed to evaluate possible differences between the...
Article
Evidence is growing that amino acids can be an important source of plant N in nutrient limited natural ecosystems, but relatively little is known about the effect of agricultural management on soil amino acid pools and turnover. Organic management in particular relies on slow-release organic inputs as fertilizer, which could result in greater pools...
Article
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This study addresses the often-competing goals of organic fertility and weed control by evaluating alternative orchard floor management strategies for their impact on N cycling, tree performance, and soil biological activity in a newly established apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) orchard. The standard tillage weed control practice resulted in satisfa...
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A u g u s t 2 0 0 7 Large-scale agriculture would become more sustainable if major crop plants lived for years and built deep root systems MODERN FOOD CROPS depend heavily on irrigation and other human inputs while depleting the land and polluting surrounding environments. Development of perennial versions, such as the experimental hybrid of interm...
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Biologically based weed control strategies are needed in organic and low-input systems. One promising practice is the application of Brassicaceous seed meal (BSM) residue, a byproduct of biodiesel production. When applied as a soil amendment, BSM residue has exhibited potential bioherbicide activity. In this study, tree fruit orchard soils were tre...
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Large-scale agriculture would become more sustainable if major crop plants lived for years and built deep root systems
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Season extension structures like high tunnels make it possible to produce cold-tolerant crops during winter months for both a longer cropping season and a winter market season. The effects of location and planting date on the fresh yield of several cultivars of Asian greens (Brassica rapa L.), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), and spinach (Spinacia oler...
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Stemilt Growers bought part of the farm, but they took over management of the farm only at the end of the 2001 growing season, whereas our Nature paper covered previous growing seasons. Stemilt Growers created the Responsible Choice environmental-impact rating system used in our study but had nothing to do with our decision to use this rating syste...
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Conventional agriculture has improved in crop yield but at large costs to the environment, particularly off-site pollution from mineral N fertilizers. In response to environmental concerns, organic agriculture has become an increasingly popular option. One component of organic agriculture that remains in question is whether it can reduce agricultur...
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Located on a 20-ha commercial apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) orchard in the Yakima Valley, Washington, a 1.7-ha study area was planted with apple trees in 1994 in a randomized complete block design with four replications of three treatments: organic (ORG), conventional (CON), and integrated (INT). Soil classification, rootstock, cultivar, plant age...
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It is a historically opportune time to review organic agriculture. Alongside the burgeoning production and trade in organic produce, increased interaction between researchers and organic producers has led to comparable growth in the production of organic knowledge. For example, new research centres have been established in many countries and there...
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Production of some organic commodities, such as apples, is heavily concentrated in the United States (US), with Washington State being the leading US producer of organic apples. In 2003, there were 4047 ha of certified organic apple orchards in Washington State, an all-time high and a more than tenfold increase since 1989. But this growth has not o...
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Wines produced from biodynamically grown grapes have received increasing attention. Similar to organic agriculture, biodynamics eliminates synthetic chemical fertilizers and pesticides. The primary difference between the two farming systems is that biodynamics uses a series of soil and plant amendments, called preparations, said to stimulate the so...
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These authors reviewed the role of cover crops in vineyard soil management, with an emphasis on things that can be done to build and improve organic matter. -· Soil fertility, buffering capacity, and biological activity all diminish when soils are cultivated and organic matter (OM) is not replenished. Cover crops are a way to help reverse these tre...
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Although it is widely recognized by researchers who study agricultural production systems that evaluating the sustainability of these systems is vital, few studies of this nature have been published. One difficulty may be in defining what constitutes sustainability and how it should be measured, while another may be in networking with the necessary...
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Studies were conducted to characterize the community of Pythium spp. associated with apple in Washington state. Seventeen different species were identified among the isolates of Pythium recovered from apple roots at six orchard sites. Commonly isolated species included P. intermedium, P. irregulare, P. heterothallicum, P. sylvaticum, and Pythium MM...
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A 1.6-hectare study site, planted in 1994 at a commercial apple orchard in Washington state, USA, consisted of four replicate plots of each of the following three apple (Malus x domestica Borkh. cv. 'Golden Delicious') production systems: organic, conventional, and integrated. One objective of this study was to assess the long-term effects of these...
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Escalating production costs, heavy reliance on non-renewable resources, reduced biodiversity, water contamination, chemical residues in food, soil degradation and health risks to farm workers handling pesticides all bring into question the sustainability of conventional farming systems. It has been claimed, however, that organic farming systems are...
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Biodynamic agriculture is an organic farming system that utilizes fermented herbal and mineral preparations as compost additives and field sprays. This study was conducted to determine whether biodynamic preparations affect lentil and wheat growth and yield, soil fertility, or weed populations in the short run. Each of four nutrient treatments, bio...
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Biodynamic agriculture is a unique organic farming system that utilizes, in addition to the common tools of organic agriculture, specific fermented herbal preparations as compost additives and field sprays. The objective of this work was to determine whether biodynamic compost or field spray preparations affect the soil biological community in the...
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Much remains to be known concerning the complex relationships between specific soil property measurements and overall soil quality. The objective of this study was to advance our understanding of these complex relationships by further developing and applying a systematic method for evaluating the effects of conventional, integrated and organic appl...