John Provis

John Provis
The University of Sheffield | Sheffield · Department of Materials Science and Engineering

PhD

About

459
Publications
187,754
Reads
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37,985
Citations
Citations since 2016
194 Research Items
30202 Citations
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Introduction
John Provis currently works at the Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield, developing cements for sustainable construction and nuclear waste immobilisation.

Publications

Publications (459)
Article
Full-text available
The CO2 released upon calcination of limestone accounts for the largest portion of the emissions from the cement, lime, and slaked lime manufacturing industries. Our previous works highlighted the possibility for a no-combustion decarbonisation of CaCO3 through reaction with NaOH solutions to produce Ca(OH)2 at ambient conditions, while sequestrati...
Article
Full-text available
The long-term corrosion behaviour of reinforcing steel embedded in alkali-activated mortars (AAMs) prepared with three different binder compositions was monitored over a 360-day period by cyclic wetting/drying and spraying with chloride solution. Corrosion potential and polarisation resistance were determined by linear polarisation, individual resi...
Article
Full-text available
The current understanding of the carbonation and the prediction of the carbonation rate of alkali-activated concretes is complicated inter alia by the wide range of binder chemistries used and testing conditions adopted. To overcome some of the limitations of individual studies and to identify general correlations between mix design parameters and...
Article
Full-text available
The thermal treatment of limestone (mainly CaCO3) to produce lime (CaO) is a major contributor to CO2 emissions and the literature on decarbonising the lime industry is scarce. Subsequent hydration of lime would lead to the synthesis of slaked/hydrated lime Ca(OH)2; the production of a tonne of Ca(OH)2 emits ∼1.2 tonnes of CO2 arising mainly from t...
Article
Full-text available
This study aims to evaluate the influence of microstructural properties on the chloride diffusion resistance of alkali activated materials (AAMs) based on blast furnace slag and/or fly ash, with variable activator doses (represented as Na2O%). Resistance to chloride penetration was tested using accelerated chloride penetration (NT BUILD 443) and ch...
Article
Full-text available
Alkali-activated materials (AAMs) have been known as an alternative cementitious binder in construction for more than 120 years. Several buildings utilizing AAMs were realized in Europe in the 1950s-1980s. During the last 30 years, the interest towards AAMs has been reinvigorated due to the potentially lower CO 2 footprint in comparison to Portland...
Conference Paper
Prediction of the longer-term interaction of CO2 and concrete is of great importance for determining the durability performance of existing and future concrete structures, as well as for calculating the CO2 sequestration potential of these materials over an extended service life. This study develops a reactive-transport framework to predict the pha...
Article
Full-text available
The impact of alpha radiation on cements used to encapsulate intermediate-level waste (ILW) is not well understood. ILW wastes can contain high levels of alpha-emitting radionuclides, meaning that the grouts used to encapsulate them are exposed to significant ionising radiation. Thus, a damaged region could develop in the grout adjacent to the alph...
Article
Full-text available
Decarbonizing calcium carbonate (CaCO3) is a crucial step for a wide range of major industrial processes and materials, including Portland cement (PC) production. Apart from the carbon footprint linked to fuel combustion, the process CO2 embodied within CaCO3 represents the main concern for the sustainability of production. Our recent works demonst...
Article
Full-text available
Disposal of cesium-137 (Cs-137)-loaded chabazite generated from decontaminating cooling water of the damaged reactor at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FDNPS) has become a crucial concern. The potassium aluminosilicate-based alkali activated material (K-AAM) matrix is one of the candidate encapsulation matrices proposed for encapsulati...
Preprint
The influence of different alkali and alkaline earth cations (Na + , K + , Ca 2+ , and Mg 2+), and of solution pH, on surface interactions of metakaolin particles with a sodium naphthalene sulfonate formaldehyde polymer (SNSFP) (a commercial superplasticizer for concretes) was investigated in aqueous systems relevant to alkali-activated and blended...
Article
Full-text available
The bulk of the cement industry's environmental burden is from the calcareous source. Calcium is mostly available naturally as limestone (CaCO3), where almost half of the mass is eventually released as CO2 during clinker manufacture. Iron (Fe) is the fourth most common element in the Earth's crust surpassed only by oxygen, silicon, and aluminium; t...
Article
This paper applies alternating current impedance spectroscopy to assess the effect of different sand, anhydrite, and water contents on the electrochemical response of Portland cement in the early stages of hydration. Potential factors that may affect impedance measurements and data interpretation are also discussed, such as the complexity of cement...
Article
Full-text available
The influence of different alkali and alkaline earth cations (Na⁺, K⁺, Ca²⁺, and Mg²⁺), and of solution pH, on surface interactions of metakaolin particles with a sodium naphthalene sulfonate formaldehyde polymer (SNSFP) (a commercial superplasticizer for concretes) was investigated in aqueous systems relevant to alkali-activated and blended Portla...
Article
Eucalyptus ash (EA) was used in this study as a high calcium ash (HCA) precursor for alkali-activated binders. The EA used also has high carbon unburned (High loss on ignition). This type of ash is one of the waste products from biomass-fuelled thermoelectric plants, and annually thousands of tons are discarded as a by-product of the energy generat...
Article
Full-text available
The decarbonisation of CaCO3 is essential for the production of lime (Ca(OH)2 and CaO), which is a commodity required in several large industries and the main precursor for cement production. CaCO3 is usually decarbonised at high temperatures, generating gaseous CO2 which will require post-process capture to minimise its release into the environmen...
Article
Full-text available
The need for quality control and assurance in 3D Concrete Printing (3DCP) is widely recognised. Achieving geometric accuracy to a specified tolerance is a cornerstone of component-based production and assembly. Although published work within the field recognises such issues, these fall short of proposing systematic methods to evaluate, diagnose, im...
Preprint
Full-text available
The CO 2 released upon calcination of limestone (process CO 2 and combustion CO 2 ) accounts for the largest portion of the emissions from the cement manufacturing industry. Our previous works highlighted the possibility for a no-combustion decarbonisation of CaCO 3 through reaction with NaOH solutions to produce Ca(OH) 2 at ambient conditions, whi...
Article
Full-text available
The results of phase 1 of an interlaboratory test, coordinated by the RILEM TC 267-TRM “Tests for Reactivity of Supplementary Cementitious Materials” showed that the R3 (rapid, relevant, reliable) test method, by measurement of heat release or bound water, provided the most reliable and relevant determination of the chemical reactivity of supplemen...
Article
Full-text available
This commentary is part of our celebration of 75 years of RILEM, highlighting Materials and Structures’ most highly influential and cited publications. Highlighted paper: P.H. Bischoff & S.H. Perry (1991). Compressive behaviour of concrete at high strain rates. Materials and Structures 24(6), pp. 425–450.
Article
Full-text available
Time-resolved in-situ synchrotron X-ray microtomography reveals new levels of detail about the chemical and physical processes that take place as Portland cement hardens. The conversion of a fluid paste into a hardened product can be monitored on a sub-minute time-scale, and with sample movement/settlement corrections applied to enable individual p...
Article
Full-text available
Geopolymers are a class of alkaline-activated materials that have been considered as promising materials for radioactive waste disposal. Currently, metakaolin-based geopolymers (MK-GPs) are attracting interest for the immobilisation of radionuclides in contaminated water from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station. However, the associated chem...
Article
Full-text available
Polycarboxylate-based superplasticizers are essential for production of ultrahigh-performance concrete (UHPC), facilitating particle dispersion through electrostatic repulsion and steric hindrance. This study examines for the first time the effect of changes in pH, ionic strength, and charge on the adsorption/desorption behavior of a polycarboxylat...
Chapter
There has been an enormous growth in the volume and scope of technical analysis of alternative cements, accompanied by claims of “sustainability”, during the past decade. Some of this growth has been accompanied by real-world actions in terms of commercialization, trials, and deployment. However, there are a very large number of lines of investigat...
Article
Full-text available
Portland cement based grouts used for radioactive waste immobilization contain high replacement levels of supplementary cementitious materials, including blast-furnace slag and fly ash. The minerals formed upon hydration of these cements may have capacity for binding actinide elements present in radioactive waste. In this work, the minerals ettring...
Conference Paper
There has been an enormous growth in the volume and scope of technical analysis of alternative cements, accompanied by claims of “sustainability”, during the past decade. Some of this growth has been accompanied by real-world actions in terms of commercialization, trials, and deployment. However, there are a very large number of lines of investigat...
Chapter
Full-text available
As 3D Concrete Printing (3DCP) technology develops, requirements on the form and surface quality of the final products are increasing. Layer-wise deposition results in the so-called ‘staircase effect’ which can lead to limitations on the attained precision and accuracy of geometries. Applying other shaping processes with a higher manufacturing prec...
Article
Full-text available
The use of calcined clays as supplementary cementitious materials provides the opportunity to significantly reduce the cement industry’s carbon burden; however, use at a global scale requires a deep understanding of the extraction and processing of the clays to be used, which will uncover routes to optimise their reactivity. This will enable increa...
Article
Full-text available
The calcination of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) is a major contributor to carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions that are changing our climate. Moreover, the calcination process requires high temperatures (~900°C). A novel low-temperature process for the decarbonisation of CaCO3 is tested whereby the CO2 is directly sequestered/mineralised in sodium carbonate...
Article
Efflorescence in geopolymers results from mobility of excess alkali and consequent crystallization of alkali carbonates. Efflorescence potential of various geopolymers has been reported previously but the knowledge regarding the effect of efflorescence on the microstructure and mechanical properties of geopolymers remains limited. In this work, met...
Chapter
Cementation of radioactive waste arising from nuclear facility operation and decommissioning is a common approach for its encapsulation, solidification, and disposal. Cementation offers significant advantages over other waste conditioning routes, such as thermal conversion of the waste to form ceramics or glasses including simplicity, relatively hi...
Article
Full-text available
This study presents for the first time a systematic investigation of the thermodynamic properties of sodium aluminosilicate hydrate (N-A-S-H), through dissolution of pure synthetic N-A-S-H gels. Changes to the chemical composition and gel structure of N-A-S-H were determined via characterisation of the solid phase before and after dissolution by mu...
Article
Full-text available
Alkali-activated materials are promising low-carbon alternatives to Portland cement; however, there remains an absence of a fundamental understanding of the effect of different activator types on their reaction products at the atomic scale. Solid-state ²⁷Al and ²⁹Si magic angle spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and ¹H–²⁹S...
Article
Full-text available
The pore fluid within many concretes is highly alkaline and rich in reduced sulfur species, but the influence of such alkaline-sulfide solutions on the surface film formed on steel reinforcement is poorly understood. This study investigates the critical role of HS ⁻ in defining mild steel passivation chemistry. The surface film formed on the steel...
Article
Full-text available
There is some ambiguity regarding the fate of Mg during the alkali activation of Mg-rich precursors within the broader field of alkali activated materials (AAMs). The present work addresses this issue by studying the reaction products in AAMs synthesized from (Na-Mg) aluminosilicate glasses. Here, instead of magnesium silicate hydrate (M-S-H) phase...
Chapter
The construction industry has moved from using plain Portland cement (PC) to binders with high proportions of supplementary cementitious materials such as blast furnace slags such as CEM II, CEM III A/B, and is increasingly targeting alkali-activated slags (AAS). The reducing nature of the blast furnace is retained by the slag, which contains ~1–3...
Article
The cement industry is carbon-intensive, and the valorisation of industrial side-streams/residuals for use as alternative raw materials can enable the cement industry to reduce its carbon footprint as well as promote resource efficiency. Apart from key clinker ingredients such as CaO, Al2O3, and SiO2, industrial residues can also contain MgO, CaCl2...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
When manufacturing free-form concrete parts, casting approaches are most commonly adopted. While casting allows good surface finish, geometric repeatability and easy replication of parts, it is inflexible and costly to setup. Expensive mould tools, with limited life, must be created before manufacturing can begin. These mould tools must then be saf...
Conference Paper
Practical routes to immediately valorize the millions of tons of demolition waste/rubble in Syria are established in the title study. Construction and demolition waste are used as a replacement for virgin aggregate in concrete. Properties of fresh and hardened concrete with 0%, 50%, and 100% replacement were investigated. Tests conducted include: d...
Article
Full-text available
Magnesium potassium phosphate cements (MKPC) were investigated to determine their efficacy towards retardation of reactive uranium metal corrosion. Optimised low-water content, fly ash (FA) and blast furnace slag (BFS) blended MKPC formulations were developed and their fluidity, hydration behaviour, strength and phase assemblage investigated. In-si...
Article
This paper assesses the use and valorisation of two industrial wastes generated at a large scale, which are currently disposed in landfills, as raw materials to produce geopolymers. Specifically, a kaolinitic sludge from the mining industry (CKS), and bottom ash (BA) generated during coal combustion in a thermal power station, were used as aluminos...
Article
Full-text available
In this study, a multi-technique approach was utilised to determine the high temperature performance of magnesium potassium phosphate cement (MKPC) blended with fly ash (FA) or ground granulated blast furnace slag (GBFS) with respect to nuclear waste immobilisation applications. Conceptual fire conditions were employed (up to 1200 °C, 30 min) to si...
Article
Dr. Isabel Martins was missing from the RILEM membership list that was published in the original article. The original article has been corrected.
Article
Full-text available
The construction of the future is moving in the direction of environmentally friendly materials and the use of various types of industrial byproducts and wastes. The use of blast furnace slag (BFS) for the production of concrete is one of those alternatives. In this study, pastes and concretes based on high-MgO BFS were alkali activated with 10% by...
Article
In this work, two different laterites (iron contents of 13.07 and 49.34 wt%, respectively, for lateritic clay, LAC, and iron-rich laterite, LAI) were selected and calcined at 600 °C. The obtained calcined laterites, namely LAI600 and LAC600, were separately mixed with an alkaline solution (silicate modulus of 1.35) or an acidic solution (phosphoric...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding the complexity of the chemical and microstructural evolution of cement during hydration remains a controversial subject, and although numerous techniques have been used to assess this process, further insight is still needed. Alternating current impedance spectroscopy has been demonstrated to be a sensitive and powerful technique for...
Article
Full-text available
Alkali-activated materials (AAMs), sometimes called geopolymers, are eco-friendly cementitious materials with reduced carbon emissions when compared to ordinary Portland cement. However, the availability of most precursors used for AAM production may decline in the future because of changes in industrial sectors. Thus, new precursors must be develo...
Article
Full-text available
Struvite-K (MgKPO4·6H2O) is a magnesium potassium phosphate mineral with naturally cementitious properties, which is finding increasing usage as an inorganic cement for niche applications including nuclear waste management and rapid road repair. Struvite-K is also of interest in sustainable phosphate recovery from wastewater and, as such, a detaile...
Article
Full-text available
Interfacial interactions between inorganic surfaces and organic additives are vital to develop new complex nanomaterials. Learning from biosilica materials, composite nanostructures have been developed, which exploit the strength and directionality of specific polyamine additive-silica surface interactions. Previous interpretations of these interac...
Article
Full-text available
The RILEM technical committee TC 247-DTA ‘Durability Testing of Alkali-Activated Materials’ conducted a round robin testing programme to determine the validity of various durability testing methods, originally devel-oped for Portland cement based-concretes, for the assessment of the durability of alkali-activated concretes. The outcomes of the roun...
Article
Full-text available
Blended cements, where Portland cement clinker is partially replaced by supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs), provide the most feasible route for reducing carbon dioxide emissions associated with concrete production. However, lowering the clinker content can lead to an increasing risk of neutralisation of the concrete pore solution and poten...
Article
Full-text available
Carbonation of cementitious materials induced by their interaction with atmospheric CO2 is one of the main degradation mechanisms threatening their durability. In this study, a novel thermodynamic model to predict the phase evolution of alkali-activated slags exposed to an accelerated carbonation environment is presented. This model predicts the ph...
Article
Full-text available
It is not straightforward to experimentally measure the standard molar entropy of cement hydrates or clinker minerals. This is further compounded by the controversies surrounding the entropy values reported in established thermodynamic datasets for cements. The purpose of this study is to assess the reliability of standard entropies compiled in tho...
Article
The use of cement and concrete, among the most widely used man-made materials, is under scrutiny. Owing to their large-scale use, production of cement and concrete results in substantial emission of greenhouse gases and places strain on the availability of natural resources, such as water. Projected urbanization over the next 50–100 years therefore...
Conference Paper
K-based geopolymer has recently attracted attention as a matrix material for spent synthetic chabazite encapsulation at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station. The aggregation of cesium with iron heterogeneously formed pollucite-like structures in chabazite, which was revealed by transmission electron microscopy images. Furthermore, Raman spec...
Article
Geopolymers are low-calcium, sustainable cementitious materials. The role of Zn, a known retardant used in Portland cement, in geopolymer systems is not well understood. This study scrutinises the effect of Zn on metakaolin-based geopolymer reaction mechanisms and kinetics, and investigates the incorporation mechanism of Zn in geopolymer gels. Isot...